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J Biomed Mater Res A [journal]
- Cartilage repair by local delivery of transforming growth factor-β1 or bone morphogenetic protein-2 from a novel, segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic bilayered scaffold. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 14.
This study aimed to analyze the in vitro and in vivo release kinetics and evaluate the grades of repair induced by either the release of 50 ng of transforming growth factor-β1 or 2.5 or 5 μg of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) from a bilayer scaffold of segmented polyurethane/polylactic-co-glycolic (SPU/PLGA) in osteochondral defects, in a rabbit model. The scaffold consisted of a porous, bone-directed PLGA layer, overlaid with a cartilage-directed layer of growth factor (GF)-loaded PLGA microspheres, dispersed in a matrix of SPU. The PLGA porous layer was fabricated by gas foaming. Microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion method. SPU was synthesized by following the two-step method. GF release kinetics were assessed using iodinated ((125) I) GFs. The in vivo release profiles of both GFs fitted to zero-order kinetics, demonstrating a consistently good control of their release rates by SPU. Cartilage-like tissue, characterized by histological analysis, scoring, and immunolabeling of chondrogenic differentiation markers, was observed only after 12 weeks, maintaining integrity up to at least 24 weeks, independently of the GF and the dose of BMP-2. The biocompatibility and the resulting good quality, hyaline repair cartilage convert this system into a promising candidate for future applications in osteochondral lesions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
- Transient inhibition of connective tissue infiltration and collagen deposition into porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) discs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 14.
Connective tissue rapidly proliferates on and around biomaterials implanted in vivo, which impairs the function of the engineered tissues, biosensors, and devices. Glucocorticoids can be utilized to suppress tissue ingrowth, but can only be used for a limited time because they nonselectively arrest cell proliferation in the local environment. The present study examined use of a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor, 1,4-dihydrophenonthrolin-4-one-3-carboxylic acid (1,4-DPCA), to suppress connective tissue ingrowth in porous PLGA discs implanted in the peritoneal cavity for 28 days. The prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor was found to be effective at inhibiting collagen deposition within and on the outer surface of the disc, and also limited connective tissue ingrowth, but not to the extent of glucocorticoid inhibition. Finally, it was discovered that 1,4-DPCA suppressed Scavenger Receptor A expression on a macrophage-like cell culture, which may account for the drug's ability to limit connective tissue ingrowth in vivo. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
- An overview of recent advances in designing orthopedic and craniofacial implants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 14.:NA.
Great deal of research is still going on in the field of orthopedic and craniofacial implant development to resolve various issues being faced by the industry today. Despite several disadvantages of the metallic implants, they continue to be used, primarily because of their superior mechanical properties. In order to minimize the harmful effects of the metallic implants and its by-products, several modifications are being made to these materials, for instance nickel-free stainless steel, cobalt-chromium and titanium alloys are being introduced to eliminate the toxic effects of nickel being released from the alloys, introduce metallic implants with lower modulus, reduce the cost of these alloys by replacing rare elements with less expensive elements etc. New alloys like tantalum, niobium, zirconium, and magnesium are receiving attention given their satisfying mechanical and biological properties. Non-oxide ceramics like silicon nitride and silicon carbide are being currently developed as a promising implant material possessing a combination of properties such as good wear and corrosion resistance, increased ductility, good fracture and creep resistance, and relatively high hardness in comparison to alumina. Polymer/magnesium composites are being developed to improve mechanical properties as well as retain polymer's property of degradation. Recent advances in orthobiologics are proving interesting as well. This paper thus deals with the latest improvements being made to the existing implant materials and includes new materials being introduced in the field of biomaterials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
- Biocompatibility assessment of porous chitosan-nafion and chitosan-PTFE composites in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 13.
Chitosan is widely used as a scaffold material in tissue engineering. The objective of this study was to test whether porous chitosan membrane (PCSM) coating for Nafion used in implantable sensor reduced fibrous capsule (FC) density and promoted superior vascularization compared with PCSM coating for PTFE. PCSM was fabricated with solvent casting/particulate leaching (SCPL) method using silica gel as porogen and characterized in vitro. Then, PCSM-Nafion and PCSM-PTFE composites were assembled with hydrated PCSM and implanted subcutaneously in rats. The histological analysis was performed in comparison with Nafion and PTFE. Implants were explanted 35, 65, and 100 days after the implantation. Histological assessments indicated that both composites achieved presumed effects of porous coatings on decreasing collagen deposition and promoting angiogenesis. PCSM-PTFE exerted higher collagen deposition by area ratio, both within and outside, compared with that of PCSM-Nafion. Angiogenesis within and outside the PCSM-Nafion both increased over time, but that of the PCSM-PTFE within decreased.
- Effects of hyaluronic acid conjugation on anti-TNF-α inhibition of inflammation in burns. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 13.
Biomaterials capable of neutralizing specific cytokines could form the basis for treating a broad range of conditions characterized by intense, local inflammation. Severe burns, spanning partial- to full-thickness of the dermis, can result in complications due to acute inflammation that contributes to burn progression, and early mediation may be a key factor in rescuing thermally injured tissue from secondary necrosis in order to improve healing outcomes. In this work we examined the effects on burn progression and influence on the inflammatory microenvironment of topical application of anti-TNF-α alone, mixed with hyaluronic acid or conjugated to hyaluronic acid. We found that non-conjugated anti-TNF-α decreased macrophage infiltration to a greater extent than that conjugated to hyaluronic acid; however there was little effect on the degree of progression or IL-1β levels. A simple transport model is proposed to analyze the results, which predicts qualitative and quantitative differences between untreated burn sites and those treated with the conjugates. Our results indicate that conjugation of anti-TNF-α to high molecular weight hyaluronic acid provides sustained, local modulation of the post-injury inflammatory responses compared to direct administration of non-conjugated antibodies.
- Magnesium-based bone implants: Immunohistochemical analysis of peri-implant osteogenesis by evaluation of osteopontin and osteocalcin expression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 13.
Background:The functions of some bone proteins, as osteopontin (OPN) and osteocalcin (OC), have been discovered by the latest studies. This fact suggests the possibility of their immunodetection to characterize peri-implant osteogenesis and implant impact on it.
Methods:Cylindrical pins of Mg alloys (MgCa0.8, LAE442, ZEK100, LANd442) and titanium alloy (TiAl6V4) were implanted into the tibial medullae of 46 rabbits. Each group was divided regarding to implant duration (3 and 6 months). Bone samples adjacent to the implants were decalcified and treated with routine histological and immunohistochemical protocols using OC and OPN-antibodies.
Results:OC was detected in matrix of compact bone, but very rarely in osteoid and bone cells. OPN was detected intracellularly and in osteoid. After 3 months, the highest level of both markers was found in titanium group, followed by LAE442-group. In contrast to LAE442 and TiAl6V4, the other Mg alloys showed increasing levels of OC after 6 months. Lower levels of OP and OC compared to the control group are related to the continuous implant degradation and instability of bone-implant interface in early post-surgical period. Reduced marker's expression in LAE442 and TiAl6V4 groups after 6 months may indicate stabilization of bone-implant interface and completion of peri-implant neo-osteogenesis.
Conclusions:Declining character of OC and OPN expression over the implantation time, as well as their lowest levels in late post-surgical term, suggest a more appropriate biocompatibility of LAE442, which therefore seems to be the most preferable of the tested materials for the use in orthopaedic applications.
- Influence of red algal sulfated polysaccharides on coagulation and platelets in vitro. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 13.
The influence of sulfated polysaccharides (λ-, κ- and κ/β-carrageenan and porphyran) - on platelet activation was studied. Carrageenans were much weaker inhibitors of a coagulation process than heparin, while porphyran had not that effect. Results of the aPTT and PT assays suppose that carrageenans affected mostly intrinsic pathway of coagulation, while their effect on the extrinsic pathway is extremely low (λ and κ/β) or absent (κ, LMW derivative of κ-carrageenan). λ-Carrageenan was the most potent anticoagulant agent in TT, aPTT, PT, and anti-factor Xa activity. This sample was also the strongest inhibitor of collagen-induced platelet aggregation in PRP. Generally, the correlation of anticoagulant and antithrombotic action in PRP is preserved for carrageenans but not for heparin. Carrageenans and porphyran affected platelet adhesion to collagen by influencing glycoprotein VI. Low molecular weight κ-carrageenan had a similar effect on platelet adhesion mediated with both major collagen receptors: integrin α2 β1 and glycoprotein VI as native polysaccharide had. Carrageenans resulted in activation of platelets under platelet adhesion mediated by integrin αIIb β3 with less degree than heparin. The least sulfated κ/β-carrageenan that possessed an inhibiting effect on thrombin- and collagen-induced aggregation of washed platelets and on the PT test but it had no significant effect on TT was the weakest promoter of integrin αIIb β3 mediated platelet activation. In summary, our study showed that the polysaccharide action was complex, since it depended on its molecular mass, sulfation degree, and monosaccharide contents (3,6-anhydrogalactose).
- Dental implants from functionally graded materials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 11.
Functionally graded material (FGM) is a heterogeneous composite material including a number of constituents that exhibit a compositional gradient from one surface of the material to the other subsequently, resulting in a material with continuously varying properties in the thickness direction. FGMs are gaining attention for biomedical applications, especially for implants, owing to their reported superior composition. Dental implants can be functionally graded to create an optimized mechanical behavior and achieve the intended biocompatibility and osseointegration improvement. This review presents a comprehensive summary of biomaterials and manufacturing techniques researchers employ throughout the world. Generally, FGM and FGM porous biomaterials are more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous biomaterials. Therefore, our discussion is intended to give the readers about successful and obstacles fabrication of FGM and porous FGM in dental implants that will bring state-of-the-art technology to the bedside and develop quality of life and present standards of care. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 00A: 000-000, 2013.
- Quantitative characterization of mesenchymal stem cell adhesion to the articular cartilage surface. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 7.
There has been great interest in use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies for cartilage repair. Most recently, treatments involving intra-articular injection of MSCs have shown great promise for cartilage repair and arthritis therapy, which rely on MSC adhesion to cartilage. While there is some information on chondrocyte adhesion to cartilage, there is relatively little known about the kinetics and strength of MSC adhesion to cartilage. The goals of this study were as follows: (1) to quantify the kinetics and strength of adhesion of marrow-derived MSCs to articular cartilage using standard laboratory hardware; (2) to compare this adhesion behavior to that of articular chondrocytes; and (3) to assess the effect of serial monolayer culture on MSC adhesion. First through fourth passage MSCs and primary articular chondrocytes were allowed to adhere to the articular surface of cartilage disks for up to 30 h and the number of adhered cells was recorded to quantify adhesion kinetics. After 30 h, adherent cells were subjected to centrifugal shear to determine adhesion strength, quantified as the shear necessary to detach half the adhered cells (σ50 ). The number of adhered MSCs and adhesion strength increased with passage number and MSCs adhered more strongly than did primary articular chondrocytes. As such, the kinetics and strength of MSC adhesion to cartilage is not dramatically lower than that for articular chondrocytes. This protocol for assessing cell adhesion to cartilage is simple to implement and may represent an important screening tool for assessing the efficacy of cell-based therapies for cartilage repair. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
- A biodegradable thermoset polymer made by esterification of citric acid and glycerol. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomed Mater Res A 2013 Jun 4.
A new biomaterial, a degradable thermoset polymer, was made from simple, economical, biocompatable monomers without the need for a catalyst. Glycerol and citric acid, non-toxic and renewable reagents, were crosslinked by a melt polymerization reaction at temperatures from 90-150°C. Consistent with a condensation reaction, water was determined to be the primary by-product. The amount of crosslinking was controlled by the reaction conditions, including temperature, reaction time, and ratio between glycerol and citric acid. Also, the amount of crosslinking was inversely proportional to the rate of degradation. As a proof-of-principle for drug delivery applications, gentamicin, an antibiotic, was incorporated into the polymer with preliminary evaluations of antimicrobial activity. The polymers incorporating gentamicin had significantly better bacteria clearing of Staphylococcus aureus compared to non-gentamicin gels for up to nine days.