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J Clin Pathol [journal]
- Correction. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Nov; 67(11):1018.
- Comparative validation of assessment criteria for Crohn-like lymphoid reaction in colorectal carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 16.
Crohn-like lymphoid reaction (CLR) in colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is associated with a favourable prognosis and microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) status. However, there is a lack of consensus on optimal criteria for CLR assessment. The aim of this study was to comparatively validate traditional and novel assessment criteria for CLR.CLR status in 212 MSI-H CRCs was assessed independently by two pathologists using three different criteria: (1) traditional semiquantitative criteria (Graham-Appelman criteria), (2) the largest lymphoid aggregate (LA) size-based criteria (Ueno criteria) and (3) LA density-based criteria (Väyrynen-Mäkinen criteria).Among the three criteria, the Väyrynen-Mäkinen criteria-based CLR assessment showed the best interobserver agreement (κ value, 0.71; intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.76). Pathologically, intense CLR (grade 2) by Graham-Appelman criteria, active CLR (largest LA size ≥1 mm) by Ueno criteria and high-density CLR (≥0.38 LAs/mm) by Väyrynen-Mäkinen criteria significantly correlated with an early cancer stage (stage I/II). In Kaplan-Meier analysis, both CLR statuses determined by Ueno criteria and Väyrynen-Mäkinen criteria were associated with significant differences in disease-free survival in MSI-H CRC patients (p=0.005 and p=0.001, respectively). In multivariable analysis, both active CLR and high-density CLR proved to be independent favourable prognostic factors in MSI-H CRC (HR, 0.47; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.9 for active CLR and HR, 0.5; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.89 for high-density CLR).Our study confirms that the two recently suggested criteria (Ueno criteria and Väyrynen-Mäkinen criteria) for CLR assessment are fairly reproducible methods and can serve as superior prognosticators in CRC.
- PAX-8 expression in renal tumours and distant sites: A useful marker of primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 14.
Immunohistochemical stains have greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for primary and distant tumours. We evaluate a marker that has recently been incorporated in clinical practice, PAX-8, in primary and metastatic RCCs.Two distinct tissue microarrays were used, one consisting of over 334 renal tumours, 294 with adjacent normal kidney and the other with 40 matched nephrectomy and metastatic sites of RCC. PAX-8 expression was assessed by a method of quantitative immunofluorescence.PAX-8 was positive in 96% (146/152) of normal renal tissue and 83% (227/272) of renal tumours. PAX-8 staining was positive in clear cell, papillary and chromophobe tumours in 80% (165/207), 95% (39/41) and 100% (6/6) of samples, respectively. Overall, intensity of PAX-8 expression was significantly higher in RCC metastatic sites than in the primary site (p=0.0047), however, in matched sites there was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of positive versus negative specimens (p=0.274).As the role of molecular markers expands in the diagnostic algorithm, this study confirms that PAX-8 expression is a useful diagnostic marker for RCC. PAX-8 expression was found in the primary tumour and distant sites. Compared with normal tissue and other histological types, clear cell RCC has lower PAX-8 expression and is less frequently positive, therefore, the lack of expression does not exclude a tumour of renal origin.
- KRAS mutation status impacts diagnosis and treatment decision in a patient with two colon tumours: a case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 13.
KRAS mutation status predicts response to anti-EGFR therapy in colorectal cancer patients. Here we report an interesting case of discordant KRAS mutation status in a patient with two separate tumour foci. Tumour A in sigmoid colon invaded through muscularis propria into the subserosal fat with metastatic disease in regional lymph nodes (pT3N2b). Tumour B in ascending colon had a relatively lower stage and no metastasis (pT2N0). Both tumours showed similar morphology, immunohistochemical staining and microsatellite instability pattern. KRAS mutation, however, was detected only in tumour A. These findings indicate distinct clonal nature of these two tumours. The discordance of KRAS mutation status also suggests that a combination of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor and chemotherapy is likely the best treatment option for this patient. This case exemplifies a notion that comprehensive pathological work-up comprising molecular testing is critical to guide the diagnosis and treatment decisions for colorectal cancer patients with multiple tumours.
- Sonic hedgehog signalling proteins are frequently expressed in retinoblastoma and are associated with aggressive clinicopathological features. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 8.
This study aimed to examine the expression of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) signalling proteins in retinoblastoma and to evaluate its clinical significance.Seventy-nine enucleated retinoblastoma tumours were investigated immunohistochemically using antibodies against SHH pathway proteins, such as SHH, glioma-associated oncogene homologue (GLI) 1, GLI2, GLI3 and ABC binding cassette G2 (ABCG2). Western blotting of SHH signalling proteins was performed in two retinoblastoma cell lines.SHH was expressed in most retinoblastoma cases (78 of 79, 98.7%), with 21 cases (26.6%) showing strong expression. GLI1 and GLI2 were also frequently expressed: 67 of 78 cases (85.9%) and 71 of 77 cases (92.2%), respectively. GLI3, a transcriptional repressor, was expressed at low levels in 23 of the 78 cases (29.5%). High ABCG2 expression was found in 23 of the 78 cases (29.5%). High expression levels of these proteins in retinoblastoma cell lines were confirmed by western blotting. The expression of SHH was associated with advanced stages, local invasion and metastasis (all p<0.05).SHH signalling molecules were frequently expressed in retinoblastoma tumour cells, and high SHH expression was closely related to an advanced disease status. Our results suggest that the SHH signalling pathway may play a role in the progression of retinoblastoma.
- Is neuroendocrine differentiation useful to discriminate primary sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 7.
Primary sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinomas (ITAC) are defined on the basis of their morphological similarities to colorectal adenocarcinomas (CRA). Thus, differential diagnosis with sinonasal metastasis of CRA could be a real challenge. Neuroendocrine differentiation has been variably described in several types of adenocarcinomas and notably in ITACs and CRAs. In a series of 25 ITACs and 25 lymph node metastasis of CRAs (nmCRA), we analysed neuroendocrine differentiation by immunohistochemistry with anti-chromogranin A and synaptophysin antibodies. Neuroendocrine differentiation (chromogranin A and/or synaptophysin positivity) was significantly different (p=0.0002) in ITACs (72%) and in nmCRAs (20%). In conclusion, presence of neuroendocrine cells seems more in favour of a sinonasal intestinal-type adenocarcinoma, than metastatic CRA. This immunohistochemical study could be useful in difficult cases and should be an interesting complement in a clinical discussion.
- Immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory markers in sudden infant death; ancillary tests for identification of infection. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 3.
Sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI) investigation requires extensive ancillary investigations, the results of which, such as postmortem microbiology, can be difficult to interpret. Markers of an inflammatory response, including interleukin 6 (IL-6), c-reactive protein (CRP) and cellular adhesion molecules are elevated in infections, yet little attention has been paid to their assessment after death. This study investigates the role of inflammatory markers in SUDI autopsies for determining cause of death.Cases of SUDI over a 14 year period were identified from an autopsy database and 100 cases were selected for immunohistochemical staining of heart and liver for IL-6, CRP, P-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (CD54), with staining patterns compared between five groups, including infectious and unexplained SUDI.There were significant differences between groups. Cases of histological infection demonstrated strongly positive hepatocyte CRP and ICAM-1 expression and increased myocardial staining for CRP. Half of trauma-related deaths demonstrated diffuse hepatic CRP expression but without myocardial CRP staining. Staining of unexplained SUDI cases were predominantly negative, apart from a subgroup in whom Escherichia Coli was identified, who had increased expression of hepatic IL-6.There were distinct patterns of organ-specific CRP and ICAM-1 expression in SUDI by cause of death. These markers of inflammation were rarely present in unexplained SUDI suggesting either a non-inflammatory cause of death or a failure to mount an effective acute phase response. Immunohistochemical staining offers potential to identify infection-related deaths and provides insight into SUDI mechanisms.
- CADM1, MAL and miR124-2 methylation analysis in cervical scrapes to detect cervical and endometrial cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Oct 3.
Gene promoter hypermethylation is recognised as an essential early step in carcinogenesis, indicating important application areas for DNA methylation analysis in early cancer detection. The current study was set out to assess the performance of CADM1, MAL and miR124-2 methylation analysis in cervical scrapes for detection of cervical and endometrial cancer.A series of cervical scrapes of women with cervical (n=79) or endometrial (n=21) cancer, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3) (n=16) or CIN2 (n=32), and women without evidence of CIN2 or worse (n=120) were assessed for methylation of CADM1, MAL and miR124-2. Methylation analysis was done by the PreCursor-M assay, a multiplex quantitative methylation-specific PCR.All samples of women with cervical cancer (79/79, 100%), independent of the histotype, and 76% (16/21; 95% CI 58.0% to 94.4%) of women with endometrial cancer scored positive for DNA methylation for at least one of the three genes. In women without cancer, methylation frequencies increased significantly with severity of disease from 19.2% (23/120; 95% CI 12.1% to 26.2%) in women without CIN2 or worse to 37.5% (12/32; 95% CI 20.7% to 54.3%) and 68.8% (11/16; 95% CI 46.0% to 91.5%) in women with CIN2 and CIN3, respectively. Overall methylation positivity and the number of methylated genes increased proportionally to the lesion severity.DNA methylation analysis of CADM1, MAL and miR124-2 in cervical scrapes consistently detects cervical cancer and the majority of CIN3 lesions, and has the capacity to broaden its use on cervical scrapes through the detection of a substantial subset of endometrial carcinomas.
- Efficient application of next-generation sequencing for the diagnosis of rare genetic syndromes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Sep 30.
The causes of intellectual disability, which affects 1%-3% of the general population, are highly heterogeneous and the genetic defect remains unknown in around 40% of patients. The application of next-generation sequencing is changing the nature of biomedical diagnosis. This technology has quickly become the method of choice for searching for pathogenic mutations in rare uncharacterised genetic diseases.Whole-exome sequencing was applied to a series of families affected with intellectual disability in order to identify variants underlying disease phenotypes.We present data of three families in which we identified the disease-causing mutations and which benefited from receiving a clinical diagnosis: Cornelia de Lange, Cohen syndrome and Dent-2 disease. The genetic heterogeneity and the variability in clinical presentation of these disorders could explain why these patients are difficult to diagnose.The accessibility to next-generation sequencing allows clinicians to save much time and cost in identifying the aetiology of rare diseases. The presented cases are excellent examples that demonstrate the efficacy of next-generation sequencing in rare disease diagnosis.
- Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 overexpression is predictive of poor prognosis in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2014 Sep 30.
Neoadjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by surgery is an increasingly used therapeutic strategy for advanced rectal cancer, but risk stratification and final outcomes remain suboptimal. Recently, the oncogenic role of the fibroblast growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signalling pathway has been recognised; however, its clinical significance in rectal cancer has not been elucidated. In this study, we identify and validate targetable drivers associated with the FGFR signalling pathway in rectal cancer patients treated with CCRT.Using a published transcriptome of rectal cancers, we found FGFR2 gene significantly predicted response to CCRT. The expression levels of FGFR2, using immunohistochemistry assays, were further evaluated in 172 rectal cancer specimens that had not received any treatment. Expression levels of FGFR2 were statistically correlated with major clinicopathological features and clinical survival in this valid cohort.High expression of FGFR2 was significantly related to advanced pretreatment tumour (p=0.022) and nodal status (p=0.026), post-treatment tumour (p<0.001) and nodal status (p=0.004), and inferior tumour regression grade (p<0.001). In survival analyses, high expression of FGFR2 was significantly associated with shorter local recurrence-free survival (p=0.0001), metastasis-free survival (MeFS; p=0.0003) and disease-specific survival (DSS; p<0.0001). Notably, high expression of FGFR2 was independently predictive of worse outcomes for MeFS (p=0.002, HR=5.387) and DSS (p=0.004, HR=4.997).High expression of FGFR2 is correlated with advanced tumour stage, poor therapeutic response and worse survival in rectal cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant CCRT. These findings indicate that FGFR2 is a prognostic factor for treating rectal cancer.