J Clin Pathol [journal]
- Lymphocytic oesophagitis, eosinophilic oesophagitis and compound lymphocytic-eosinophilic oesophagitis I: histological and immunohistochemical findings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 28.
To report four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes.Oesophageal biopsies from 311 patients were stained with H&E and with CD3, a T cell marker. Additional immunohistochemical stains (n=413) were performed in 77 cases.Four histological-immunohistochemical oesophagitis phenotypes were recorded: lymphocytic oesophagitis (LyE, ≥40 CD3+ lymphocytes/HPF in CD3 immunostain), eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE, ≥15 eosinophils/HPF in H&E stain), lymphocytic infiltration (≤39 CD3+/HPF) and compound lymphocytic oesophagitis-eosinophilic oesophagitis (Co LyE-EoE). At index biopsy, 28.3% (n=88) had LyE, 21.2% (n=66) EoE, 10.6% (n=33) Co LyE-EoE and 39.9% (n=124) lymphocytic infiltration. A persistent oesophagitis phenotype was found in 42.5% (37/87) in the first follow-up biopsy, in 34.4% (21/61) in the second follow-up biopsy and in 48.1% (26/54) in the third follow-up biopsy. Using βF1 immunostain, two different surface T cell receptors were detected in LyE and Co Lye-EoE: one having ≥40 βF1+/HPF (βF1+ high) and the other having <39 βF1+/HPF (βF1+ low).Based on the literature regarding the significance of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) in the initiation of EoE, we submit that the IEL phenotypes in LyE might differ from those found in EoE as they were unable to elicit the same eosinophilic response. Recent studies disclosed that group 2 innate lymphocytes (ILC2s), enriched in EoE, remain undetected in CD3 immunostain as they lack surface markers for T, B, natural killer (NK) or NK T cells. If ILC2s also participate in the lymphocytic infiltration of EoE, then the frequency of cases with Co LyE-EoE here reported might have been much higher. The four oesophagitis phenotypes described are easy to recognise, provided that the dual staining procedure (H&E-CD3) is implemented.
- Validation of the Singapore nomogram for outcome prediction in breast phyllodes tumours: an Australian cohort. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 27.
To validate the utility of the Singapore nomogram for outcome prediction in breast phyllodes tumours.Histological parameters, surgical margin status and clinical follow-up data of 34 women diagnosed with phyllodes tumours were analysed. Biostatistics modelling was performed, and the concordance between predicted and observed survivals was calculated.Women with a high nomogram score had an increased risk of developing relapse, which was predicted using the parameters defined by the Singapore nomogram.The Singapore nomogram is useful in predicting outcome in breast phyllodes tumours when applied to an Australian cohort of 34 women.
- Novel germline mutations in the calreticulin gene: implications for the diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 27.
Mutations in the calreticulin (CALR) gene are found in the majority of Janus kinase 2-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms MPN and, thus far, have exclusively been reported as acquired, somatic mutations. We assessed the mutational status of exon 9 of the CALR gene in 2000 blood samples submitted to our centre and identified 12 subjects (0.6%) harbouring distinctive CALR mutations, all with an allelic frequency of 50% and all involving indels occurring as multiples of 3 bp. Buccal cell samples obtained from these patients confirmed the germline nature of the mutations. Importantly, these germline mutations were not diagnostic of MPN. We thus report for the first time the identification and confirmation of germline mutations in CALR distinct from those somatic mutations that define classical MPN. The finding of a non-standard CALR mutation with an allelic frequency of 50% should raise suspicion of the possibility of a germline CALR mutation and these cases investigated further.
- Cadherin 5 expression correlates with poor survival in human gastric cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 26.
Although expressed in tumour cells of various malignancies, cadherin 5 (CDH5), also known as vascular endothelial cadherin, plays an important role in homotypic cell-cell adhesion among epithelial cells. However, the clinical significance of CDH5 expression in gastric cancer has not been sufficiently demonstrated. In this study, CDH5 expression in gastric cancer was evaluated and the correlations between CDH5 expression and the clinicopathological features and outcomes of the disease were examined.Differentiated-type gastric adenocarcinomas obtained from 102 patients who underwent gastrectomy were analysed. CDH5 expression was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of the membranes of the cancer cells.High CDH5 expression was significantly associated with the following clinicopathological variables related to tumour progression: depth of invasion (p=0.012), venous invasion (p=0.013), lymphatic invasion (p=0.001), metastatic lymph nodes (p=0.009), pathological stage (p=0.008) and distant metastasis or recurrent disease (p=0.009). Patients with high CDH5 expression had significantly poorer disease-specific survival (p=0.021), although CDH5 was not determined to be an independent prognostic factor by multivariate analysis.CDH5 may play a key role in the progression or metastasis of differentiated-type gastric cancer and serve as a target for its treatment.
- RGS1 expression is associated with poor prognosis in multiple myeloma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 21.
Multiple myeloma (MM) is an invariably fatal disease with highly heterogeneous outcome. Because of this heterogeneity of MM, risk stratification is crucial for therapeutic decision-making. However, no immunohistochemical prognostic or predictive markers have been established yet. The expression of regulator of G-protein signalling (RGS) proteins, which desensitise G-protein-coupled receptor signalling, has been reported to be associated with the prognosis of various malignancies. Recently, our group demonstrated the importance of RGS1 in chemokine signalling in a human MM cell line and normal plasmablasts. In the present study, we explored the prognostic value of RGS1 expression in patients with MM using immunohistochemistry.We evaluated RGS1 protein expression in 79 bone marrow biopsies obtained from patients with MM between 2008 and 2010 at Asan Medical Center. Correlations between RGS1 expression and clinicopathological factors were analysed.High RGS1 protein expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival (p=0.005). After an adjusted multivariable analysis, high RGS1 protein expression (p=0.010), high International Myeloma Working Group risk (p=0.003) and high serum lactate dehydrogenase levels (p=0.040) were significantly associated with poor outcomes.RGS1 expression may be a prognostic marker for risk stratification and a promising target for the development of a new MM therapy.
- An in vitro study of the effects of t-PA and tranexamic acid on whole blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 21.
Acute traumatic coagulopathy is characterised by fibrinolysis and low fibrinogen. It is unclear how much fibrinogenolysis contributes to reduce fibrinogen levels. The study aim was to: investigate in vitro the effects of tissue-plasminogen activator (t-PA) and tranexamic acid (TXA) on coagulation and fibrinolysis.Whole blood was spiked with varying t-PA concentrations. Clauss fibrinogen levels and thrombelastography (TEG, Haemonetics) were performed, including functional fibrinogen level (FLEV). TXA effects were assessed using four TXA concentrations. Recorded parameters from kaolin activated TEG included maximal amplitude (MA), clot strength (G), percentage lysis (LY). Plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), endogenous thrombin potential (ETP), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (PF1+2), factor V and factor VIII levels were all measured.t-PA induced fibrinolysis: it increased PAP and LY, but decreased MA and G. t-PA induced fibrinogenolysis, with a concentration-dependant decrease in fibrinogen from 2.7 (2.6-3.1) to 0.8 (0.8-0.9) g/L with 60 nM t-PA. FLEV and fibrinogen levels were well correlated. High t-PA doses increased PF1+2, decreased ETP of 19% and FVIII of 63% but not FV. TXA had no effect on plasmin generation as evidenced by no change in PAP. It corrected LY, MA and G and partly protected fibrinogen against fibrinogenolysis: 0.03 mg/mL TXA reduced the fibrinogen fall induced by t-PA 20 nM from 43% to 14%. TXA halved the FVIII fall and increased ETP.t-PA induced plasminogen activation and fibrinogenolysis in a concentration-dependant manner. TXA did not affect plasmin activation but reduced fibrinogenolysis. These results suggest that TXA given early in bleeding patients may prevent fibrinogenolysis.
- Epstein-Barr virus and regulatory T cells in Egyptian paediatric patients with acute B lymphoblastic leukaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 25.
Acute B lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) is the most common type of childhood malignancy worldwide but little is known of its origin. Recently, many studies showed both a high incidence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and high levels of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)(Treg cells) in children with B-ALL. In our study, we investigated the possible relationship between EBV infection and the onset of B-ALL, and its relation to expression of CD4(+), CD25(high+)Foxp3+ T regulatory cells.We analysed expression and mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of Treg cells in peripheral blood of 45 children with B-ALL and in 40 apparently healthy children as a control, using flow cytometry. Serum anti-EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, anti-EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG (for latent infection) and anti-EBV VCA IgM (for acute infection) were investigated using ELISA.Analysis of the Treg cells population in patients and controls revealed that expression of CD4(+) CD25(high+) T lymphocytes was higher in patients than in controls (mean±SD 15.7±4.1 and 10.61±2.6 in patients and controls, respectively, and MFI of Foxp3 was 30.1±7.1 and 16.7±3.7 in patients and controls, respectively (p<0.001)). There was a high incidence of latent EBV infection in patients (31%) compared with controls (10%) while the incidence of acute infection was 12% in patients and 0% in the control group. To study the role of latent EBV infection in the pathogenesis of acute B-ALL, OR was calculated (OR=4.06, coefficient index 1.2-13.6).These findings suggest a possible role for Treg cells and EBV in the pathogenesis of B-ALL. Further studies are needed on the possible mechanisms of tumour genesis related to Treg cells and EBV in children with B-ALL.
- On the histogenesis of mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour of the gonads. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 25.
The origin of testicular mixed germ cell-sex cord stromal tumour (MGC-SCST) is uncertain, and the nature of this neoplasm is controversial. It has not been established whether the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCST are neoplastic or whether they are merely entrapped within an unclassified sex cord stromal tumour or related testicular neoplasm. In this investigation, we present additional evidence regarding the nature of the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCST.We obtained 25 cases of MGC-SCST, 13 of which involved the testis and 12 occurred in the ovary for histological examination. Although the majority of the cases studied were archival, materials were available for immunocytochemical examination in 10 instances.We found that 10 of 13 testicular MGC-SCSTs studied had a sex cord component resembling unclassified sex cord stromal tumour. In two MGC-SCSTs that had prominent entrapped tubules, an intratubular component was identified. A total of 12 ovarian MGC-SCSTs were examined, and these neoplasms were more diverse in their histological appearance than the testicular examples. The germ cells often resembled those of dysgerminoma. Formation of imperfect follicular-like structures was a frequent feature in ovarian cases.In this investigation, we provide further evidence that the germ cells in testicular MGC-SCSTs are neoplastic; however, in the great majority of tumours, these cells are low-grade. Some testicular MGC-SCSTs arise from an intratubular component. We believe that the majority of ovarian and some testicular MGC-SCSTs arise more directly from simultaneous transformation of germ cells and sex cord derivatives.
- Natural language processing in pathology: a scoping review. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 22.
Encoded pathology data are key for medical registries and analyses, but pathology information is often expressed as free text.We reviewed and assessed the use of NLP (natural language processing) for encoding pathology documents.Papers addressing NLP in pathology were retrieved from PubMed, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Digital Library and Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) Anthology. We reviewed and summarised the study objectives; NLP methods used and their validation; software implementations; the performance on the dataset used and any reported use in practice.The main objectives of the 38 included papers were encoding and extraction of clinically relevant information from pathology reports. Common approaches were word/phrase matching, probabilistic machine learning and rule-based systems. Five papers (13%) compared different methods on the same dataset. Four papers did not specify the method(s) used. 18 of the 26 studies that reported F-measure, recall or precision reported values of over 0.9. Proprietary software was the most frequently mentioned category (14 studies); General Architecture for Text Engineering (GATE) was the most applied architecture overall. Practical system use was reported in four papers. Most papers used expert annotation validation.Different methods are used in NLP research in pathology, and good performances, that is, high precision and recall, high retrieval/removal rates, are reported for all of these. Lack of validation and of shared datasets precludes performance comparison. More comparative analysis and validation are needed to provide better insight into the performance and merits of these methods.
- ARID4B is a good biomarker to predict tumour behaviour and decide WHO grades in gliomas and meningiomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Jul 22.
Although ARID4B is known to promote tumour metastasis in breast cancer and inhibit transformation and progression in leukaemia, the possible effect of ARID4B on primary brain tumours (PBTs) is not well characterised. We tested the hypothesis that expression of ARID4B correlates with WHO grade and survival in patients with PBTs.Western blot analysis was performed on protein lysates prepared from normal brain tissue and glioma cell lines (U87MG, LN229, GBM8401 and U118MG). Subsequently, immunohistochemical analysis of ARID4B was performed on 2 tissue microarrays, including 12 normal brain tissues, 63 meningiomas with different subtypes, 232 gliomas of various grades and degrees of differentiation, 8 central neurocytomas and 4 chordomas. The ARID4B immunostaining score was calculated by multiplying the intensity score by the percentage of tumour cells expressing ARID4B.In vitro, ARID4B protein expression was increased in some glioma cell lines. In addition, the average ARID4B immunostaining score was 38.03, 79.09, 129.76 and 119.32, respectively, in gliomas of WHO grade I, II, III and IV. Higher ARID4B immunostaining score was significantly correlated with more advanced WHO grade of gliomas (p=7.4×10(-6)) and meningiomas. Finally, higher ARID4B expression tended to the shorter survival rates, but did not reach statistical significance.ARID4B overexpression presented in most of PBTs, rather than non-neoplastic brain tissue, and correlated with WHO grades in meningiomas and gliomas. Therefore, ARID4B is a satisfactory biomarker to highlight tumour component and predict tumour behaviour in primary brain neoplasms.