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J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry [journal]
- College and its vagaries. [Letter]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):920.
- Copy number variation in obsessive-compulsive disorder and tourette syndrome: a cross-disorder study. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):910-9.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Tourette syndrome (TS) are heritable neurodevelopmental disorders with a partially shared genetic etiology. This study represents the first genome-wide investigation of large (>500 kb), rare (<1%) copy number variants (CNVs) in OCD and the largest genome-wide CNV analysis in TS to date.The primary analyses used a cross-disorder design for 2,699 case patients (1,613 ascertained for OCD, 1,086 ascertained for TS) and 1,789 controls. Parental data facilitated a de novo analysis in 348 OCD trios.Although no global CNV burden was detected in the cross-disorder analysis or in secondary, disease-specific analyses, there was a 3.3-fold increased burden of large deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders (p = .09). Half of these neurodevelopmental deletions were located in a single locus, 16p13.11 (5 case patient deletions: 0 control deletions, p = .08 in the current study, p = .025 compared to published controls). Three 16p13.11 deletions were confirmed de novo, providing further support for the etiological significance of this region. The overall OCD de novo rate was 1.4%, which is intermediate between published rates in controls (0.7%) and in individuals with autism or schizophrenia (2-4%).Several converging lines of evidence implicate 16p13.11 deletions in OCD, with weaker evidence for a role in TS. The trend toward increased overall neurodevelopmental CNV burden in TS and OCD suggests that deletions previously associated with other neurodevelopmental disorders may also contribute to these phenotypes.
- White matter correlates of adolescent depression: structural evidence for frontolimbic disconnectivity. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):899-909.e7.
Despite the significant prevalence of adolescent depression, little is known about the neuroanatomical basis of this disorder. Functional dysregulation in frontolimbic circuitry has been suggested as a key neural correlate of adult and adolescent depression impeding emotional regulation. However, less is known about whether this dysregulation is overlaid on impaired white matter microstructure. Guided by neuroimaging findings, we test the a priori hypotheses that adolescent depression is associated with alterations in white matter microstructure in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and cingulum bundles.Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) data were obtained on 52 unmedicated adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 42 matched controls. We calculated fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD) for bilateral UF and cingulum. We also completed a voxelwise comparison of participants with depression and control participants using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS).Adolescents with depression had significantly lower FA and higher RD in bilateral UF; no significant differences were observed in cingulum. TBSS results additionally revealed lower FA values in the white matter associated with the limbic-cortical-striatal-thalamic circuit, corpus callosum, and anterior and superior corona radiata.Unmedicated adolescent depression is associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in emotion regulatory networks, which may underlie the functional differences in frontolimbic circuitry characterizing depressive disorder. Given the relatively recent onset of depression in our sample, our findings in the context of the current literature provide preliminary evidence that reduced fractional anisotropy in the UF could be a predisposing risk factor for depression.
- Crime and Psychiatric Disorders Among Youth in the US Population: An Analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):888-898.e2.
Current knowledge regarding psychiatric disorders and crime in youth is limited to juvenile justice and community samples. This study examined relationships between psychiatric disorders and self-reported crime involvement in a sample of youth representative of the US population.The National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement (N = 10,123; ages 13-17 years; 2001-2004) was used to examine the relationship between lifetime DSM-IV-based diagnoses, reported crime (property, violent, other), and arrest history. Logistic regression compared the odds of reported crime involvement with specific psychiatric disorders to those without any diagnoses, and examined the odds of crime by psychiatric comorbidity.Prevalence of crime was 18.4%. Youth with lifetime psychiatric disorders, compared to no disorders, had significantly greater odds of crime, including violent crime. For violent crime resulting in arrest, conduct disorder (CD) (odds ratio OR = 57.5; 95% CI = 30.4, 108.8), alcohol use disorders (OR = 19.5; 95% CI = 8.8, 43.2), and drug use disorders (OR = 16.1; 95% CI = 9.3, 27.7) had the greatest odds with similar findings for violent crime with no arrest. Psychiatric comorbidity increased the odds of crime. Youth with 3 or more diagnoses (16.0% of population) accounted for 54.1% of those reporting arrest for violent crime. Youth with at least 1 diagnosis committed 85.8% of crime, which was reduced to 67.9% by removing individuals with CD. Importantly, 88.2% of youth with mental illness reported never having committed any crime.Our findings highlight the importance of improving access to mental health services for youthful offenders in community settings, given the substantial associations found between mental illness and crime in this nationally representative epidemiological sample.
- Parent training: equivalent improvement in externalizing behavior for children with and without familial risk. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):879-887.e2.
The Incredible Years Series intervention has demonstrated efficacy for decreasing conduct disorder (CD) symptomatology in clinically affected youth in multiple randomized controlled trials. Because children with family psychiatric histories of antisocial behavior are at markedly increased risk for enduring symptoms of antisocial behavior (compared with their counterparts with a negative family history), the authors examined whether intervention effects across studies would prevail in that subgroup or would be relatively restricted to children without genetic risk.A reanalysis was conducted of 5 randomized controlled trials of Incredible Years involving 280 clinically affected children 3 to 8 years of age for whom a family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior in first- and second-degree relatives was ascertained from at least 1 parent.Incredible Years equally benefitted children with CD with and without family psychiatric histories of externalizing behavior. Family psychiatric history of externalizing behavior and parental depressive symptomatology predicted greater severity of CD symptomatology at baseline.The beneficial effects of IY are evident in children with CD, irrespective of whether their conditions are more or less attributable to inherited susceptibility to enduring antisocial syndromes. A next phase of research should address whether earlier implementation of group-based education for parents of young children at increased familial risk for antisocial behavior syndromes-before the development of disruptive patterns of behavior-would result in even more pronounced effects and thereby constitute a cost-effective, targeted, preventive intervention for CD.
- Co-rumination and co-problem solving in the daily lives of adolescents with major depressive disorder. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):869-78.
This study examines differences in the prevalence and nature of co-rumination during real-world social interactions with peers and parents among adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) compared to healthy controls.A total of 60 youth (29 with current MDD and 31 controls without psychopathology) completed a self-report measure of co-rumination and a 3-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol that measured the nature of face-to-face social interactions with peers and parents after a negative event in the adolescents' daily lives. Specifically, EMA was used to assess rates of problem talk, including both co-rumination and co-problem solving. Group differences in self-report and EMA measures were examined.Adolescents with MDD reported co-ruminating more often than adolescents with no Axis 1 disorders during daily interactions with both parents (Cohen's d = 0.78) and peers (d = 1.14), and also reported more co-rumination via questionnaire (d = 0.58). Adolescents with MDD engaged in co-problem solving with peers less often than did healthy controls (d = 0.78), but no group differences were found for rates of co-problem solving with parents.Results are consistent with previous research linking co-rumination and depression in adolescence and extend these self-report-based findings to assessment in an ecologically valid context. Importantly, the results support that MDD youth tend to co-ruminate more and to problem-solve less with peers in their daily lives compared to healthy youth, and that co-rumination also extends to parental relationships. Interventions focused on decreasing co-rumination with peers and parents and improving problem-solving skills with peers may be helpful for preventing and treating adolescent depression.
- Cognitive remediation therapy in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: a randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):859-68.
Cognitive impairment is an enduring and functionally relevant feature of early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). Cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) improves cognition and functional outcome in adults with schizophrenia, although data in adolescents with EOS remain scarce. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy of CRT in improving cognition and functional outcomes in a sample of symptomatically stable but cognitively disabled adolescents with EOS.We performed a randomized, controlled trial of individually delivered CRT plus treatment-as-usual compared with treatment-as-usual (TAU). Fifty adolescents with EOS were randomly assigned to receive CRT (n = 25) or TAU (n = 25) and were included in an intention-to-treat analysis. Clinical symptoms and cognitive and functional performance were assessed before and after treatment in both groups and after 3 months in the CRT group. Cognitive domains were defined according to the Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) consensus battery and averaged in a global cognitive composite score.After CRT, significant improvements were found in verbal memory and executive functions, with medium-to-large effect sizes (ES). The derived cognitive composite score showed an improvement after the treatment, with a large ES. This change was reliable in more than two-thirds of the treated patients. Medium-sized ES were found for improvements after CRT in daily living and adaptive functioning, whereas large ES were observed for improvements in family burden. With the exception of functional gains, these changes were maintained after 3 months.CRT appears to be a useful intervention strategy for adolescents with EOS. Cognitive improvements can be achieved through CRT, although further research is warranted to determine the durability of functional gains. Clinical trial registration information-Cognitive Remediation Therapy (CRT) in Adolescents With EOS; www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT01701609.
- Family-focused treatment for adolescents and young adults at high risk for psychosis: results of a randomized trial. [Journal Article]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):848-58.
Longitudinal studies have begun to clarify the phenotypic characteristics of adolescents and young adults at clinical high risk for psychosis. This 8-site randomized trial examined whether a 6-month program of family psychoeducation was effective in reducing the severity of attenuated positive and negative psychotic symptoms and enhancing functioning among individuals at high risk.Adolescents and young adults (mean age 17.4 ± 4.1 years) with attenuated positive psychotic symptoms, brief and intermittent psychosis, or genetic risk with functional deterioration were randomly assigned to 18 sessions of family-focused therapy for individuals at clinical high risk (FFT-CHR) in 6 months or 3 sessions of family psychoeducation (enhanced care [EC]). FFT-CHR included psychoeducation about early signs of psychosis, stress management, communication training, and problem-solving skills training, whereas EC focused on symptom prevention. Independent evaluators assessed participants at baseline and 6 months on positive and negative symptoms and social-role functioning.Of 129 participants, 102 (79.1%) were followed up at 6 months. Participants in FFT-CHR showed greater improvements in attenuated positive symptoms over 6 months than participants in EC (F1,97 = 5.49, p = .02). Negative symptoms improved independently of psychosocial treatments. Changes in psychosocial functioning depended on age: participants more than 19 years of age showed more role improvement in FFT-CHR, whereas participants between 16 and 19 years of age showed more role improvement in EC. The results were independent of concurrent pharmacotherapy.Interventions that focus on improving family relationships may have prophylactic efficacy in individuals at high risk for psychosis. Future studies should examine the specificity of effects of family intervention compared to individual therapy of the same duration and frequency. Clinical trial registration information-Prevention Trial of Family Focused Treatment in Youth at Risk for Psychosis; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01907282.
- Behavioral Interventions in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials Across Multiple Outcome Domains. [REVIEW]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):835-847.e5.
Behavioral interventions are recommended as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments. However, a recent meta-analysis found no effects on core ADHD symptoms when raters were probably blind to treatment allocation. The present analysis is extended to a broader range of child and parent outcomes.A systematic search in PubMed, Ovid, Web of Knowledge, ERIC, and CINAHAL databases (up to February 5, 2013) identified published randomized controlled trials measuring a range of patient and parent outcomes for children and adolescents diagnosed with ADHD (or who met validated cutoffs on rating scales).Thirty-two of 2,057 nonduplicate screened records were analyzed. For assessments made by individuals closest to the treatment setting (usually unblinded), there were significant improvements in parenting quality (standardized mean difference [SMD] for positive parenting 0.68; SMD for negative parenting 0.57), parenting self-concept (SMD 0.37), and child ADHD (SMD 0.35), conduct problems (SMD 0.26), social skills (SMD 0.47), and academic performance (SMD 0.28). With probably blinded assessments, significant effects persisted for parenting (SMD for positive parenting 0.63; SMD for negative parenting 0.43) and conduct problems (SMD 0.31).In contrast to the lack of blinded evidence of ADHD symptom decrease, behavioral interventions have positive effects on a range of other outcomes when used with patients with ADHD. There is blinded evidence that they improve parenting and decrease childhood conduct problems. These effects also may feed through into a more positive parenting self-concept but not improved parent mental well-being.
- Adolescents Are Like Adults (Sort of): Psychosocial Interventions for Adolescents With or Vulnerable to Schizophrenia. [Editorial]
- J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014 Aug; 53(8):833-4.