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- Deaths and cardiovascular events in men receiving testosterone. [Comment, Letter]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):961-2.
- An immunocompromised patient with recent-onset skin lesions. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):957-8.
- Acupuncture for chronic pain. [Comment, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):955-6.
Is acupuncture associated with reduced pain outcomes for patients with chronic pain compared with sham-acupuncture (placebo) or no-acupuncture control?Acupuncture is associated with improved pain outcomes compared with sham-acupuncture and no-acupuncture control, with response rates of approximately 30% for no acupuncture, 42.5% for sham acupuncture, and 50% for acupuncture.
- Tremor. [Clinical Conference, Journal Article]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):948-54.
Tremor, defined as a rhythmic and involuntary movement of any body part, is the most prevalent movement disorder, affecting millions of people in the United States. All adults have varying degrees of physiological tremor so it is imperative to distinguish physiological tremor from pathological tremor types. Tremor is not inherently dangerous, but it can cause significant disability at home and in the workplace. Common tremors like essential tremor and Parkinson disease tremor can be recognized by most clinicians at the early stages for the initiation of disease-specific medical therapies. Less common tremors, such as those induced by drugs or brain lesions, are also important to recognize because they may be more refractory to medical therapies and may require earlier referral to a neurological specialist. In patients with the most progressive and severe tremors that are resistant to medical therapies, surgical interventions are available and typically target deep brain regions with stimulation or lesioning. This Grand Rounds review describes the evaluation and evidence-based management of the most common tremors, essential tremor and Parkinson disease tremor.
- Associations of housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods with subsequent mental disorders during adolescence. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):937-48.
Youth in high-poverty neighborhoods have high rates of emotional problems. Understanding neighborhood influences on mental health is crucial for designing neighborhood-level interventions.To perform an exploratory analysis of associations between housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods and subsequent mental disorders during adolescence.The Moving to Opportunity Demonstration from 1994 to 1998 randomized 4604 volunteer public housing families with 3689 children in high-poverty neighborhoods into 1 of 2 housing mobility intervention groups (a low-poverty voucher group vs a traditional voucher group) or a control group. The low-poverty voucher group (n=1430) received vouchers to move to low-poverty neighborhoods with enhanced mobility counseling. The traditional voucher group (n=1081) received geographically unrestricted vouchers. Controls (n=1178) received no intervention. Follow-up evaluation was performed 10 to 15 years later (June 2008-April 2010) with participants aged 13 to 19 years (0-8 years at randomization). Response rates were 86.9% to 92.9%.Presence of mental disorders from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) within the past 12 months, including major depressive disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), oppositional-defiant disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, and conduct disorder, as assessed post hoc with a validated diagnostic interview.Of the 3689 adolescents randomized, 2872 were interviewed (1407 boys and 1465 girls). Compared with the control group, boys in the low-poverty voucher group had significantly increased rates of major depression (7.1% vs 3.5%; odds ratio (OR), 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2-3.9]), PTSD (6.2% vs 1.9%; OR, 3.4 [95% CI, 1.6-7.4]), and conduct disorder (6.4% vs 2.1%; OR, 3.1 [95% CI, 1.7-5.8]). Boys in the traditional voucher group had increased rates of PTSD compared with the control group (4.9% vs 1.9%, OR, 2.7 [95% CI, 1.2-5.8]). However, compared with the control group, girls in the traditional voucher group had decreased rates of major depression (6.5% vs 10.9%; OR, 0.6 [95% CI, 0.3-0.9]) and conduct disorder (0.3% vs 2.9%; OR, 0.1 [95% CI, 0.0-0.4]).Interventions to encourage moving out of high-poverty neighborhoods were associated with increased rates of depression, PTSD, and conduct disorder among boys and reduced rates of depression and conduct disorder among girls. Better understanding of interactions among individual, family, and neighborhood risk factors is needed to guide future public housing policy changes.
- Association between casino opening or expansion and risk of childhood overweight and obesity. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):929-36.
Economic resources have been inversely associated with risk of childhood overweight/obesity. Few studies have evaluated whether this association is a direct effect of economic resources or is attributable to unmeasured confounding or reverse causation. American Indian-owned casinos have resulted in increased economic resources for some tribes and provide an opportunity to test whether these resources are associated with overweight/obesity.To assess whether openings or expansions of American Indian-owned casinos were associated with childhood overweight/obesity risk.We used repeated cross-sectional anthropometric measurements from fitness testing of American Indian children (aged 7-18 years) from 117 school districts that encompassed tribal lands in California between 2001 and 2012. Children in school districts encompassing American Indian tribal lands that either gained or expanded a casino were compared with children in districts with tribal lands that did not gain or expand a casino.Per capita annual income, median annual household income, percentage of population in poverty, total population, child overweight/obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥85th age- and sex-specific percentile) and BMI z score.Of the 117 school districts, 57 gained or expanded a casino, 24 had a preexisting casino but did not expand, and 36 never had a casino. The mean slots per capita was 7 (SD, 12) and the median was 3 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.3-8). Among districts where a casino opened or expanded, the mean change in slots per capita was 13 (SD, 19) and the median was 3 (IQR, 1-11). Forty-eight percent of the anthropometric measurements were classified as overweight/obese (11,048/22,863). Every casino slot machine per capita gained was associated with an increase in per capita annual income (β = $541; 95% CI, $245-$836) and a decrease in percentage in poverty (β = -0.6%; 95% CI, -1.1% to -0.20%) among American Indians living on tribal lands. Among American Indian children, every slot machine per capita gained was associated with a decreased probability of overweight/obesity by 0.19 percentage points (95% CI, -0.26 to -0.11 percentage points) and a decrease in BMI z score (β = -0.003; 95% CI, -0.005 to -0.0002).In this study, opening or expanding a casino was associated with increased economic resources and decreased risk of childhood overweight/obesity. Given the limitations of an ecological study, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms behind this association.
- Warfarin, kidney dysfunction, and outcomes following acute myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):919-28.
Conflicting evidence exists regarding the association between warfarin treatment, death, and ischemic stroke incidence in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and atrial fibrillation.To study outcomes associated with warfarin treatment in relation to kidney function among patients with established cardiovascular disease and atrial fibrillation.Observational, prospective, multicenter cohort study from the Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry (2003-2010), which includes all Swedish hospitals that provide care for acute cardiac diseases. Participants included consecutive survivors of an acute myocardial infarction (MI) with atrial fibrillation and known serum creatinine (N = 24,317), including 21.8% who were prescribed warfarin at discharge. Chronic kidney disease stages were classified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR).(1) Composite end point analysis of death, readmission due to MI, or ischemic stroke; (2) bleeding (composite of readmission due to hemorrhagic stroke, gastrointestinal bleeding, bleeding causing anemia, and others); or (3) the aggregate of these 2 outcomes within 1 year from discharge date.A total of 5292 patients (21.8%) were treated with warfarin at discharge, and 51.7% had manifest CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 [eGFR<60]). Compared with no warfarin use, warfarin was associated with a lower risk of the first composite outcome (n = 9002 events) in each CKD stratum for event rates per 100 person-years: eGFR>60 event rate, 28.0 for warfarin vs 36.1 for no warfarin; adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 0.73 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.81); eGFR>30-60: event rate, 48.5 for warfarin vs 63.8 for no warfarin; HR, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.80); eGFR>15-30: event rate, 84.3 for warfarin vs 110.1 for no warfarin; HR, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.70-1.02); eGFR≤15: event rate, 83.2 for warfarin vs 128.3 for no warfarin; HR, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.37-0.86). The risk of bleeding (n = 1202 events) was not significantly higher in patients treated with warfarin in any CKD stratum for event rates per 100 person-years: eGFR>60 event rate, 5.0 for warfarin vs 4.8 for no warfarin; HR, 1.10 (95% CI, 0.86-1.41); eGFR>30-60 event rate, 6.8 for warfarin vs 6.3 for no warfarin; HR, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.81-1.33); eGFR>15-30 event rate, 9.3 for warfarin vs 10.4 for no warfarin; HR, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.48-1.39); eGFR≤15 event rate, 9.1 for warfarin vs 13.5 for no warfarin; HR, 0.52 (95% CI, 0.16-1.65). Warfarin use in each CKD stratum was associated with lower hazards of the aggregate outcome (n = 9592 events) for event rates per 100 person-years: eGFR>60 event rate, 32.1 for warfarin vs 40.0 for no warfarin; HR, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.69-0.84); eGFR>30-60 event rate, 53.6 for warfarin vs 69.0 for no warfarin; HR, 0.75 (95% CI, 0.68-0.82); eGFR>15-30 event rate, 90.2 for warfarin vs 117.7 for no warfarin; HR, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.99); eGFR≤15 event rate, 86.2 for warfarin vs 138.2 for no warfarin; HR, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.37-0.83).Warfarin treatment was associated with a lower 1-year risk for the composite outcome of death, MI, and ischemic stroke without a higher risk of bleeding in consecutive acute MI patients with atrial fibrillation. This association was not related to the severity of concurrent CKD.
- Socioeconomic influences on child health: building new ladders of social opportunity. [Comment, Editorial]
- JAMA 2014 Mar 5; 311(9):915-7.