J Clin Pathol [journal]
- EGFR mutation detection on lung cancer cytological specimens by the novel fully automated PCR-based Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 19.
In everyday practice, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) testing is centralised in referral laboratories that receive paucicellular cytological specimens. Ideally, EGFR testing should be carried out in the centre where the patient is diagnosed such that the most cellular slide can be selected from in-house collected cytological material. However, available techniques are little standardised and difficult to be implemented in settings with little expertise in molecular testing. The Idylla EGFR prototype assay is a rapid and fully automated test which may easily be adopted by a wider number of pathological centres. This study assessed whether an Idylla EGFR prototype assay can be reliably applied to cytological lung cancer specimens.The limit of detection (LOD) of the Idylla EGFR prototype assay was assessed by cell line dilution studies. A total of 10 ng was directly placed inside an Idylla EGFR prototype assay cartridge. Idylla results were compared with fragment length (exon 19 del) and Taqman assays.The Idylla EGFR prototype assay showed an LOD of 1% mutant allele and yielded valid results in 74/76 (97.3%) samples, detecting all the mutant cases (n=32) identified by standard techniques; in addition, Idylla detected two low abundance EGFR exon 19 deletions and two G719X exon 18 point mutations, not covered by our standard reference method.Idylla EGFR prototype assay is sensitive on extracted DNA and can reliably be applied on cytological samples, enabling implementation of EGFR testing even in less experienced diagnostic units.
- The usefulness of a novel fully automated PCR-based Idylla test for detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid tissue: comparison with PNA-clamping PCR, real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 19.
The BRAF V600E mutation is the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The BRAF V600E mutational status has a significant diagnostic and prognostic role in PTC since it can be detected in 32%-87% of PTC by various molecular methods.A novel, fully automated real-time PCR-based Idylla test is assessed to detect the BRAF mutation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid samples.99 PTC and 11 nodular hyperplasia FFPE thyroid tissues are evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation by the Idylla tests and compared with peptide nucleic acid-clamping PCR, real-time PCR and pyrosequencing.The sensitivity and specificity of the Idylla test to detect BRAF V600E are 98.8% and 100%, which is superior to real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The concordance between Idylla and true positive is highest at 0.974.This study validates that the Idylla test is a sensitive and specific method to detect BRAF V600E in FFPE thyroid tissues. A simple, quick and easy to handle Idylla test is a useful and reliable molecular technique to evaluate BRAF mutations.
- Comprehensive profiling of metaplastic breast carcinomas reveals frequent overexpression of programmed death-ligand 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 16.
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma less responsive to conventional chemotherapy than ductal carcinoma. In molecular terms, MBCs usually cluster with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), but have a worse prognosis than TNBCs. Studies investigating MBCs for specific biomarkers of therapy response are rare and limited by the methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to characterise MBCs on a molecular level and test programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) biomarker expression in MBCs for future therapeutic interventions.We profiled 297 samples (MBC (n=75), TNBC (n=106), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers (n=32) and hormone-positive breast cancers (n=84)) by next-generation sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression was performed using automated procedures.The most commonly mutated genes in MBCs included TP53 (56%) and PIK3CA (23%). Pathogenic mutations in other genes, including HRAS, FBXW7, PTEN, AKT1 and SMAD4, were rare. PD-L1 expression was detected in a significantly higher proportion of MBCs (46%) than in other subtypes (6% each in hormone-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers, and 9% in TNBC, not otherwise specified, p<0.001). PD-1-positive tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) varied greatly in MBCs.Comprehensive profiling of a large cohort of this rare subtype of breast carcinoma highlighted the predominance of TP53 mutation and increased PD-L1 expression in carcinoma cells. These results can be exploited in clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors.
- Erythrophagocytosis in T-cell type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with near-tetraploidy. [LETTER]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 12.
- Accuracy of classification of invasive lobular carcinoma on needle core biopsy of the breast. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 10.
Although the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend that in patients with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), preoperative MRI scan is considered, the accuracy of diagnosis of ILC in core biopsy of the breast has not been previously investigated. Eleven pathology laboratories from the UK and Ireland submitted data on 1112 cases interpreted as showing features of ILC, or mixed ILC and IDC/no special type (NST)/other tumour type, on needle core biopsy through retrieval of histology reports. Of the total 1112 cases, 844 were shown to be pure ILC on surgical excision, 154 were mixed ILC plus another type (invariably ductal/NST) and 113 were shown to be ductal/NST. Of those lesions categorised as pure ILC on core, 93% had an element of ILC correctly identified in the core biopsy sample and could be considered concordant. Of cores diagnosed as mixed ILC plus another type on core, complete agreement between core and excision was 46%, with 27% cases of pure ILC, whilst 26% non-concordant. These data indicate that there is not a large excess of expensive MRIs being performed as a result of miscategorisation histologically.
- DNA hypermethylation analysis in sputum of asymptomatic subjects at risk for lung cancer participating in the NELSON trial: argument for maximum screening interval of 2 years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 5.
Lung cancer is the major contributor to cancer mortality due to metastasised disease at time of presentation. The current study investigated DNA hypermethylation of biomarkers RASSF1A, APC, cytoglobin, 3OST2, FAM19A4, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 in sputum of asymptomatic high-risk individuals from the NELSON lung cancer low-dose spiral CT screening trial to detect lung cancer at preclinical stage.Subjects were selected with (i) lung cancer in follow-up (cases; n=65), (ii) minor cytological aberrations (controls; n=120) and (iii) a random selection of subjects without cytological aberrations (controls; n=99). Median follow-up time for controls was 80 months. Cut-off values were based on high specificity to assess diagnostic value of the biomarkers.RASSF1A may denote presence of invasive cancer because of its high specificity (93% (95% CI 89% to 96%); sensitivity 17% (95% CI 4% to 31%), with best performance in a screening interval of 2 years. The panel of RASSF1A, 3OST2 and PRDM14 detected 28% (95% CI 11% to 44%) of lung cancer cases within 2 years, with specificity of 90% (95% CI 86% to 94%). Sputum cytology did not detect any lung cancers.In a lung cancer screening setting with maximum screening interval of 2 years, DNA hypermethylation analysis in sputum may play a role in the detection of preclinical disease, but complementary diagnostic markers are needed to improve sensitivity.
- Acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes with chromosomal rearrangement involving 11q23 locus, but not MLL gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 5.
Chromosome 11q23 translocations, resulting in MLL (KMT2A) rearrangement, have been well characterised in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, little is known of haematopoietic neoplasms associated with 11q23 translocation but without MLL rearrangement (11q23+/MLL-). The aim of this study is to characterise such cases with 11q23+/MLL-.We retrospectively searched our database for cases with haematopoietic malignancies with 11q23+/MLL-. We identified nine patients, two with AML, two with B-lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL); two with T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), two with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and one with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML). The translocations included t(X;11)(p11.2;q23), t(2;11)(p21;q23), t(6;11)(q27;q23), t(8;9;11)(q13;q13;q23), t(11;11)(p15;q23), t(11;14)(q23;q24) and t(11;15)(q23;q14). Five of six patients with acute leukaemia had received chemotherapy and detection of 11q23 translocation occurred at time of disease relapse. Both patients with MDS and the patient with CMML had 11q23 translocation detected at time of initial diagnosis, all three patients progressed to AML after >1 year on hypomethylating agent therapy. All patients received risk-adapted therapies, including stem cell transplant in five patients. At the last follow-up, eight patients died with a median overall survival of 14 months.11q23+/MLL- occurs rarely, involving different partner chromosomes and showing clinical and pathological features and disease subtypes different from those cases with MLL rearrangement. 11q23+/MLL- appears to be associated with clonal evolution/disease progression in acute leukaemia, a high risk for AML progression in MDS/CMML and a high incidence of disease relapse.
- Catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met polymorphism is associated with increased risk of multiple uterine leiomyomas either positive or negative for MED12 exon 2 mutations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 4.
To study the possible association of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism with multiple and solitary uterine leiomyomas (ULs) and to check whether the COMT Val/Val genotype is associated with MED12 exon 2 mutations in fibroids.The COMT Val158Met allele and genotype frequencies were compared between age-matched women with ULs (n=104) and controls (n=59). Patients with UL were subcategorised by diagnosis of solitary (n=59) or multiple (n=45) fibroids and by the presence of somatic MED12 exon 2 mutations in at least one fibroid (n=32) or in neither fibroid (n=26). The association of COMT Val/Val genotype with the presence of any ULs, solitary/multiple ULs and ULs positive/negative for MED12 exon 2 mutations was evaluated by χ(2) tests using a dominant genotype model (G/G vs G/A+A/A) and expressed as ORs and 95% CIs.The COMT Val/Val genotype frequency did not differ between the patients with UL and the controls (28.8% vs 18.6%, p=0.149, OR 1.77; CI 0.81 to 3.86). However, it was significantly higher in the patients who had multiple UL compared with the solitary UL (40% vs 20.3%, p=0.028, OR 2.61; CI 1.09 to 6.24) and to the controls (40% vs 18.6%, p=0.016, OR 2.91; CI 1.20 to 7.06). No association of the COMT Val/Val genotype with UL-specific MED12 exon 2 mutations was found (p=0.662, OR 0.77; CI 0.23 to 2.53).Women with COMT Val/Val genotype are at high risk of developing multiple uterine fibroids either positive or negative for MED12 exon 2 mutations. These data are important to design new strategies for UL prophylaxis and treatment.
- HBME-1 is expressed by erythroid precursors in early maturation stage and can be a valuable tool for evaluation of dyserythropoiesis in bone marrow core biopsy specimens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 2.
The reaction of Hector Battifora mesothelial epitope-1 (HBME-1) antibody with scattered pronormoblasts in normal bone marrow core biopsy specimens has been reported. This study evaluated the immunohistochemical profile of HBME-1 in a panel of 52 normal, dyserythropoietic and neoplastic marrow samples. We compared the staining property of HBME-1 with that of the commonly used erythroid marker, glycophorin A (CD235a) and in each case, we semi-quantitatively evaluated the HBME-1/CD235a-positive cells ratio. In normal samples, HBME-1 labelled scattered immature erythroid precursors. In dyserythropoietic specimens, HBME-1 stained nucleated erythroid precursors in varying degrees, from pronormoblast through normoblast stages, with the highest intensity in immature forms. Overall, the cellular background of non-erythroid progenitors, erythrocytes and neoplastic cells did not react with HBME-1, except in leukaemia cases with myelodysplasia-related changes. Our study shows that HBME-1 is a useful marker to identify immature erythroid precursors and that an HBME-1/CD235a-positive cells ratio ≥10% is associated with dyserythropoiesis.
- Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma and Crohn disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 2.
Mesothelial reaction simulating peritoneal diffuse malignant mesothelioma (MM) has been reported in the setting of Crohn ileitis. To our knowledge, peritoneal MM arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been reported. The purpose of this study is to report the clinicopathological characteristics of patients with peritoneal MM and IBD.A database of approximately 3800 MM was reviewed for cases of MM in patients with IBD.Three patients (0.08%) with peritoneal MM and Crohn disease (CD) were identified, including two women and one man ranging in age from 56 to 65 years. All had a long-standing history of diarrhoea and an established diagnosis of CD of 3 years or greater duration. Two had epithelial MM and one had biphasic MM. Only one had documented asbestos exposure.Peritoneal MM occurs rarely in patients with IBD, but interestingly, has only been observed in the setting of CD and not in patients with ulcerative colitis. Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development of MM in rare instances and these three cases suggest that CD with transmural inflammation may also be a precursor. The precise role of CD-related transmural inflammation in the carcinogenesis of peritoneal MM remains to be determined.