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- Medications for Alcohol Use Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1350-1351.
- Medications for Alcohol Use Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1349-1350.
- Medical Professional Liability Claims Related to Esophageal Cancer Screening. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1348-1349.
- Preventing Early Readmissions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1344-1345.
- Minimal Clinically Important Difference: Defining What Really Matters to Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1342-1343.
- Clinical management of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia: a review. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Review]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1330-41.
Several management strategies may improve outcomes in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.To review evidence of management strategies for S. aureus bacteremia to determine whether transesophageal echocardiography is necessary in all adult cases and what is the optimal antibiotic therapy for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) bacteremia.A PubMed search from inception through May 2014 was performed to identify studies addressing the role of transesophageal echocardiography in S. aureus bacteremia. A second search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from January 1990 through May 2014 was performed to find studies addressing antibiotic treatment for MRSA bacteremia. Studies reporting outcomes from antibiotic therapy for MRSA bacteremia were included. All searches, which were limited to English and focused on adults, were augmented by review of bibliographic references from included studies. The quality of evidence was assessed using the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation system with consensus of independent evaluations by at least 2 of the authors.In 9 studies with a total of 4050 patients, use of transesophageal echocardiography was associated with higher rates of a diagnosis of endocarditis (14%-28%) compared with transthoracic echocardiography (2%-15%). In 4 studies, clinical or transthoracic echocardiography findings did not predict subsequent transesophageal echocardiography findings of endocarditis. Five studies identified clinical or transthoracic echocardiography characteristics associated with low risk of endocarditis (negative predictive values from 93% to 100%). Characteristics associated with a low risk of endocarditis include absence of a permanent intracardiac device, sterile follow-up blood cultures within 4 days after the initial set, no hemodialysis dependence, nosocomial acquisition of S. aureus bacteremia, absence of secondary foci of infection, and no clinical signs of infective endocarditis. Of 81 studies of antibiotic therapy for MRSA bacteremia, only 1 high-quality trial was identified. In that study of 246 patients with S. aureus bacteremia, daptomycin was not inferior to vancomycin or an antistaphylococcal penicillin, each in combination with low-dose, short-course gentamicin (clinical success rate, 44.2% [53/120] vs 41.7% [48/115]; absolute difference, 2.4% [95% CI, -10.2% to 15.1%]).All adult patients with S. aureus bacteremia should undergo echocardiography. Characteristics of low-risk patients with S. aureus bacteremia for whom transesophageal echocardiography can be safely avoided have been identified. Vancomycin and daptomycin are the first-line antibiotic choices for MRSA bacteremia. Well-designed studies to address the management of S. aureus bacteremia are needed.
- Survival and Long-term Outcomes Following Bioprosthetic vs Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients Aged 50 to 69 Years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1323-1329.
The choice between bioprosthetic and mechanical aortic valve replacement in younger patients is controversial because long-term survival and major morbidity are poorly characterized.To quantify survival and major morbidity in patients aged 50 to 69 years undergoing aortic valve replacement.Retrospective cohort analysis of 4253 patients aged 50 to 69 years who underwent primary isolated aortic valve replacement using bioprosthetic vs mechanical valves in New York State from 1997 through 2004, identified using the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Median follow-up time was 10.8 years (range, 0 to 16.9 years); the last follow-up date for mortality was November 30, 2013. Propensity matching yielded 1001 patient pairs.Primary outcome was all-cause mortality; secondary outcomes were stroke, reoperation, and major bleeding.No differences in survival or stroke rates were observed in patients with bioprosthetic compared with mechanical valves. Actuarial 15-year survival was 60.6% (95% CI, 56.3%-64.9%) in the bioprosthesis group compared with 62.1% (95% CI, 58.2%-66.0%) in the mechanical prosthesis group (hazard ratio, 0.97 [95% CI, 0.83-1.14]). The 15-year cumulative incidence of stroke was 7.7% (95% CI, 5.7%-9.7%) in the bioprosthesis group and 8.6% (95% CI, 6.2%-11.0%) in the mechanical prosthesis group (hazard ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.75-1.43). The 15-year cumulative incidence of reoperation was higher in the bioprosthesis group (12.1% [95% CI, 8.8%-15.4%] vs 6.9% [95% CI, 4.2%-9.6%]; hazard ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.36-0.75]). The 15-year cumulative incidence of major bleeding was higher in the mechanical prosthesis group (13.0% [95% CI, 9.9%-16.1%] vs 6.6% [95% CI, 4.8%-8.4%]; hazard ratio, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.27-2.43]). The 30-day mortality rate was 18.7% after stroke, 9.0% after reoperation, and 13.2% after major bleeding.Among propensity-matched patients aged 50 to 69 years who underwent aortic valve replacement with bioprosthetic compared with mechanical valves, there was no significant difference in 15-year survival or stroke. Patients in the bioprosthetic valve group had a greater likelihood of reoperation but a lower likelihood of major bleeding. These findings suggest that bioprosthetic valves may be a reasonable choice in patients aged 50 to 69 years.
- Acupuncture for chronic knee pain: a randomized clinical trial. [Journal Article, Multicenter Study, Randomized Controlled Trial, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1313-22.
There is debate about benefits of acupuncture for knee pain.To determine the efficacy of laser and needle acupuncture for chronic knee pain.Zelen-design clinical trial (randomization occurred before informed consent), in Victoria, Australia (February 2010-December 2012). Community volunteers (282 patients aged ≥50 years with chronic knee pain) were treated by family physician acupuncturists.No acupuncture (control group, n = 71) and needle (n = 70), laser (n = 71), and sham laser (n = 70) acupuncture. Treatments were delivered for 12 weeks. Participants and acupuncturists were blinded to laser and sham laser acupuncture. Control participants were unaware of the trial.Primary outcomes were average knee pain (numeric rating scale, 0 [no pain] to 10 [worst pain possible]; minimal clinically important difference [MCID], 1.8 units) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, 0 [no difficulty] to 68 [extreme difficulty]; MCID, 6 units) at 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other pain and function measures, quality of life, global change, and 1-year follow-up. Analyses were by intention-to-treat using multiple imputation for missing outcome data.At 12 weeks and 1 year, 26 (9%) and 50 (18%) participants were lost to follow-up, respectively. Analyses showed neither needle nor laser acupuncture significantly improved pain (mean difference; -0.4 units; 95% CI, -1.2 to 0.4, and -0.1; 95% CI, -0.9 to 0.7, respectively) or function (-1.7; 95% CI, -6.1 to 2.6, and 0.5; 95% CI, -3.4 to 4.4, respectively) compared with sham at 12 weeks. Compared with control, needle and laser acupuncture resulted in modest improvements in pain (-1.1; 95% CI, -1.8 to -0.4, and -0.8; 95% CI, -1.5 to -0.1, respectively) at 12 weeks, but not at 1 year. Needle acupuncture resulted in modest improvement in function compared with control at 12 weeks (-3.9; 95% CI, -7.7 to -0.2) but was not significantly different from sham (-1.7; 95% CI, -6.1 to 2.6) and was not maintained at 1 year. There were no differences for most secondary outcomes and no serious adverse events.In patients older than 50 years with moderate or severe chronic knee pain, neither laser nor needle acupuncture conferred benefit over sham for pain or function. Our findings do not support acupuncture for these patients.anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12609001001280.
- Effect of a Postdischarge Virtual Ward on Readmission or Death for High-Risk Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1305-1312.
Hospital readmissions are common and costly, and no single intervention or bundle of interventions has reliably reduced readmissions. Virtual wards, which use elements of hospital care in the community, have the potential to reduce readmissions, but have not yet been rigorously evaluated.To determine whether a virtual ward-a model of care that uses some of the systems of a hospital ward to provide interprofessional care for community-dwelling patients-can reduce the risk of readmission in patients at high risk of readmission or death when being discharged from hospital.High-risk adult hospital discharge patients in Toronto were randomly assigned to either the virtual ward or usual care. A total of 1923 patients were randomized during the course of the study: 960 to the usual care group and 963 to the virtual ward group. The first patient was enrolled on June 29, 2010, and follow-up was completed on June 2, 2014.Patients assigned to the virtual ward received care coordination plus direct care provision (via a combination of telephone, home visits, or clinic visits) from an interprofessional team for several weeks after hospital discharge. The interprofessional team met daily at a central site to design and implement individualized management plans. Patients assigned to usual care typically received a typed, structured discharge summary, prescription for new medications if indicated, counseling from the resident physician, arrangements for home care as needed, and recommendations, appointments, or both for follow-up care with physicians as indicated.The primary outcome was a composite of hospital readmission or death within 30 days of discharge. Secondary outcomes included nursing home admission and emergency department visits, each of the components of the primary outcome at 30 days, as well as each of the outcomes (including the composite primary outcome) at 90 days, 6 months, and 1 year.There were no statistically significant between-group differences in the primary or secondary outcomes at 30 or 90 days, 6 months, or 1 year. The primary outcome occurred in 203 of 959 (21.2%) of the virtual ward patients and 235 of 956 (24.6%) of the usual care patients (absolute difference, 3.4%; 95% CI, -0.3% to 7.2%; P = .09). There were no statistically significant interactions to indicate that the virtual ward model of care was more or less effective in any of the prespecified subgroups.In a diverse group of high-risk patients being discharged from the hospital, we found no statistically significant effect of a virtual ward model of care on readmissions or death at either 30 days or 90 days, 6 months, or 1 year after hospital discharge.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01108172.
- Managing Posthospital Care Transitions for Older Adults: Challenges and Opportunities. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 1; 312(13):1303-1304.