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Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology [journal]
- Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Florida's Acute Care Facilities. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):634-7.
We surveyed acute care facilities in Florida to assess components of and barriers to sustained antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). Most respondents with and without ASPs are doing some stewardship-related activities to improve antimicrobial use. Collaborative efforts between facilities and health departments are important to providing better resources for ASPs.
- A multimodal intervention to reduce urinary catheter use and associated infection at a veterans affairs medical center. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):631-3.
We assessed the impact of a quality improvement intervention to reduce urinary catheter use and associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) at a single hospital. After implementation, UTIs were reduced by 39% ([Formula: see text]). Additionally, we observed a slight decrease in catheter use and the number of catheters without an appropriate indication.
- A Summary of Meeting Proceedings on Addressing Variability around the Cut Point in Serial Interferon-γ Release Assay Testing. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):625-30.
On June 13, 2012, a group of key stakeholders, leaders, and national experts on tuberculosis (TB), occupational health, and laboratory science met in Atlanta, Georgia, to focus national discussion on the higher than expected positive results occurring among low-risk, unexposed healthcare workers undergoing serial testing with interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs). The objectives of the meeting were to present the latest clinical and operational research findings on the topic, to discuss evaluation and treatment algorithms that are emerging in the absence of national guidance, and to develop a consensus on the action steps needed to assist programs and physicians in the interpretation of serial testing IGRA results. This report summarizes its proceedings.
- A Summary of the Third Global Interferon-γ Release Assay Symposium. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):619-24.
Studies over the past several decades have dramatically increased our understanding of the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and advances in proteomics and genomics have led to a new class of immune-diagnostic tests, termed interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assays (IGRAs), which appear to obviate many of the problems encountered with the tuberculin skin test (TST). Worldwide, 2 IGRAs are currently commercially available. QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (Cellestis) is a third-generation product that uses an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure IFN-γ generated in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens. T-Spot-TB (Oxford Immunotec) employs enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot technology to enumerate the number of purified lymphocytes that respond to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens by producing IFN-γ. These in vitro tests measure the host immune response to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, which virtually eliminates false-positive cross reactions caused by bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination and/or exposure to environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria that plague the interpretation and accuracy of the tuberculin skin test (TST). The high specificity of IGRAs, together with sensitivity commensurate with or better than that of the TST, promises an accurate diagnosis and the ability to focus tuberculosis-control activities on those who are actually infected with M. tuberculosis. The Third Global Symposium was held over a 3-day period and was presented by the University of California, San Diego, Continuing Medical Education department; slides and sound recordings of each presentation are available at http://cme.ucsd.edu/igras/syllabus.html . A moderated discussion is also available at http://cme.ucsd.edu/igrasvideo . This document provides a summary of the key findings of the meeting, specifically focusing on the use of IGRAs in screening healthcare worker populations.
- Safety-engineered devices in 2012: the critical role of healthcare workers in device selection. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):615-8.
- The current state of validating the accuracy of clinical data reporting: lessons to be learned from quality and process improvement scientists. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):611-4.
- Has Improved Hand Hygiene Compliance Reduced the Risk of Hospital-Acquired Infections among Hospitalized Patients in Ontario? Analysis of Publicly Reported Patient Safety Data from 2008 to 2011. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):605-10.
Design. Prospective, observational, ecological, time series, cross-sectional study examining the association between hand hygiene compliance (HHC) rates and the incidence of hospital-acquired infections. Setting. Acute care hospitals ([Formula: see text]) located in the province of Ontario, Canada. Methods. All data were extracted from the Ontario patient safety indicator database ( http://www.hqontario.ca/public-reporting/patient-safety ). Complete data were available for 166 acute care hospitals from October 1, 2008, to December 31, 2011. The rates of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are reported monthly, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia quarterly, and HHC rates yearly. Trends and associations for each indicator were evaluated by ordinary least squares regression (HHC), zero-inflated Poisson regression (MRSA bacteremia), or Poisson regression (CDI). Dependent variables included in the regression analyses were extracted from the same database and included year, healthcare region, and type of hospital (teaching or small or large community).
Results.Compared to those in 2008, reported HHC rates improved every year both before and after environment/patient contact (range, 10.6%-25.3%). Compared to those in 2008, there was no corresponding change in the rates of MRSA bacteremia; however, the rates of CDI decreased in 2009 but were not statistically significantly decreased from baseline in either 2010 or 2011. No consistent association was demonstrated between changes in the rates of HHC and these two healthcare-associated infections (HAIs).
Conclusions.Despite significant improvements in reported rates of HHC among healthcare personnel in Ontario's hospitals, we could not demonstrate a positive ecological impact on rates of these two HAIs.
- Surgical Site Infections, International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) Report, Data Summary of 30 Countries, 2005-2010. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):597-604.
Objective.To report the results of a surveillance study on surgical site infections (SSIs) conducted by the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC). Design. Cohort prospective multinational multicenter surveillance study. Setting. Eighty-two hospitals of 66 cities in 30 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Greece, India, Kosovo, Lebanon, Lithuania, Macedonia, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, Pakistan, Panama, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Salvador, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovakia, Sudan, Thailand, Turkey, Uruguay, and Vietnam) from 4 continents (America, Asia, Africa, and Europe). Patients. Patients undergoing surgical procedures (SPs) from January 2005 to December 2010. Methods. Data were gathered and recorded from patients hospitalized in INICC member hospitals by using the methods and definitions of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) for SSI. SPs were classified into 31 types according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, criteria.
Results.We gathered data from 7,523 SSIs associated with 260,973 SPs. SSI rates were significantly higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data, including the rates of SSI after hip prosthesis (2.6% vs 1.3%; relative risk [RR], 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-2.4]; [Formula: see text]), coronary bypass with chest and donor incision (4.5% vs 2.9%; RR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.4-1.6]; [Formula: see text]); abdominal hysterectomy (2.7% vs 1.6%; RR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.4-2.0]; [Formula: see text]); exploratory abdominal surgery (4.1% vs 2.0%; RR, 2.05 [95% CI, 1.6-2.6]; [Formula: see text]); ventricular shunt, 12.9% vs 5.6% (RR, 2.3 [95% CI, 1.9-2.6]; [Formula: see text]), and others.
Conclusions.SSI rates were higher for most SPs in INICC hospitals compared with CDC-NHSN data.
- Attributable Burden of Hospital-Onset Clostridium difficile Infection: A Propensity Score Matching Study. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):588-96.
Objective.To determine the attributable in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), and cost of hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (HO-CDI). Design. Propensity score matching. Setting. Six Pennsylvania hospitals (2 academic centers, 1 community teaching facility, and 3 community nonteaching facilities) contributing data to a clinical research database. Patients. Adult inpatients between 2007 and 2008. Methods. We defined HO-CDI in adult inpatients as a positive C. difficile toxin assay result from a specimen collected more than 48 hours after admission and more than 8 weeks following any previous positive result. We developed an HO-CDI propensity model and matched cases with noncases by propensity score at a 1∶3 ratio. We further restricted matching within the same hospital, within the same principal disease group, and within a similar length of lead time from admission to onset of HO-CDI.
Results.Among 77,257 discharges, 282 HO-CDI cases were identified. The propensity score-matched rate was 90%. Compared with matched noncases, HO-CDI patients had higher mortality (11.8% vs 7.3%; [Formula: see text]), longer LOS (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 12 [9-21] vs 11 [8-17] days; [Formula: see text]), and higher cost (median [IQR], $20,804 [$11,059-$38,429] vs $16,634 [$9,413-$30,319]; [Formula: see text]). The attributable effect of HO-CDI was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2%-8.7%; [Formula: see text]) for mortality, 2.3 days (95% CI, 0.9-3.8; [Formula: see text]) for LOS, and $6,117 (95% CI, $1,659-$10,574; [Formula: see text]) for cost.
Conclusions.Patients with HO-CDI incur additional attributable mortality, LOS, and cost burden compared with patients with similar primary clinical condition, exposure risk, lead time of hospitalization, and baseline characteristics.
- Predictors of Hospitals with Endemic Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. [Journal Article]
- Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013 Jun; 34(6):581-7.