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J Asian Nat Prod Res [journal]
- Anti-inflammatory activity of fisetin in human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Oct; 16(10):1009-17.
Fisetin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid; however, its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not yet understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of fisetin and its association with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-beta pathways in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cell signaling, cell viability, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression of HGFs treated with various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 μM) of fisetin were measured by cell viability assay (MTT), Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on COX-2. We found that fisetin significantly reduced the synthesis and expression of prostaglandin E2 in HGFs treated with LPS. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK was suppressed consistently by fisetin in HGFs treated with LPS. The data indicate that fisetin inhibits MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability. These findings may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of the effect of fisetin on periodontal disease.
- Two new compounds from the dry leaves of Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) keng f. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Sep; 16(9):930-5.
Two new compounds, xylitol 1-O-(6'-O-p-hydroxylbenzoyl)-glucopyranoside (1) and bambulignan B (2), together with three known ones gastrodin (3), glucovanillin (4), and rel-(7S,7'R,8R,8'S)-4,4'-dihydroxy-3,3',5,5'-tetramethoxy-7,7'-epoxyligna-9,9'-diol-9(or)9'-O-β-glucopyranoside (5), were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the dry leaves of Pleioblastus amarus (Keng) keng f. Their structures were determined by UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, CD, and 1D and 2D NMR data analyses as well as GC experiments.
- Anti-inflammatory amide alkaloids from the stems of Clausena emarginata. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Oct; 16(10):971-5.
Two new amide alkaloids, clauemaramide A (1) and clauemaramide B (2), and three known analogs were isolated from the stems of Clausena emarginata. Their structures were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. The absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were confirmed by CD spectroscopy. Compound 3 showed moderate inhibitory effects on LPS-induced NO production (IC50 value = 4.9 μM).
- Triterpenoid saponins from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida and their inhibitory activities on LPS-induced NO production in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Sep; 16(9):910-21.
A new ursane-type triterpenoid saponin, flaccidoside IV (1), and three new oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins, flaccidosides V-VII (2-4), along with 17 known saponins (5-21), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemone flaccida. The structures of the new triterpenoid saponins were determined based on spectroscopic analyses and chemical methods. All the isolated saponins were tested for their inhibitory activities on lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 macrophages, and several bisdesmosidic oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins (2, 7, and 10) showed significant inhibitory activities, which indicated they had potential anti-inflammatory activities under their noncytotoxic concentrations in vitro.
- New cytotoxic sesquiterpene lactones from Anthemis scrobicularis. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Sep; 16(9):922-9.
Four new sesquiterpene lactones, 4α-hydroxy-guaia-10(14),11(13)-diene-12,6α-olide (1), 4α-hydroxy-9α-acetoxy-guaia-1(10),2-diene-12,6α-olide (4), 4α-hydroxy-9β-acetoxy-guaia-1(10),2-diene-12,6α-olide (5), and 1α,4α-dihydroxy-9α-acetoxy-guaia-10(14),2-diene-12,6α-olide (6), were isolated from the aerial parts of Anthemis scrobicularis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of their IR, NMR, and MS spectroscopic data. In addition, two known sesquiterpene lactones micheliolide (2) and achillin (3) were also isolated. The cytotoxicity of some of the isolated compounds was tested against HCT 116, HepG-2, and MCF-7 cell lines. Micheliolide and 4α-hydroxy-guaia-10(14),11(13)-diene-12,6α-olide showed pronounced inhibitory activity while 4α-hydroxy-9α-acetoxy-guaia-1(10),2-diene-12,6α-olide showed weak activity.
- New steroidal glycosides from the rhizome of Anemarrhena asphodeloides. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Sep; 16(9):901-9.
Two new steroidal saponins, timosaponin X (1) and timosaponin Y (2), and one new pregnane glycoside, timopregnane B (3), were isolated from the rhizomes of Anemarrhena asphodeloides, as well as three known compounds 25S-timosaponin BII (4), protodesgalactotigonin (5), and timosaponin BII-a (6) isolated from this plant for the first time. By the detailed analysis of 1D, 2D NMR, MS spectra, and chemical evidences, the structures of new compounds were elucidated as 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5β-22-methoxy-furost-3β,26-diol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-l-arabinopyranoside (1), 5β-pseudo-spirost-3β,15α,23α-triol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (2), (5β,17α)-Δ(16(17))-20-one-pregn-2β,3β-diol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-d-galactopyranoside (3).
- l-3-n-Butylphthalide attenuates β-amyloid-induced toxicity in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through regulating mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis and MAPK signaling. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Aug; 16(8):854-64.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ), the hallmark of AD, invokes a cascade of mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually leads to neuronal death. l-3-n-Butylphthalide (l-NBP) has shown the potent neuroprotective effects in stroke and AD animal models. The present study is to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of l-NBP on Aβ25-35-induced neuronal injury and the possible mechanism in the human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Our results showed that l-NBP significantly attenuated Aβ25-35-induced cell death and reduced neuronal apoptosis. l-NBP significantly inhibited Aβ25-35-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, and reactive oxygen species production. Furthermore, l-NBP could partially reverse the elevations of Aβ25-35-induced active caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c expressions, and the downregulation of anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2. Moreover, l-NBP markedly inhibited the activations of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. These results demonstrated that l-NBP was capable of protecting neuronal cells from Aβ25-35-induced toxicity through a mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway. Thus, l-NBP shows promising candidate of multi-target neuronal protective agent for the treatment of AD.
- Three new compounds from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Aug; 16(8):819-24.
Three new compounds, 3,6-dihydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (1), 3,4,5,6-tetrahydroxy-1,8-naphalic anhydride (2), and methyl (7E,9E)-6,11-dioxononadeca-7,9-dienoate (3), were isolated from the stem bark of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including 1D and 2D NMR, HR-TOF-MS, and by comparison with the literature data.
- Effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid neurotransmitters in rat striatum after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Aug 27.:1-8.
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ligustrazine on levels of amino acid transmitters in the extracellular fluid of striatum following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microdialysis cannula guide was implanted into the right striatum. After recovery, animals underwent a sham operation or middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Those that developed cerebral ischemia after MCAO were randomized to receive propylene glycol salt water and ligustrazine respectively. Striatal fluid samples were collected from all animals at 15-min intervals after treatment and were subjected to HPLC analysis of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, taurine, and γ-amino butyric acid. Upon the last sample collection, animals were sacrificed and brain tissue specimens were collected for triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining and NeuN staining. Compared with the sham operation, MCAO induced significant neurological deficits and increased striatal concentrations of the four neurotransmitters assessed in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Ligustrazine effectively attenuated the detrimental effects of MCAO on the brain. These observations suggest that ligustrazine as a novel cerebral infarction-protective agent may have potential clinical implications for I/R-related brain damage.
- Aromatic acid derivatives from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii. [Journal Article]
- J Asian Nat Prod Res 2014 Sep; 16(9):891-900.
Seven new aromatic acid derivatives (1-7), together with five known analogs, were isolated from the lateral roots of Aconitum carmichaelii. Structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods as 4-methyl ( - )-(R)-hydroxyeucomate (1), 4-butyl ( - )-(R)-hydroxyeucomate (2), 4-butyl-1-methyl (+)-(R)-2-O-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzoyl)malate (3), 1-butyl-4-methyl (+)-(R)-2-O-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzoyl)malate (4), dimethyl (+)-(R)-2-O-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzoyl)malate (5), dimethyl (+)-(R)-2-O-(4'-hydroxybenzoyl)malate (6), and methyl ( ± )-3-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-sulfopropionate (7), respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 are 2-benzylmalates (eucomate derivatives), 3-6 belong to 2-O-benzoylmalates, and 7 is a rare phenylpropionate containing a sulfonic acid group. The absolute configurations of eucomate derivatives were confirmed by X-ray crystallographic analysis of 4-methyl eucomate (11).