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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [journal]
- Texting. [Letter]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):814.
- Early life stress and trauma and enhanced limbic activation to emotionally valenced faces in depressed and healthy children. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):800-813.e10.
Previous studies have examined the relationships between structural brain characteristics and early life stress in adults. However, there is limited evidence for functional brain variation associated with early life stress in children. We hypothesized that early life stress and trauma would be associated with increased functional brain activation response to negative emotional faces in children with and without a history of depression.Psychiatric diagnosis and life events in children (starting at age 3-5 years) were assessed in a longitudinal study. A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study acquired data (N = 115 at ages 7-12, 51% girls) on functional brain response to fearful, sad, and happy faces relative to neutral faces. We used a region-of-interest mask within cortico-limbic areas and conducted regression analyses and repeated-measures analysis of covariance.Greater activation responses to fearful, sad, and happy faces in the amygdala and its neighboring regions were found in children with greater life stress. Moreover, an association between life stress and left hippocampal and globus pallidus activity depended on children's diagnostic status. Finally, all children with greater life trauma showed greater bilateral amygdala and cingulate activity specific to sad faces but not the other emotional faces, although right amygdala activity was moderated by psychiatric status.These findings suggest that limbic hyperactivity may be a biomarker of early life stress and trauma in children and may have implications in the risk trajectory for depression and other stress-related disorders. However, this pattern varied based on emotion type and history of psychopathology.
- Different mechanisms of white matter abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):790-799.e3.
Literature regarding white matter (WM) abnormalities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is sparse and inconsistent. In this article, we shed more light on WM microstructure in ADHD, its association with symptom count, and the familiality of WM abnormalities in ADHD.Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in a large sample of individuals with ADHD (n = 170), their unaffected siblings (n = 80), and healthy controls (n = 107), aged 8 to 30 years. Extensive categorical as well as dimensional data regarding ADHD status and symptom count were collected. A whole-brain voxelwise approach was used to investigate associations between ADHD status and symptom count and WM microstructure, as measured by fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD).Individuals with ADHD showed decreased FA and decreased MD in several widespread, non-overlapping brain regions. In contrast, higher ADHD symptom count was consistently associated with increased FA and decreased MD in the ADHD group. Unaffected siblings resembled individuals in the ADHD group with regard to decreased FA but had MD similar to that in healthy controls. Results were not confounded by socioeconomic status, the presence of comorbidities, or a history of medication use.Our results indicate widespread disturbances in WM microstructure in ADHD, which seem to be driven by 2 different mechanisms. Decreased FA in ADHD may be due to a familial vulnerability to the disorder, whereas a second mechanism may drive the association between ADHD symptom count and both higher FA and lower MD. Such different mechanisms may play an important role in the inconsistencies found in the current literature.
- Mapping the development of the Basal Ganglia in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):780-789.e11.
The basal ganglia are implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but little is known of their development in the disorder. Here, we mapped basal ganglia development from childhood into late adolescence using methods that define surface morphology with an exquisite level of spatial resolution.Surface morphology of the basal ganglia was defined from neuroanatomic magnetic resonance images acquired in 270 youth with DSM-IV-defined ADHD and 270 age- and sex-matched typically developing controls; 220 individuals were scanned at least twice. Using linear mixed model regression, we mapped developmental trajectories from age 4 through 19 years at approximately 7,500 surface vertices in the striatum and globus pallidus.In the ventral striatal surfaces, there was a diagnostic difference in developmental trajectories (t = 5.6, p < .0001). Here, the typically developing group showed surface area expansion with age (estimated rate of increase of 0.54 mm(2) per year, standard error [SE] 0.29 mm(2) per year), whereas the ADHD group showed progressive contraction (decrease of 1.75 mm(2) per year, SE 0.28 mm(2) per year). The ADHD group also showed significant, fixed surface area reductions in dorsal striatal regions, which were detected in childhood at study entry and persisted into adolescence. There was no significant association between history of psychostimulant treatment and developmental trajectories.Progressive, atypical contraction of the ventral striatal surfaces characterizes ADHD, localizing to regions pivotal in reward processing. This contrasts with fixed, nonprogressive contraction of dorsal striatal surfaces in regions that support executive function and motor planning.
- Risk and protective factors associated with substance use disorders in adolescents with first-episode mania. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):771-9.
Adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) are more likely to develop substance use disorders (SUDs) than adolescents without psychiatric disorders; however, to our knowledge, specific risk factors underlying this relationship have not been prospectively examined. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of developing SUDs after a first manic episode.Participants aged 12 to 20 years and hospitalized with their first manic episode associated with bipolar I disorder (BP-I) were recruited as part of the University of Cincinnati First-Episode Mania Study and prospectively evaluated for patterns of substance use. Follow-up ranged between 17 and 283 weeks (mean = 113 weeks, SD = 71.9 weeks). Demographic and clinical variables were compared between adolescents with and without SUDs.Of the 103 adolescents with BD, 49 (48%) either had a SUD at baseline or developed one during follow-up. Of the 71 participants who did not have a SUD at study entry, 17 (24%) developed one during follow-up (median = 40 weeks). Later onset of BD, manic (versus mixed) mood episode, and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders were associated with an increased risk of developing a SUD in univariate analyses. Adolescents treated with psychostimulant treatment before their first manic episode were significantly less likely to develop a SUD independent of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms were the strongest predictors of SUD development.Our results confirm high rates of SUD in adolescents with BD. In addition, our findings identify potential risk factors associated with SUDs in adolescents with BD. These data are preliminary in nature and should be explored further in future studies.
- Biological overlap of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder: evidence from copy number variants. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):761-770.e26.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur and share genetic risks. The aim of this analysis was to determine more broadly whether ADHD and ASD share biological underpinnings.We compared copy number variant (CNV) data from 727 children with ADHD and 5,081 population controls to data from 996 individuals with ASD and an independent set of 1,287 controls. Using pathway analyses, we investigated whether CNVs observed in individuals with ADHD have an impact on genes in the same biological pathways as on those observed in individuals with ASD.The results suggest that the biological pathways affected by CNVs in ADHD overlap with those affected by CNVs in ASD more than would be expected by chance. Moreover, this was true even when specific CNV regions common to both disorders were excluded from the analysis. After correction for multiple testing, genes involved in 3 biological processes (nicotinic acetylcholine receptor signalling pathway, cell division, and response to drug) showed significant enrichment for case CNV hits in the combined ADHD and ASD sample.The results of this study indicate the presence of significant overlap of shared biological processes disrupted by large rare CNVs in children with these 2 neurodevelopmental conditions.
- Three-year latent class trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a clinical sample not selected for ADHD. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):745-60.
This study aims to examine trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample.The LAMS study assessed 684 children aged 6 to 12 years with the Kiddie-Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (K-SADS) and rating scales semi-annually for 3 years. Although they were selected for elevated manic symptoms, 526 children had baseline ADHD diagnoses. With growth mixture modeling (GMM), we separately analyzed inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive symptoms, covarying baseline age. Multiple standard methods determined optimal fit. The χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance compared resulting latent classes/trajectories on clinical characteristics and medication.Three latent class trajectories best described inattentive symptoms, and 4 classes best described hyperactive/impulsive symptoms. Inattentive trajectories maintained their relative position over time. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms had 2 consistent trajectories (least and most severe). A third trajectory (4.5%) started mild, then escalated; and a fourth (14%) started severe but improved dramatically. The improving trajectory was associated with the highest rate of ADHD and lowest rate of bipolar diagnoses. Three-fourths of the mildest inattention class were also in the mildest hyperactive/impulsive class; 72% of the severest inattentive class were in the severest hyperactive/impulsive class, but the severest inattention class also included 62% of the improving hyperactive-impulsive class.An ADHD rather than bipolar diagnosis prognosticates a better course of hyperactive/impulsive, but not inattentive, symptoms. High overlap of relative severity between inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity confirms the link between these symptom clusters. Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms wane more over time. Group means are insufficient to understand individual ADHD prognosis. A small subgroup deteriorates over time in hyperactivity/impulsivity and needs better treatments than currently provided.
- Impact of the DSM-5 Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Age-of-Onset Criterion in the US Adolescent Population. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):736-44.
The present study aims to compare the prevalence and clinical correlates of DSM-IV versus DSM-5-defined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and subtypes in a nationally representative sample of US youth based on the age-of-onset criterion.The sample includes 1,894 participants 12 to 15 years of age from cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) surveys conducted from 2001 to 2004. Data on DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for ADHD were derived from administration of the parental ADHD module of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV (DISC-IV).Extension of the age-of-onset criterion from 7 to 12 years led to an increase in the prevalence rate of ADHD from 7.38% (DSM-IV) to 10.84% (DSM-5). Youth with later age of onset did not differ from those with earlier age of onset in terms of severity and patterns of comorbidity. However, the group with later age of onset was more likely to be from lower income and ethnic minority families.The comparability of the clinical significance of the early and later age-of-onset groups supports the DSM-5 extension of the age-of-onset criterion in ADHD.
- Randomized efficacy trial of two psychotherapies for depression in youth with inflammatory bowel disease. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):726-35.
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with high rates of depression. This study compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to supportive nondirective therapy (SNDT) in treating youth with comorbid IBD and depression.Youth (51% female and 49% male; age 9-17 years, mean age 14.3 years) with depression and Crohn's disease (n = 161) or ulcerative colitis (n = 56) were randomly assigned to a 3-month course of CBT or SNDT. The primary outcome was comparative reduction in depressive symptom severity; secondary outcomes were depression remission, increase in depression response, and improved health-related adjustment and IBD activity.A total of 178 participants (82%) completed the 3-month intervention. Both psychotherapies resulted in significant reductions in total Children's Depression Rating Scale Revised score (37.3% for CBT and 31.9% for SNDT), but the difference between the 2 treatments was not significant (p = .16). There were large pre-post effect sizes for each treatment (d = 1.31 for CBT and d = 1.30 for SNDT). More than 65% of youth had a complete remission of depression at 3 months, with no difference between CBT and SNDT (67.8% and 63.2%, respectively). Compared to SNDT, CBT was associated with a greater reduction in IBD activity (p = .04) but no greater improvement on the Clinical Global Assessment Scale (p = .06) and health-related quality of life (IMPACT-III scale) (p = .07).This is the first randomized controlled study to suggest improvements in depression severity, global functioning, quality of life, and disease activity in a physically ill pediatric cohort treated with psychotherapy. Clinical trial registration information-Reducing Depressive Symptoms in Physically Ill Youth; http://clinical trials.gov; NCT00534911.
- How Evidence on the Developmental Nature of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Can Increase the Validity and Utility of Diagnostic Criteria. [Editorial]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Jul; 53(7):723-5.