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JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association [journal]
- Spinal Injection Therapy for Low Back Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2013 May 16.:1-2.
- JAMA patient page. Misuse of opioid medication. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2055.
- Pelvic organ prolapse surgery: long-term outcomes and implications for shared decision making. [Comment, Editorial]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2045-6.
- Do TNF inhibitors reduce the risk of myocardial infarction in psoriasis patients? [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2043-4.
To assess whether patients with psoriasis treated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors have a decreased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with those not treated with TNF inhibitors.Retrospective cohort study.Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan.Patients with at least 3 International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification, codes for psoriasis (696.1) or psoriatic arthritis (696.0) (without antecedent MI) between January 1, 2004, and November 30, 2010.Incident MI.Of 8845 patients included, 1673 received a TNF inhibitor for at least 2 months (TNF inhibitor cohort), 2097 were TNF inhibitor naive and received other systemic agents or phototherapy (oral/phototherapy cohort), and 5075 were not treated with TNF inhibitors, other systemic therapies, or phototherapy (topical cohort). The median duration of follow-up was 4.3 years (interquartile range, 2.9, 5.5 years), and the median duration of TNF inhibitor therapy was 685 days (interquartile range, 215, 1312 days). After adjusting for MI risk factors, the TNF inhibitor cohort had a significantly lower hazard of MI compared with the topical cohort (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.79). The incidence of MI in the TNF inhibitor, oral/phototherapy, and topical cohorts were 3.05, 3.85, and 6.73 per 1000 patient-years, respectively.Use of TNF inhibitors for psoriasis was associated with a significant reduction in MI risk and incident rate compared with treatment with topical agents. Use of TNF inhibitors for psoriasis was associated with a non-statistically significant lower MI incident rate compared with treatment with oral agents/phototherapy.
- Do findings on routine examination identify patients at risk for primary open-angle glaucoma? The rational clinical examination systematic review. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2035-42.
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, and its insidious onset is often associated with diagnostic delay. Since glaucoma progression can often be effectively diminished when treated, identifying individuals at risk for glaucoma could potentially lead to earlier detection and prevent associated vision loss.To quantify the diagnostic accuracy of examination findings and relevant risk factors in identifying individuals with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common form of glaucoma in North America.Structured Medline (January 1950-January 2013) search and a hand search of references and citations of retrieved articles yielding 57 articles from 41 studies.Population-based studies of high-level methods relating relevant examination findings of cup-to-disc ratio (CDR), CDR asymmetry, intraocular pressure (IOP), and demographic risk factors to the presence of POAG.The summary prevalence of glaucoma in the highest-quality studies was 2.6% (95% CI, 2.1%-3.1%). Among risk factors evaluated, high myopia (≥6 diopters; odds ratio [OR], 5.7; 95% CI, 3.1-11) and family history (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 2.0-5.6) had the strongest association with glaucoma. Black race (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.4-5.9) and increasing age (especially age >80 years; OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.9-4.3) were also associated with an increased risk. As CDR increased, the likelihood for POAG increased with a likelihood ratio (LR) of 14 (95% CI, 5.3-39) for CDR of 0.7 or greater. Increasing CDR asymmetry was also associated with an increased likelihood for POAG (CDR asymmetry ≥0.3; LR, 7.3; 95% CI, 3.3-16). No single threshold for CDR or asymmetry ruled out glaucoma. The presence of a disc hemorrhage (LR, 12; 95% CI, 2.9-48) was highly suggestive of glaucoma, but the absence of a hemorrhage was nondiagnostic (LR, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.83-0.98). At the commonly used cutoff for high IOP (≥22), the LR was 13 (95% CI, 8.2-17), while lower IOP made glaucoma less likely (LR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.55-0.76). We found no studies of screening examinations performed by generalist physicians in a routine setting.Individual findings of increased CDR, CDR asymmetry, disc hemorrhage, and elevated IOP, as well as demographic risk factors of family history, black race, and advanced age are associated with increased risk for POAG, but their absence does not effectively rule out POAG. The best available data support examination by an ophthalmologist as the most accurate way to detect glaucoma.
- Association of single- vs dual-chamber ICDs with mortality, readmissions, and complications among patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2025-34.
Randomized trials of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention predominantly used single-chamber devices. In clinical practice, patients often receive dual-chamber ICDs, even without clear indications for pacing. The outcomes of dual- vs single-chamber devices are uncertain.To compare outcomes of single- and dual-chamber ICDs for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death.Retrospective cohort study of admissions in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's (NCDR) ICD registry from 2006-2009 that could be linked to Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services fee-for-service Medicare claims data. Patients were included if they received an ICD for primary prevention and did not have a documented indication for pacing. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Adjusted risks of 1-year mortality, all-cause readmission, heart failure readmission, and device-related complications within 90 days were estimated with propensity-score matching based on patient, clinician, and hospital factors.Among 32,034 patients, 12,246 (38%) received a single-chamber device and 19,788 (62%) received a dual-chamber device. In a propensity-matched cohort, rates of complications were lower for single-chamber devices (3.51% vs 4.72%; P < .001; risk difference, -1.20 [95% CI, -1.72 to -0.69]), but device type was not significantly associated with 1-year mortality (unadjusted rate, 9.85% vs 9.77%; hazard ratio [HR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.91 to 1.07]; P = .79), 1-year all-cause hospitalization (unadjusted rate, 43.86% vs 44.83%; HR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.97-1.04]; P = .82), or hospitalization for heart failure (unadjusted rate, 14.73% vs 15.38%; HR, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.99-1.12]; P = .19).Among patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention without indications for pacing, the use of a dual-chamber device compared with a single-chamber device was associated with a higher risk of device-related complications and similar 1-year mortality and hospitalization outcomes. Reasons for preferentially using dual-chamber ICDs in this setting remains unclear.
- Long-term outcomes following abdominal sacrocolpopexy for pelvic organ prolapse. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2016-24.
More than 225 000 surgeries are performed annually in the United States for pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Abdominal sacrocolpopexy is considered the most durable POP surgery, but little is known about safety and long-term effectiveness.To describe anatomic and symptomatic outcomes up to 7 years after abdominal sacrocolpopexy, and to determine whether these are affected by concomitant anti-incontinence surgery (Burch urethropexy).Long-term follow-up of the randomized, masked 2-year Colpopexy and Urinary Reduction Efforts (CARE) trial of women with stress continence who underwent abdominal sacrocolpopexy between 2002 and 2005 for symptomatic POP and also received either concomitant Burch urethropexy or no urethropexy. Ninety-two percent (215/233) of eligible 2-year CARE trial completers were enrolled in the extended CARE study; and 181 (84%) and 126 (59%) completed 5 and 7 years of follow-up, respectively. The median follow-up was 7 years. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Symptomatic POP failure requiring retreatment or self-reported bulge; or anatomic POP failure requiring retreatment or Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification evaluation demonstrating descent of the vaginal apex below the upper third of the vagina, or anterior or posterior vaginal wall prolapse beyond the hymen. Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with more than 1 symptom or interval treatment; or overall UI score of 3 or greater on the Incontinence Severity Index.By year 7, the estimated probabilities of treatment failure (POP, SUI, UI) from parametric survival modeling for the urethropexy group and the no urethropexy group, respectively, were 0.27 and 0.22 for anatomic POP (treatment difference of 0.050; 95% CI, -0.161 to 0.271), 0.29 and 0.24 for symptomatic POP (treatment difference of 0.049; 95% CI, -0.060 to 0.162), 0.48 and 0.34 for composite POP (treatment difference of 0.134; 95% CI, -0.096 to 0.322), 0.62 and 0.77 for SUI (treatment difference of -0.153; 95% CI, -0.268 to 0.030), and 0.75 and 0.81 for overall UI (treatment difference of -0.064; 95% CI, -0.161 to 0.032). Mesh erosion probability at 7 years (estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method) was 10.5% (95% CI, 6.8% to 16.1%).During 7 years of follow-up, abdominal sacrocolpopexy failure rates increased in both groups. Urethropexy prevented SUI longer than no urethropexy. Abdominal sacrocolpopexy effectiveness should be balanced with long-term risks of mesh or suture erosion.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00099372.
- A piece of my mind. Patient's sister, seeking job. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):2003-4.
- Contraceptives and the law: a view from a Catholic medical institution. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):1999-2000.
- Contraception is a fundamental primary care service. [Journal Article]
- JAMA 2013 May 15; 309(19):1997-8.