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JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association [journal]
- Sharing and Reporting the Results of Clinical Trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 19.
- Effect of Screening for Coronary Artery Disease Using CT Angiography on Mortality and Cardiac Events in High-Risk Patients With Diabetes: The FACTOR-64 Randomized Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 17.
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus, yet CAD often is asymptomatic prior to myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary death.To assess whether routine screening for CAD by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes deemed to be at high cardiac risk followed by CCTA-directed therapy would reduce the risk of death and nonfatal coronary outcomes.The FACTOR-64 study was a randomized clinical trial in which 900 patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes of at least 3 to 5 years' duration and without symptoms of CAD were recruited from 45 clinics and practices of a single health system (Intermountain Healthcare, Utah), enrolled at a single-site coordinating center, and randomly assigned to CAD screening with CCTA (n = 452) or to standard national guidelines-based optimal diabetes care (n = 448) (targets: glycated hemoglobin level <7.0%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <100 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure <130 mm Hg). All CCTA imaging was performed at the coordinating center. Standard therapy or aggressive therapy (targets: glycated hemoglobin level <6.0%, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level <70 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level >50 mg/dL [women] or >40 mg/dL [men], triglycerides level <150 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg), or aggressive therapy with invasive coronary angiography, was recommended based on CCTA findings. Enrollment occurred between July 2007 and May 2013, and follow-up extended to August 2014.The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization; the secondary outcome was ischemic major adverse cardiovascular events (composite of CAD death, nonfatal MI, or unstable angina).At a mean follow-up time of 4.0 (SD, 1.7) years, the primary outcome event rates were not significantly different between the CCTA and the control groups (6.2% [28 events] vs 7.6% [34 events]; hazard ratio, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.49-1.32]; P = .38). The incidence of the composite secondary end point of ischemic major adverse cardiovascular events also did not differ between groups (4.4% [20 events] vs 3.8% [17 events]; hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.60-2.19]; P = .68).Among asymptomatic patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, use of CCTA to screen for CAD did not reduce the composite rate of all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, or unstable angina requiring hospitalization at 4 years. These findings do not support CCTA screening in this population.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier:NCT00488033.
- Effect of Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate on Potassium Lowering for 28 Days Among Outpatients With Hyperkalemia: The HARMONIZE Randomized Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 17.
Hyperkalemia is a common electrolyte abnormality that may be difficult to manage because of a lack of effective therapies. Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate is a nonabsorbed cation exchanger that selectively binds potassium in the intestine.To evaluate the efficacy and safety of zirconium cyclosilicate for 28 days in patients with hyperkalemia.HARMONIZE was a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating zirconium cyclosilicate in outpatients with hyperkalemia (serum potassium ≥5.1 mEq/L) recruited from 44 sites in the United States, Australia, and South Africa (March-August 2014).Patients (n = 258) received 10 g of zirconium cyclosilicate 3 times daily in the initial 48-hour open-label phase. Patients (n = 237) achieving normokalemia (3.5-5.0 mEq/L) were then randomized to receive zirconium cyclosilicate, 5 g (n = 45 patients), 10 g (n = 51), or 15 g (n = 56), or placebo (n = 85) daily for 28 days.The primary end point was mean serum potassium level in each zirconium cyclosilicate group vs placebo during days 8-29 of the randomized phase.In the open-label phase, serum potassium levels declined from 5.6 mEq/L at baseline to 4.5 mEq/L at 48 hours. Median time to normalization was 2.2 hours, with 84% of patients (95% CI, 79%-88%) achieving normokalemia by 24 hours and 98% (95% CI, 96%-99%) by 48 hours. In the randomized phase, serum potassium was significantly lower during days 8-29 with all 3 zirconium cyclosilicate doses vs placebo (4.8 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.6-4.9], 4.5 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.4-4.6], and 4.4 mEq/L [95% CI, 4.3-4.5] for 5 g, 10 g, and 15 g; 5.1 mEq/L [95% CI, 5.0-5.2] for placebo; P < .001 for all comparisons). The proportion of patients with mean potassium <5.1 mEq/L during days 8-29 was significantly higher in all zirconium cyclosilicate groups vs placebo (36/45 [80%], 45/50 [90%], and 51/54 [94%] for the 5-g, 10-g, and 15-g groups, vs 38/82 [46%] with placebo; P < .001 for each dose vs placebo). Adverse events were comparable between zirconium cyclosilicate and placebo, although edema was more common in the 15-g group (edema incidence: 2/85 [2%], 1/45 [2%], 3/51 [6%], and 8/56 [14%] patients in the placebo, 5-g, 10-g, and 15-g groups). Hypokalemia developed in 5/51 (10%) and 6/56 patients (11%) in the 10-g and 15-g zirconium cyclosilicate groups, vs none in the 5-g or placebo groups.Among outpatients with hyperkalemia, open-label sodium zirconium cyclosilicate reduced serum potassium to normal levels within 48 hours; compared with placebo, all 3 doses of zirconium cyclosilicate resulted in lower potassium levels and a higher proportion of patients with normal potassium levels for up to 28 days. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of zirconium cyclosilicate beyond 4 weeks and to assess long-term clinical outcomes.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02088073.
- Zirconium Cyclosilicate for Treatment of Hyperkalemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 17.
- Low-Dose Aspirin for Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Japanese Patients 60 Years or Older With Atherosclerotic Risk Factors: A Randomized Clinical Trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 17.
Prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases is an important public health priority in Japan due to an aging population.To determine whether daily, low-dose aspirin reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in older Japanese patients with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors.The Japanese Primary Prevention Project (JPPP) was a multicenter, open-label, randomized, parallel-group trial. Patients (N = 14 464) were aged 60 to 85 years, presenting with hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes mellitus recruited by primary care physicians at 1007 clinics in Japan between March 2005 and June 2007, and were followed up for up to 6.5 years, with last follow-up in May 2012. A multidisciplinary expert panel (blinded to treatment assignments) adjudicated study outcomes.Patients were randomized 1:1 to enteric-coated aspirin 100 mg/d or no aspirin in addition to ongoing medications.Composite primary outcome was death from cardiovascular causes (myocardial infarction, stroke, and other cardiovascular causes), nonfatal stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic, including undefined cerebrovascular events), and nonfatal myocardial infarction. Secondary outcomes included individual end points.The study was terminated early by the data monitoring committee after a median follow-up of 5.02 years (interquartile range, 4.55-5.33) based on likely futility. In both the aspirin and no aspirin groups, 56 fatal events occurred. Patients with an occurrence of nonfatal stroke totaled 114 in the aspirin group and 108 in the no aspirin group; of nonfatal myocardial infarction, 20 in the aspirin group and 38 in the no aspirin group; of undefined cerebrovascular events, 3 in the aspirin group and 5 in the no aspirin group. The 5-year cumulative primary outcome event rate was not significantly different between the groups (2.77% [95% CI, 2.40%-3.20%] for aspirin vs 2.96% [95% CI, 2.58%-3.40%] for no aspirin; hazard ratio [HR], 0.94 [95% CI, 0.77-1.15]; P = .54). Aspirin significantly reduced incidence of nonfatal myocardial infarction (0.30 [95% CI, 0.19-0.47] for aspirin vs 0.58 [95% CI, 0.42-0.81] for no aspirin; HR, 0.53 [95% CI, 0.31-0.91]; P = .02) and transient ischemic attack (0.26 [95% CI, 0.16-0.42] for aspirin vs 0.49 [95% CI, 0.35-0.69] for no aspirin; HR, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.32-0.99]; P = .04), and significantly increased the risk of extracranial hemorrhage requiring transfusion or hospitalization (0.86 [95% CI, 0.67-1.11] for aspirin vs 0.51 [95% CI, 0.37-0.72] for no aspirin; HR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.22-2.81]; P = .004).Once-daily, low-dose aspirin did not significantly reduce the risk of the composite outcome of cardiovascular death, nonfatal stroke, and nonfatal myocardial infarction among Japanese patients 60 years or older with atherosclerotic risk factors.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00225849.
- Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 19; 312(19):2059.
- Gaskell and the Physiology of the Heart. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Nov 19; 312(19):2048.