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- Minority Faculty Development Programs and Underrepresented Minority Faculty Representation at US Medical Schools. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2297-304.
Diversity initiatives have increased at US medical schools to address underrepresentation of minority faculty.To assess associations between minority faculty development programs at US medical schools and underrepresented minority faculty representation, recruitment, and promotion.Secondary analysis of the Association of American Medical Colleges Faculty Roster, a database of US medical school faculty.Full-time faculty at schools located in the 50 US states or District of Columbia and reporting data from 2000-2010.Availability of school-wide programs targeted to underrepresented minority faculty in 2010.Percentage of underrepresented minority faculty, defined as self-reported black, Hispanic, Native American, Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander faculty. Percentage of underrepresented minority faculty was computed by school and year for all faculty, newly appointed faculty, and newly promoted faculty. Panel-level analyses that accounted for faculty clustering within schools were conducted and adjusted for faculty- and school-level variables.Across all schools, the percentage of underrepresented minority faculty increased from 6.8% (95% CI, 6.7%-7.0%) in 2000 to 8.0% (95% CI, 7.8%-8.2%) in 2010. Of 124 eligible schools, 36 (29%) were identified with a minority faculty development program in 2010. Minority faculty development programs were heterogeneous in composition, number of components, and duration. Schools with minority faculty development programs had a similar increase in percentage of underrepresented minority faculty as schools without minority faculty development programs (6.5%-7.4% vs 7.0%-8.3%; odds ratio [OR], 0.91 [95% CI, 0.72-1.13]). After adjustment for faculty and school characteristics, minority faculty development programs were not associated with greater representation of minority faculty (adjusted OR, 0.99 [95% CI, 0.81-1.22]), recruitment (adjusted OR, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.83-1.15]), or promotion (adjusted OR, 1.08 [95% CI, 0.91-1.30]). In subgroup analyses, schools with programs of greater intensity (present for ≥5 years and with more components) were associated with greater increases in underrepresented minority representation than schools with minority faculty development programs of less intensity.The percentage of underrepresented minority faculty increased modestly from 2000 to 2010 at US medical schools. The presence of a minority faculty development program targeted to underrepresented minority faculty was not associated with greater underrepresented minority faculty representation, recruitment, or promotion. Minority faculty development programs that were of greater intensity were associated with greater increases in underrepresented minority faculty representation.
- Substance use disorder among anesthesiology residents, 1975-2009. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2289-96.
Substance use disorder (SUD) among anesthesiologists and other physicians poses serious risks to both physicians and patients. Formulation of policy and individual treatment plans is hampered by lack of data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of physician SUD.To describe the incidence and outcomes of SUD among anesthesiology residents.Retrospective cohort study of physicians who began training in United States anesthesiology residency programs from July 1, 1975, to July 1, 2009, including 44,612 residents contributing 177,848 resident-years to analysis. Follow-up for incidence and relapse was to the end of training and December 31, 2010, respectively.Cases of SUD (including initial SUD episode and any relapse, vital status and cause of death, and professional consequences of SUD) ascertained through training records of the American Board of Anesthesiology, including information from the Disciplinary Action Notification Service of the Federation of State Medical Boards and cause of death information from the National Death Index.Of the residents, 384 had evidence of SUD during training, with an overall incidence of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.95-2.39) per 1000 resident-years (2.68 [95% CI, 2.41-2.98] men and 0.65 [95% CI, 0.44-0.93] women per 1000 resident-years). During the study period, an initial rate increase was followed by a period of lower rates in 1996-2002, but the highest incidence has occurred since 2003 (2.87 [95% CI, 2.42-3.39] per 1000 resident-years). The most common substance category was intravenous opioids, followed by alcohol, marijuana or cocaine, anesthetics/hypnotics, and oral opioids. Twenty-eight individuals (7.3%; 95% CI, 4.9%-10.4%) died during the training period; all deaths were related to SUD. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative proportion of survivors experiencing at least 1 relapse by 30 years after the initial episode (based on a median follow-up of 8.9 years [interquartile range, 5.0-18.8 years]) was 43% (95% CI, 34%-51%). Rates of relapse and death did not depend on the category of substance used. Relapse rates did not change over the study period.Among anesthesiology residents entering primary training from 1975 to 2009, 0.86% had evidence of SUD during training. Risk of relapse over the follow-up period was high, indicating persistence of risk after training.
- Student attendance and academic performance in undergraduate obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotations. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2282-8.
Student attendance is thought to be an important factor in the academic performance of medical students, in addition to having important regulatory, policy, and financial implications for medical educators. However, this relationship has not been well evaluated within clinical learning environments.To evaluate the relationship between student attendance and academic performance in a medical student obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotation.A prospective cohort study of student attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities during a full academic year (September 2011 to June 2012) within a publicly funded university teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Students were expected to attend 64 activities (26 clinical activities and 38 tutorial-based activities) but attendance was not mandatory. All 147 fourth-year medical students who completed an 8-week obstetrics/gynecology rotation were included.Student attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities, recorded using a paper-based logbook.The overall examination score (out of a possible 200 points) was obtained using an 11-station objective structured clinical examination (40 points), an end-of-year written examination comprising 50 multiple-choice questions (40 points) and 6 short-answer questions (40 points), and an end-of-year long-case clinical/oral examination (80 points). Students were required to have an overall score of 100 points (50%) and a minimum of 40 points in the long-case clinical/oral examination (50%) to pass.The mean attendance rate was 89% (range, 39%-100% [SD, 11%], n = 57/64 activities). Male students (84% attendance, P = .001) and students who failed an end-of-year examination previously (84% attendance, P = .04) had significantly lower rates. There was a positive correlation between attendance and overall examination score (r = 0.59 [95% CI, 0.44-0.70]; P < .001). Both clinical attendance (r = 0.50 [95% CI, 0.32-0.64]; P < .001) and tutorial-based attendance (r = 0.57 [95% CI, 0.40-0.70]; P < .001) were positively correlated with overall examination score. The associations persisted after controlling for confounding factors of student sex, age, country of origin, previous failure in an end-of-year examination, and the timing of the rotation during the academic year. Distinction grades (overall score of ≥60%) were present only among students with attendance rates of 80% or higher. The odds of a distinction grade increased with each 10% increase in attendance (adjusted odds ratio, 5.52; 95% CI, 2.17-14.00). The majority of failure grades (6/10 students; 60%) occurred in students with attendance rates lower than 80%. The adjusted odds ratio for failure with attendance rates of 80% or higher was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.02-0.72).Among fourth-year medical students completing an 8-week obstetrics/gynecology clinical rotation, attendance at clinical and tutorial-based activities was positively correlated with overall examination scores. Further research is needed to understand whether the relationship is causal, and whether improving attendance rates can improve academic performance.
- Effect of communication skills training for residents and nurse practitioners on quality of communication with patients with serious illness: a randomized trial. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2271-81.
Communication about end-of-life care is a core clinical skill. Simulation-based training improves skill acquisition, but effects on patient-reported outcomes are unknown.To assess the effects of a communication skills intervention for internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees on patient- and family-reported outcomes.Randomized trial conducted with 391 internal medicine and 81 nurse practitioner trainees between 2007 and 2013 at the University of Washington and Medical University of South Carolina.Participants were randomized to an 8-session, simulation-based, communication skills intervention (N = 232) or usual education (N = 240).Primary outcome was patient-reported quality of communication (QOC; mean rating of 17 items rated from 0-10, with 0 = poor and 10 = perfect). Secondary outcomes were patient-reported quality of end-of-life care (QEOLC; mean rating of 26 items rated from 0-10) and depressive symptoms (assessed using the 8-item Personal Health Questionnaire [PHQ-8]; range, 0-24, higher scores worse) and family-reported QOC and QEOLC. Analyses were clustered by trainee.There were 1866 patient ratings (44% response) and 936 family ratings (68% response). The intervention was not associated with significant changes in QOC or QEOLC. Mean values for postintervention patient QOC and QEOLC were 6.5 (95% CI, 6.2 to 6.8) and 8.3 (95% CI, 8.1 to 8.5) respectively, compared with 6.3 (95% CI, 6.2 to 6.5) and 8.3 (95% CI, 8.1 to 8.4) for control conditions. After adjustment, comparing intervention with control, there was no significant difference in the QOC score for patients (difference, 0.4 points [95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9]; P = .15) or families (difference, 0.1 [95% CI, -0.8 to 1.0]; P = .81). There was no significant difference in QEOLC score for patients (difference, 0.3 points [95% CI, -0.3 to 0.8]; P = .34) or families (difference, 0.1 [95% CI, -0.7 to 0.8]; P = .88). The intervention was associated with significantly increased depression scores among patients of postintervention trainees (mean score, 10.0 [95% CI, 9.1 to 10.8], compared with 8.8 [95% CI, 8.4 to 9.2]) for control conditions; adjusted model showed an intervention effect of 2.2 (95% CI, 0.6 to 3.8; P = .006).Among internal medicine and nurse practitioner trainees, simulation-based communication training compared with usual education did not improve quality of communication about end-of-life care or quality of end-of-life care but was associated with a small increase in patients' depressive symptoms. These findings raise questions about skills transfer from simulation training to actual patient care and the adequacy of communication skills assessment.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00687349.
- Rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events among hospitalized children following implementation of a resident handoff bundle. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2262-70.
Handoff miscommunications are a leading cause of medical errors. Studies comprehensively assessing handoff improvement programs are lacking.To determine whether introduction of a multifaceted handoff program was associated with reduced rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events, fewer omissions of key data in written handoffs, improved verbal handoffs, and changes in resident-physician workflow.Prospective intervention study of 1255 patient admissions (642 before and 613 after the intervention) involving 84 resident physicians (42 before and 42 after the intervention) from July-September 2009 and November 2009-January 2010 on 2 inpatient units at Boston Children's Hospital.Resident handoff bundle, consisting of standardized communication and handoff training, a verbal mnemonic, and a new team handoff structure. On one unit, a computerized handoff tool linked to the electronic medical record was introduced.The primary outcomes were the rates of medical errors and preventable adverse events measured by daily systematic surveillance. The secondary outcomes were omissions in the printed handoff document and resident time-motion activity.Medical errors decreased from 33.8 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 27.3-40.3) to 18.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 14.7-21.9; P < .001), and preventable adverse events decreased from 3.3 per 100 admissions (95% CI, 1.7-4.8) to 1.5 (95% CI, 0.51-2.4) per 100 admissions (P = .04) following the intervention. There were fewer omissions of key handoff elements on printed handoff documents, especially on the unit that received the computerized handoff tool (significant reductions of omissions in 11 of 14 categories with computerized tool; significant reductions in 2 of 14 categories without computerized tool). Physicians spent a greater percentage of time in a 24-hour period at the patient bedside after the intervention (8.3%; 95% CI 7.1%-9.8%) vs 10.6% (95% CI, 9.2%-12.2%; P = .03). The average duration of verbal handoffs per patient did not change. Verbal handoffs were more likely to occur in a quiet location (33.3%; 95% CI, 14.5%-52.2% vs 67.9%; 95% CI, 50.6%-85.2%; P = .03) and private location (50.0%; 95% CI, 30%-70% vs 85.7%; 95% CI, 72.8%-98.7%; P = .007) after the intervention.Implementation of a handoff bundle was associated with a significant reduction in medical errors and preventable adverse events among hospitalized children. Improvements in verbal and written handoff processes occurred, and resident workflow did not change adversely.
- Containing multitudes: medical education 2013. [Editorial, Introductory Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2259-61.
- Improving communication with patients: learning by doing. [Comment, Editorial]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2257-8.
- Does improving handoffs reduce medical error rates? [Comment, Editorial]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2255-6.
- Will changes in the MCAT and USMLE ensure that future physicians have what it takes? [Editorial]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2253-4.
- A piece of my mind. Unintended consequences. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 Dec 4; 310(21):2251-2.