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Int Endod J [journal]
- Electrochemical induced dissolution of fragments of nickel-titanium endodontic files and their removal from simulated root canals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 22.
AIM:To improve the dissolution process of NiTi endodontic rotary files aiming at fragment removal and the recovery of the original path of the root canal during a clinically acceptable period of time.
METHODOLOGY:Anodic polarization curves and redox curves were obtained to determine the conditions necessary for the dissolution of endodontic files. Anodic polarization of K3 files was performed, and analysis of variance (P < 0.05) was used to compare different test times in relation to weight loss, length loss and electrical charge generated in each solution. The polarization of fragments in simulated root canals was undertaken to evaluate the dissolution process. After the tests, a size 10 K-file was used to verify the possibility to bypass the fragment. The total electrical charge of each test was obtained from the corresponding graph area. Radiographic analysis of the simulated canals was used before and after the tests to verify fragment dissolution.
RESULTS:The weight loss values, the length loss values and the total values of electrical charge in each period of time were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the tests using the selected solution compared with the solution previously proposed. A progressive consumption of the K3 file tip was observed up to 30 min. The anodic polarization of file fragments in simulated root canals for 60 min resulted in their partial dissolution and enabled the recovery of the original canal pathway with size 10 K-files.
CONCLUSIONS:Increasing fluoride concentration resulted in greater active dissolution of NiTi files. The dissolution of fractured files in simulated root canals enabled the recovery of its original path during a clinically acceptable period of time.
- Efficacy of single buccal infiltrations for maxillary first molars in patients with irreversible pulpitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 24.
AIM:To evaluate the efficacy of a single buccal infitration using 4% articaine hydrochloride (HCl) with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine or 4% articaine HCl with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate for obtaining adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal roots of maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis.
METHODOLOGY:In this single-blind randomized clinical trial, fifty subjects were randomly allocated to receive maxillary buccal injections of 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine (n = 25) or 1.5 mL 4% articaine with 1 : 100 000 epinephrine bitartrate (n = 25). Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores and pulse rate measurements were recorded during access cavity preparation and initial file placement into the mesiobuccal, distobuccal and palatal canals. Data were analysed using Duncan and t-tests.
RESULTS:There was no significant difference between the two anaesthetic solutions regarding the VAS scores and pulse rate measurements during endodontic procedures. The mean VAS ratings of the 50 patients during file placement into the palatal canals were significantly higher compared with the other three root canal procedures (P < 0.0001). The heart rates during negotiation of palatal canals were significantly higher than when negotiating the mesiobuccal and distobuccal canals (P < 0.0001).
CONCLUSION:Single buccal infiltration did not achieve adequate pulpal anaesthesia in the palatal root canal of the maxillary first molars associated with irreversible pulpitis.
- Effectiveness of two intracanal dressings in adult Portuguese patients: a qPCR and anaerobic culture assessment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 9.
AIM:To quantify bacterial equivalents before and after chemomechanical preparation using 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and intracanal dressing with calcium hydroxide paste (Ca(OH)2 ) or 2% Chlorhexidine digluconate gel (CHX) in necrotic pulps associated or not with apical periodontitis and to further compare this quantification with counts of anaerobic microorganisms.
METHODOLOGY:Prospective clinical trial in 69 single-rooted adult teeth (strict inclusion criteria); CHX group: 34; Ca(OH)2 group: 35. Bacteria samples were taken at baseline (S1), after chemomechanical preparation (S2) and after 14 days of intracanal dressing (S3). Bacterial equivalents were assessed by broad-range real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and live viable bacteria measured with conventional anaerobic culture (CFU/mL). Descriptive/inferential analysis was performed with spss vs. 20.0 (α = 0.05) using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests and Spearman's correlation coefficients.
RESULTS:Both groups showed a significant decrease between S1 and S2 (Mann-Whitney U-test; P < 0.001) both in qPCR and in culture. In the Ca(OH)2 -group, no variation was observed between S2 and S3 by qPCR and culture. In contrast, the CHX group showed a significant increase from S2 to S3 by both techniques. The two groups were only significantly different in S3 (Mann-Whitney U-test; P ≤ 0.001), with a worse performance in the CHX group. Again, these results were congruent by both approaches. Data from both approaches correlate reasonably (rS < 0.5).
CONCLUSIONS:Infected root canals contained a high bacterial load, and the chemomechanical root canal preparation reduced bacterial equivalents by 99.1% and anaerobic counts by 98.5%. Intracanal dressings were not efficient at reducing bacterial load, but the 14-day intracanal dressing with Ca(OH)2 performed significantly better than CHX, particularly in cases with apical periodontitis.
- Influence of powder-to-water ratio on radiopacity, setting time, pH, calcium ion release and a micro-CT volumetric solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 9.
AIM:To evaluate the radiopacity, setting time, pH level, calcium ion release and solubility of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Angelus, Londrina, Pr, Brazil) with different powder-to-water ratios.
METHODOLOGY:Three MTA groups were prepared using 4 : 1, 3 : 1 and 2 : 1 powder-to-water ratios. For the radiopacity analysis, the 10 × 1 mm specimens were arranged on occlusal films with a cylinder of dentine and an aluminium stepwedge. The digitized radiographs were evaluated with Digora 1.51 software to determine the radiographic density. The setting time test was performed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials 266/08 standard specifications, but the specimens were made according to International Organization for Standardization 6876:2001. Thirty acrylic teeth with root-end filling material were immersed in ultrapure water for measurement of pH level and calcium ion release (atomic absorption spectrophotometer) at 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. In the solubility test, the root-end fillings of 30 acrylic teeth were scanned twice by a Micro-CT, before and after immersion in ultrapure water for 168 h. Digital data were reconstructed, and the volume (mm(3) ) of the samples was obtained using CTan software (CTan v126.96.36.199, SkyScan). The data were statistically analysed by the anova, Tukey, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests.
RESULTS:The radiopacity was higher (P < 0.05) when the 4 : 1 proportion was utilized. The setting time was longer, and the pH level and calcium ion release were higher (P < 0.05) with a greater volume of water. The group with more water (2 : 1) had significantly (P < 0.05) more material volume loss (6.46%) compared with the other groups.
CONCLUSIONS:The ratio of powder/water significantly interfered with the physical and chemical properties of white MTA Angelus.
- Effect of several bleaching agents on teeth stained with a resin-based sealer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 15.
AIM:To evaluate the effect of peroxide-based bleaching agents on teeth stained with AH26 sealer (Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany), using digital images and computer analysis.
METHODOLOGY:Thirty-five maxillary central incisors were root filled, and the internal walls of the access cavity were coated with AH26 sealer. Internal bleaching commenced 4 months after the root fillings. In three experimental groups (n = 10), the teeth were bleached for 21 days using 45% carbamide peroxide (CP) gel, 45% sodium perborate + carbamide peroxide (SP + CP) or sodium perborate + distilled water (SP + W). No bleaching was undertaken in the control group. Digital images of each specimen were made before treatment, 4 months after endodontic treatment and 2 weeks after bleaching. Colour differences (∆E) were calculated by determining L*a*b* values using digital images and imaging software. Differences between the original colour and sealer-stained teeth, between sealer-stained and bleached teeth and between original colour and bleached teeth were calculated. Data were analysed using one-way anova and Duncan tests (α = 0.05).
RESULTS:Colour differences between baseline and sealer staining were in the range of 8.1-9.9, but differences between the groups were not significant. After bleaching, the degree of lightening was essentially identical for the carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate + carbamide peroxide groups, but was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in these two groups than in the sodium perborate + water group.
CONCLUSION:For bleaching AH26 sealer-stained teeth, carbamide peroxide gel and carbamide peroxide gel mixed with sodium perborate were equally effective and significantly better than sodium perborate mixed with water.
- External cervical resorption: an analysis using cone beam and microfocus computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 May 7.
AIM:To provide a three-dimensional representation of external cervical resorption (ECR) with microscopy, stereo microscopy, cone beam computed tomography (CT), microfocus CT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
SUMMARY:External cervical resorption is an aggressive form of root resorption, leading to a loss of dental hard tissues. This is due to clastic action, activated by a damage of the covering cementum and stimulated probably by infection. Clinically, it is a challenging situation as it is characterized by a late symptomatology. This is due to the pericanalar protection from a resorption-resistant sheet, composed of pre-dentine and surrounding dentine. The clastic activity is often associated with an attempt to repair, seen by the formation of osteoid tissue. KEY LEARNING POINTS: Cone beam CT is extremely useful in the diagnoses and treatment planning of ECR. SEM analyses provide a better insight into the activity of osteoclasts. The root canal is surrounded by a layer of dentine that is resistant to resorption.
- Magnesium phosphate cements for endodontic applications with improved long-term sealing ability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 9.
AIM:To characterize three radiopaque Magnesium Phosphate Cements (MPCs) developed for endodontic purposes.
METHODOLOGY:Three experimental MPCs containing Bi2 O3 were formulated. The experimental cements, which consisted of mixtures of magnesium oxide with different phosphate salts, were characterized for setting time, injectability, porosity, compressive strength and phase composition. The long-term sealing ability of the experimental MPCs applied in single-rooted teeth as root canal filling material or as sealer in combination with gutta-percha was also assessed using a highly sensitive fluid filtration system. A mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement was used as control. Statistical analysis was performed with two- or three-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's test was used for comparisons.
RESULTS:The addition of 10 wt% Bi2 O3 within the composition of the MPCs provided an adequate radiopacity for endodontic applications according to ISO 6876 standard. The reaction products resulting from the MPCs were either struvite (MgNH4 PO4 ·6H2 O) or an amorphous sodium magnesium phosphate. The porosity of the three MPCs ranged between 4% and 11%. The initial setting time of the experimental cements was between 6 and 9 min, attaining high early compressive strength values (17-34 MPa within 2 h). All MPC formulations achieved greater sealing ability than MTA (P < 0.05) after 3 months, which was maintained after 6 months for two of the experimental cements (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS:These MPCs had adequate handling and mechanical properties and low degradation rates. Furthermore, a stable sealing ability was demonstrated up to 6 months when using the cement both as root filling material and as sealer in conjunction with gutta-percha.
- Ex vivo evaluation of artifacts mimicking fracture lines on cone-beam computed tomography produced by different root canal sealers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 9.
AIM:To evaluate streaking artifacts produced by several root canal sealers on CBCT images with variations in voxel resolution.
METHODOLOGY:Single-rooted premolars were selected and root filled using gutta-percha cones and one of the following sealers: Endofill, Sealer 26, Fillapex or AH Plus. Root canals filled only with gutta-percha were used as control. Scans of teeth using a small-volume CBCT were performed, and the images acquired were evaluated by two calibrated observers (k > 0.75). Artifacts were identified as streaks and dark bands on root dentine in axial slices with 2 voxel sizes (0.076 and 0.2 mm). Fisher's exact test (P < 0.05) was used to compare the presence/absence ratio of artifacts considering the factors 'sealer' and 'voxel size'.
RESULTS:For the 0.20 mm voxel size, Sealer 26 had significantly more artifacts than Fillapex (P = 0.006) or AH Plus (P = 0.017). No differences existed between the sealers when the 0.07 mm voxel size was used. Sealer 26 (P = 0.042) and Endofill (P = 0.035) had significantly more artifacts in the 0.20 mm voxel size than with the 0.076 mm voxel size, whilst no difference was noted for other filling conditions.
CONCLUSIONS:The material used for root filling and the voxel resolution can influence the presence of streaking artifacts observed in CBCT images.
- In vitro comparison of induction capacity and biomineralization ability of mineral trioxide aggregate and a bioceramic root canal sealer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Apr 19.
AIM:To compare the effect of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and iRoot SP, a bioceramic root canal sealer, on the cell viability, hard tissue deposition capacity and odontogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs).
METHODOLOGY:The dental materials MTA, iRoot SP and Dycal were packed into Teflon rings and placed on transwell inserts for toxicity evaluations by the MTS assay on days 3 and 7. Dycal was used as a positive control for the cell viability assay. Teflon rings were cocultured with hTGSCs, followed by the induction of odontogenic differentiation. The odontogenic differentiation of hTGSCs and biomineralization ability of the materials were evaluated by analysing the mRNA expression levels of dentine sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and collagen type 1A (COL1A) by real-time polymerase chain reaction expression analysis, measurement of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and visualization of calcium deposits by von Kossa staining.
RESULTS:MTA and iRoot SP exhibited no cytotoxicity, but Dycal caused cytotoxicity (P < 0.05) of almost all of the cells after 7 days. MTA significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) the odontogenic differentiation of hTGSCs compared with iRoot SP. MTA and iRoot SP increased (P < 0.05) the mRNA levels of COL1A and DSPP mRNA compared with noninduced hTGSCs, which served as a negative control (NC). iRoot SP, however, significantly decreased (P < 0.05) COL1A and DSPP mRNA expression levels compared with the PC.
CONCLUSION:MTA and iRoot SP induced hTGSC differentiation into odontoblast-like cells, but MTA might provide more inductive potential and hard tissue deposition compared with iRoot SP.
- The detection of vertical root fractures in root filled teeth with periapical radiographs and CBCT scans. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Endod J 2013 Mar 16.