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JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association [journal]
- Clinical Exome Sequencing for Genetic Identification of Rare Mendelian Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 18.
Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is rapidly becoming a common molecular diagnostic test for individuals with rare genetic disorders.To report on initial clinical indications for CES referrals and molecular diagnostic rates for different indications and for different test types.Clinical exome sequencing was performed on 814 consecutive patients with undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions at the University of California, Los Angeles, Clinical Genomics Center between January 2012 and August 2014. Clinical exome sequencing was conducted as trio-CES (both parents and their affected child sequenced simultaneously) to effectively detect de novo and compound heterozygous variants or as proband-CES (only the affected individual sequenced) when parental samples were not available.Clinical indications for CES requests, molecular diagnostic rates of CES overall and for phenotypic subgroups, and differences in molecular diagnostic rates between trio-CES and proband-CES.Of the 814 cases, the overall molecular diagnosis rate was 26% (213 of 814; 95% CI, 23%-29%). The molecular diagnosis rate for trio-CES was 31% (127 of 410 cases; 95% CI, 27%-36%) and 22% (74 of 338 cases; 95% CI, 18%-27%) for proband-CES. In cases of developmental delay in children (<5 years, n = 138), the molecular diagnosis rate was 41% (45 of 109; 95% CI, 32%-51%) for trio-CES cases and 9% (2 of 23, 95% CI, 1%-28%) for proband-CES cases. The significantly higher diagnostic yield (P value = .002; odds ratio, 7.4 [95% CI, 1.6-33.1]) of trio-CES was due to the identification of de novo and compound heterozygous variants.In this sample of patients with undiagnosed, suspected genetic conditions, trio-CES was associated with higher molecular diagnostic yield than proband-CES or traditional molecular diagnostic methods. Additional studies designed to validate these findings and to explore the effect of this approach on clinical and economic outcomes are warranted.
- Molecular Findings Among Patients Referred for Clinical Whole-Exome Sequencing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 18.
Clinical whole-exome sequencing is increasingly used for diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected genetic disorders.To perform clinical whole-exome sequencing and report (1) the rate of molecular diagnosis among phenotypic groups, (2) the spectrum of genetic alterations contributing to disease, and (3) the prevalence of medically actionable incidental findings such as FBN1 mutations causing Marfan syndrome.Observational study of 2000 consecutive patients with clinical whole-exome sequencing analyzed between June 2012 and August 2014. Whole-exome sequencing tests were performed at a clinical genetics laboratory in the United States. Results were reported by clinical molecular geneticists certified by the American Board of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Tests were ordered by the patient's physician. The patients were primarily pediatric (1756 [88%]; mean age, 6 years; 888 females [44%], 1101 males [55%], and 11 fetuses [1% gender unknown]), demonstrating diverse clinical manifestations most often including nervous system dysfunction such as developmental delay.Whole-exome sequencing diagnosis rate overall and by phenotypic category, mode of inheritance, spectrum of genetic events, and reporting of incidental findings.A molecular diagnosis was reported for 504 patients (25.2%) with 58% of the diagnostic mutations not previously reported. Molecular diagnosis rates for each phenotypic category were 143/526 (27.2%; 95% CI, 23.5%-31.2%) for the neurological group, 282/1147 (24.6%; 95% CI, 22.1%-27.2%) for the neurological plus other organ systems group, 30/83 (36.1%; 95% CI, 26.1%-47.5%) for the specific neurological group, and 49/244 (20.1%; 95% CI, 15.6%-25.8%) for the nonneurological group. The Mendelian disease patterns of the 527 molecular diagnoses included 280 (53.1%) autosomal dominant, 181 (34.3%) autosomal recessive (including 5 with uniparental disomy), 65 (12.3%) X-linked, and 1 (0.2%) mitochondrial. Of 504 patients with a molecular diagnosis, 23 (4.6%) had blended phenotypes resulting from 2 single gene defects. About 30% of the positive cases harbored mutations in disease genes reported since 2011. There were 95 medically actionable incidental findings in genes unrelated to the phenotype but with immediate implications for management in 92 patients (4.6%), including 59 patients (3%) with mutations in genes recommended for reporting by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.Whole-exome sequencing provided a potential molecular diagnosis for 25% of a large cohort of patients referred for evaluation of suspected genetic conditions, including detection of rare genetic events and new mutations contributing to disease. The yield of whole-exome sequencing may offer advantages over traditional molecular diagnostic approaches in certain patients.
- Is the United States Prepared for Ebola? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 17.
- Oral, Capsulized, Frozen Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Relapsing Clostridium difficile Infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 11.
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective in treating relapsing or refractory Clostridium difficile infection, but practical barriers and safety concerns have prevented its widespread use.To evaluate the safety and rate of resolution of diarrhea following administration of frozen FMT capsules from prescreened unrelated donors to patients with recurrent C difficile infection.Open-label, single-group, preliminary feasibility study conducted from August 2013 through June 2014 at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. Twenty patients (median age, 64.5 years; range, 11-89 years) with at least 3 episodes of mild to moderate C difficile infection and failure of a 6- to 8-week taper with vancomycin or at least 2 episodes of severe C difficile infection requiring hospitalization were enrolled.Healthy volunteers were screened as potential donors and FMT capsules were generated and stored at -80°C (-112°F). Patients received 15 capsules on 2 consecutive days and were followed up for symptom resolution and adverse events for up to 6 months.The primary end points were safety, assessed by adverse events of grade 2 or above, and clinical resolution of diarrhea with no relapse at 8 weeks. Secondary end points included improvement in subjective well-being per standardized questionnaires and daily number of bowel movements.No serious adverse events attributed to FMT were observed. Resolution of diarrhea was achieved in 14 patients (70%; 95% CI, 47%-85%) after a single capsule-based FMT. All 6 nonresponders were re-treated; 4 had resolution of diarrhea, resulting in an overall 90% (95% CI, 68%-98%) rate of clinical resolution of diarrhea (18/20). Daily number of bowel movements decreased from a median of 5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3-6) the day prior to administration to 2 (IQR, 1-3) at day 3 (P = .001) and 1 (IQR, 1-2) at 8 weeks (P < .001). Self-ranked health scores improved significantly on a scale of 1 to 10 from a median of 5 (IQR, 5-7) for overall health and 4.5 (IQR, 3-7) for gastrointestinal-specific health on the day prior to FMT to 8 (IQR, 7-9) after FMT administration for both overall and gastrointestinal health (P = .001). Patients needing a second treatment to obtain resolution of diarrhea had lower pretreatment health scores (median, 6.5 [IQR, 5-7.3] vs 5 [IQR, 2.8-5]; P = .02).This preliminary study among patients with relapsing C difficile infection provides data on adverse events and rates of resolution of diarrhea following administration of FMT using frozen encapsulated inoculum from unrelated donors. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results and to evaluate long-term safety and effectiveness.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01914731.
- Critiquing US Health Care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 16.
- How the Opium Habit Is Acquired. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 15; 312(15):1597.
- A Pathologist Drives Home. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 15; 312(15):1595.
- Clarification of Inaccurate Statement. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 15; 312(15):1593.
- Errors in Clinical Crossroads. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- JAMA 2014 Oct 15; 312(15):1593.