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Int J Cardiovasc Imaging [journal]
- Comparison of high-resolution MRI with CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography for the evaluation of middle cerebral artery atherosclerotic steno-occlusive disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 19.
Intracranial atherosclerotic disease is increasingly recognized as a major stroke subtype worldwide. Current diagnostic evaluation of atherosclerotic disease of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) relies on detection of stenoses with luminographic imaging studies that do not directly visualize plaque unlike high-resolution MRI. This retrospective study seeks to evaluate the accuracy of high-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging, computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in measuring the degree of stenosis within the MCA. 28 recently symptomatic patients with MCA territory symptoms underwent preliminary imaging with CTA followed by high-resolution MRI at 3-Tesla and definitive imaging with DSA for detection of M1 territory steno-occlusive lesions. Measurements of MCA segments on MRI and CTA were compared with reference to DSA values. Sensitivity and specificity of high-resolution MRI vessel wall imaging, CTA using maximum intensity projection (MIP) and CTA using volume rendering (VR) for the detection of stenosis > 50 % and occlusion were 80.0 and 53.6 %, 72.2 and 72.7 %, and 77.8 and 18.2 %, respectively. MRI-derived values correlated better with DSA (Spearman R = 0.68, p < 0.01) than CTA MIP and VR (Spearman R = 0.45, 0.22; p = 0.02, 0.24, respectively). High-resolution MRI of the MCA is capable of accurately measuring the degree of stenosis and is more sensitive than CTA in a sample of high-risk, symptomatic patients. This study, combined with previous reports, supports the potential of morphological MRI to measure intracranial atherosclerotic plaque non-invasively.
- Coronary CT angiography using the second-generation 320-detector row CT: assessment of image quality and radiation dose in various heart rates compared with the first-generation scanner. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 17.
To assess the image quality and radiation dose reduction in various heart rates in coronary CT angiography using the second-generation 320-detector row CT compared with the first-generation CT. Ninety-six patients were retrospectively included. The first 48 patients underwent coronary CT angiography with the first-generation 320-detector row CT, while the last 48 patients underwent with the second-generation CT. Subjective image quality was graded using a 4-point scale (4, excellent; 1, unable to evaluate). Image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio were also analyzed. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the heart rate. The mean effective dose was derived from the dose length product multiplied by a conversion coefficient for the chest (κ = 0.014 mSv × mGy(-1) × cm(-1)). The overall subjective image quality score showed no significant difference (3.66 vs 3.69, respectively, p = 0.25). The image quality score of the second-generation group tended to be higher than that of the first-generation group in the 66- to 75-bpm subgroup (3.36 vs 3.53, respectively, p = 0.07). No significant difference was observed in image noise and contrast-to-noise ratio. The overall radiation dose reduced by 24 % (3.3 vs 2.5 mSv, respectively, p = 0.03), and the reduction was substantial in patients with higher heart rate (66- to 75-bpm, 4.3 vs 2.2 mSv, respectively, p = 0.009; >75 bpm, 8.2 vs 3.7 mSv, respectively, p = 0.005). The second-generation 320-detector row CT could maintain the image quality while reducing the radiation dose in coronary CT angiography. The dose reduction was larger in patients with higher heart rate.
- Prognostic value of dual-source multidetector computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with stent implantation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 12.
We aim to evaluate the prognostic value of dual-source 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in patients with coronary stents. The study included 173 patients [mean age 59.9 ± 10.1 years, 76.7 % male] with previous stent implantation who underwent MDCT for evaluation of CAD and stent patency. Coronary imaging was performed via dual-source MDCT scanner. Stented vessel segment was evaluated as patent without neointimal hyperplasia (NIH), nonobstructive NIH (<50 % luminal narrowing), or obstructive NIH (>50 % luminal narrowing). Patients were evaluated for major cardiovascular events (MACEs) to demonstrate association between stent patency and clinical outcome. MACEs that were originating from non-stented segments were excluded. A total of 213 coronary stents were evaluated in our study. During mean of 21.2 ± 13.6 months' follow-up, 25 patients experienced MACEs [1 (4.0 %) cardiac death, 5 (20.0 %) nonfatal MI, and 19 (76.0 %) unstable angina pectoris requiring hospitalization and target vessel revascularization] associated with stented segment of coronary arteries. One hundred of 105 patients (95.2 %) with a patent stent without NIH detected by MDCT had no cardiac event associated with stented segments during mean 2 years' follow-up period. These data indicate that patients with a patent stent without NIH as determined by MDCT have a good prognosis as opposed to an increased rate of events among patients with either nonobstructive or obstructive NIH as determined with MDCT, supporting MDCT as a reliable tool to evaluate patients after coronary stenting.
- Left atrial volume index is a predictor of silent myocardial ischemia in high-risk patients with end-stage renal disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 9.
Silent myocardial ischemia is highly prevalent in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. However, the criteria for coronary artery disease screening remain unclear in asymptomatic patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether baseline echocardiographic parameters can predict myocardial ischemia in asymptomatic patients with ESRD. We investigated 259 high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD who underwent both echocardiography and myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography at the initiation of dialysis. We defined the presence of myocardial ischemia as a reversible or fixed perfusion defect. Silent myocardial ischemia was found in 99 (38.2 %) high-risk asymptomatic patients with ESRD at the initiation of dialysis. In patients with myocardial ischemia, left ventricular (LV) end systolic volume index, LV mass index, left atrial volume index (LAVI), and the ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to peak mitral annulus velocity were significantly higher, and LV ejection fraction was significantly lower, than those without myocardial ischemia. Multivariate analysis showed that LAVI, LV ejection fraction, and regional wall motion abnormalities were independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia. Severe (LA) enlargement was independently associated with the presence of silent myocardial ischemia (odds ratio 1.97; 95 % confidence interval 1.08-3.57; p = 0.026). LA enlargement is a potential marker for identifying patients with ESRD at high risk of silent myocardial ischemia.
- Clinical and imaging parameters to predict cardiovascular outcome in asymptomatic subjects. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 8.
We aimed to compare the prognostic power of clinical parameters, biomarkers and imaging parameters in predicting cardiovascular outcome in asymptomatic healthy population. A total of 5,182 asymptomatic patients who visited Health Promotion Center at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between January 2006 and September 2008 and had coronary computed tomography angiography were evaluated. All cardiovascular events including cardiac death, acute coronary syndrome and stroke were evaluated as outcome. In asymptomatic general Korean population, cardiovascular event was found in 1.3 % during median follow up period of 48 months. Various multivariate analyses including C-reactive protein, Framingham risk score (FRS), coronary artery calcium score and degree of coronary artery stenosis showed that FRS and degree of coronary artery stenosis were independent parameters for future adverse cardiovascular events in asymptomatic population (OR 1.068, 95 % CI 1.023-1.114, p = 0.003 for FRS, OR 1.041, 95 % CI 1.031-1.051, p < 0.001 for stenosis). The C-statistics of FRS, degree of stenosis and FRS with degree of stenosis were 0.72 (95 % CI 0.64-0.80), 0.80 (95 % CI 0.72-0.88) and 0.83 (95 % CI 0.75-0.91), respectively. Among the clinical parameters, biomarkers and imaging parameters of cardiovascular disease, both FRS and degree of coronary artery stenosis are independent parameters to predict adverse outcome in asymptomatic population.
- Value of cardiac 320-multidetector computed tomography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of myocardial perfusion defects in patients with known chronic ischemic heart disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 8.
The challenge for therapies targeting perfusion abnormalities is to identify and evaluate the region of interest. The aim of this study was to compare rest and stress myocardial perfusion measured by cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging in patients with invasive coronary angiography demonstrated occluded vessels. Twenty-four patients with refractory angina due to occluded coronary arteries underwent perfusion imaging obtained by 320-MDCT scanner and 1.5 T MR scanner. Rest and adenosine stress images were obtained and interpreted using the modified 17-segment American Heart Association model. For the qualitative analysis, each segment was graded according to the following scoring system: 0 = no defect, 1 = hypoperfusion transmural extent <1/3, 2 = 1/3-1/2, 3 = >1/2, and 4 = infarct stigmata. In the semiquantitative analysis the perfusion was either scored 0 (normal) or 1 (abnormal). The summed rest and stress scores were calculated. MDCT and CMR had a high probability to identify perfusion defects. An excellent correlation between MDCT and CMR summed rest (r = 0.916) and stress scores (r = 0.915) was found. The interobserver reproducibility was high for MDCT and CMR images. The qualitative and semiquantitative MDCT against CMR analysis of rest and stress images showed high concordance to detect perfusion defects per vascular territory and on a per myocardial segment basis. 320-MDCT and CMR perfusion imaging can be used clinically to identify myocardial perfusion defects and potentially evaluate the effect of therapy targeting perfusion abnormalities.
- Evaluation of high-pitch flash scan for pulmonary venous CTA on a 128-slice dual source CT: compared with prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 5.
To compare the image quality (IQ) and radiation dose of high-pitch scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan on a 128-slice DSCT system for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Pulmonary venous (PV) CTA was performed with two protocols, including high-pitch scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan. For each protocol, 20 sex, age and body-mass-index (mean 24.2 kg/m(2)) matched patients were identified. Two experienced radiologists, who were blinded to the scan protocols, independently graded the CT images of the two groups by a 5-point scale for subjective IQ assessment. Measured CT attenuation (Hounsfield units ± standard deviation), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) at various anatomic locations were also recorded for objective IQ evaluation. Radiation exposure parameters [dose length product (DLP) and effective radiation dose (ERD)] were compared. Twenty-three patients (57.5 %) showed an ECG pattern of AF in total. Subjective IQ was rated excellent in 100 % for the high-pitch scan group, while minor step artifacts were observed in two patients (10 %) with arrhythmia for the prospective ECG-triggered sequence group. There was no significant difference on IQ, neither by subjective, nor by objective measures (SNR, CNR) between the two groups. The ERD of high-pitch flash scan and prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan were 0.9 (±0.25) and 2.9 (±0.69) mSv, respectively. Significantly lower radiation was achieved by using high-pitch flash scan (P < 0.05). High-pitch flash scan can provide similar subjective and objective IQ compared with prospective ECG-triggered sequence scan for PV CTA, while radiation exposure was significantly reduced.
- Coronary computed tomography angiography-adapted Leaman score as a tool to noninvasively quantify total coronary atherosclerotic burden. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 1.
To describe a coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-adapted Leaman score (CT-LeSc) as a tool to quantify total coronary atherosclerotic burden with information regarding localization, type of plaque and degree of stenosis and to identify clinical predictors of a high coronary atherosclerotic burden as assessed by the CT-LeSc. Single center prospective registry including a total of 772 consecutive patients undergoing CCTA (Dual-source CT) from April 2011 to March 2012. For the purpose of this study, 581 stable patients referred for suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) without previous myocardial infarction or revascularization procedures were included. Pre-test CAD probability was determined using both the Diamond-Forrester extended CAD consortium method (DF-CAD consortium model) and the Morise score. Cardiovascular risk was assessed with the HeartScore. The cut-off for the 3rd tercile (CT-LeSc ≥8.3) was used to define a population with a high coronary atherosclerotic burden. The median CT-LeSc in this population (n = 581, 8,136 coronary segments evaluated; mean age 57.6 ± 11.1; 55.8 % males; 14.6 % with diabetes) was 2.2 (IQR 0-6.8). In patients with CAD (n = 341), the median CT-LeSc was 5.8 (IQR 3.2-9.6). Among patients with nonobstructive CAD, most were classified in the lowest terciles (T1, 43.0 %; T2, 36.1 %), but 20.9 % were in the highest tercile (T3). The majority of the patients with obstructive CAD were classified in T3 (78.2 %), but 21.8 % had a CT-LeSc in lower terciles (T1 or T2). The independent predictors of a high CT-LeSc were: Male sex (OR 1.73; 95 % CI 1.04-2.90) diabetes (OR 2.91; 95 % CI 1.61-5.23), hypertension (OR 2.54; 95 % CI 1.40-4.63), Morise score ≥16 (OR 1.97; 95 % CI 1.06-3.67) and HeartScore ≥5 (OR 2.42; 95 % CI 1.41-4.14). We described a cardiac CT adapted Leaman score as a tool to quantify total (obstructive and nonobstructive) coronary atherosclerotic burden, reflecting the comprehensive information about localization, degree of stenosis and type of plaque provided by CCTA. Male sex, hypertension, diabetes, a HeartScore ≥5 % and a Morise score ≥16 were associated with a high coronary atherosclerotic burden, as assessed by the CT-LeSc. About one fifth of the patients with nonobstructive CAD had a CT-LeSc in the highest tercile, and this could potentially lead to a reclassification of the risk profile of this subset of patients identified by CCTA, once the prognostic value of the CT-LeSc is validated.
- First in vivo head-to-head comparison of high-definition versus standard-definition stent imaging with 64-slice computed tomography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 May 1.
The aim of this study was to compare image quality characteristics from 64-slice high definition (HDCT) versus 64-slice standard definition CT (SDCT) for coronary stent imaging. In twenty-five stents of 14 patients, undergoing contrast-enhanced CCTA both on 64-slice SDCT (LightSpeedVCT, GE Healthcare) and HDCT (Discovery HD750, GE Healthcare), radiation dose, contrast, noise and stent characteristics were assessed. Two blinded observers graded stent image quality (score 1 = no, 2 = mild, 3 = moderate, and 4 = severe artefacts). All scans were reconstructed with increasing contributions of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) blending (0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 %). Image quality was significantly superior in HDCT versus SDCT (score 1.7 ± 0.5 vs. 2.7 ± 0.7; p < 0.05). Image noise was significantly higher in HDCT compared to SDCT irrespective of ASIR contributions (p < 0.05). Addition of 40 % ASIR or more reduced image noise significantly in both HDCT and SDCT. In HDCT in-stent luminal attenuation was significantly lower and mean measured in-stent luminal diameter was significantly larger (1.2 ± 0.4 mm vs. 0.8 ± 0.4 mm; p < 0.05) compared to SDCT. Radiation dose from HDCT was comparable to SDCT (1.8 ± 0.7 mSv vs. 1.7 ± 0.7 mSv; p = ns). Use of HDCT for coronary stent imaging reduces partial volume artefacts from stents yielding improved image quality versus SDCT at a comparable radiation dose.
- Intra-procedural imaging of the left atrium and pulmonary veins with rotational angiography: a comparison of anatomy obtained by pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography and trans-thoracic echocardiography. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2013 Apr 28.
This study evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) to determine the anatomy of the left atrium (LA) and pulmonary veins (PVs) compared with cardiac computed tomography (CCT) and trans-thoracic echocardiography (TTE). One hundred two patients (56.1 ± 9.9 years, 86 males) with an indication for atrial fibrillation ablation were prospectively enrolled. Intra-procedural 3DRA was performed with power injected contrast medium (20 cc/s for 4 s, 240°) in the LA. 3DRA images of the LA and PVs were assessed qualitatively and then compared quantitatively. LA volume measured by 3DRA, CCT and TTE were compared. The majority of 3DRA acquisitions were optimal in delineating the right-side LA-PV (95 % for right superior PV and 96 % for right inferior PV) and left inferior PV anatomy (91 %), whereas it was optimal in only 63 % of left superior PV and 73 % of the LA appendage. The circumferences of PV ostia identified by 3DRA and CCT were correlated in four PVs (r = 0.57 for right superior PV, r = 0.67 for right inferior PV, r = 0.60 for left superior PV, and r = 0.52 for left inferior PV, p < 0.001). The mean LA volume measured by 3DRA (120 ± 32 mL) was greater than that found by CCT (109 ± 35 mL) or TTE (64 ± 23 mL), but the 3DRA LA volume measurements correlated well with those of CCT (r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and TTE (r = 0.69, p < 0.001). Intra-procedural 3DRA provided anatomical accuracy of LA and PVs comparable to those of CCT. However, optimal delineation of the left superior PV and LA appendage was limited. The LA volume determined by 3DRA was well correlated with those of CCT and TTE, despite different absolute values of each.