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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Anaplasma phagocytophilum Up-regulates some Anti-apoptotic Genes in Neutrophils and Pro-inflammatory Genes in Mononuclear Cells of Sheep. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jan 24.
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of tick-borne fever (TBF) in sheep and cattle and human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has the unique ability to selectively infect and multiply within the hostile environment of the neutrophil. Previous studies have shown that sheep with TBF are more susceptible to other infections and that infected neutrophils have reduced phagocytic ability and delayed apoptosis. This suggests that survival of A. phagocytophilum in these short-lived cells involves the ability to subvert or resist their bacterial killing, but also to modify the host cells such that the host cells survive long after infection. The present study shows that infection of sheep by A. phagocytophilum is characterized by up-regulation of some anti-apoptotic genes (BCL2, BIRC3 and CFLAR) in neutrophils and up-regulation of genes encoding the pro-inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in mononuclear cells during the period of bacteraemia. Infection with A. phagocytophilum was also characterized by significant up-regulation of CYBB, which is associated with the respiratory burst of neutrophils.
- The Pathology and Pathogenesis of Experimental Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome and Influenza in Animal Models. [REVIEW]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jan 15.
Respiratory viruses that emerge in the human population may cause high morbidity and mortality, as well as concern about pandemic spread. Examples are severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and novel variants of influenza A virus, such as H5N1 and pandemic H1N1. Different animal models are used to develop therapeutic and preventive measures against such viruses, but it is not clear which are most suitable. Therefore, this review compares animal models of SARS and influenza, with an emphasis on non-human primates, ferrets and cats. Firstly, the pathology and pathogenesis of SARS and influenza are compared. Both diseases are similar in that they affect mainly the respiratory tract and cause inflammation and necrosis centred on the pulmonary alveoli and bronchioles. Important differences are the presence of multinucleated giant cells and intra-alveolar fibrosis in SARS and more fulminant necrotizing and haemorrhagic pneumonia in H5N1 influenza. Secondly, the pathology and pathogenesis of SARS and influenza in man and experimental animals are compared. Host species, host age, route of inoculation, location of sampling and timing of sampling are important to design an animal model that most closely mimics human disease. The design of appropriate animal models requires an accurate pathological description of human cases, as well as a good understanding of the effect of experimental variables on disease outcome.
- Acinar Cell Carcinoma of Exocrine Pancreas in Two Horses. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jan 16.
Two horses were presented with non-specific clinical signs of several weeks' duration and were humanely destroyed due to a poor prognosis. At necropsy examination, both horses had multiple small, white nodules replacing pancreatic tissue and involving the serosal surface of the abdominal cavity, the liver and the lung. Microscopically, neoplastic cells were organized in acini and contained abundant (case 1) or sparse (horse 2) intracytoplasmic zymogen granules. Immunohistochemically, both tumours expressed amylase and pan-cytokeratin, but not insulin or neuron-specific enolase. In case 2, a low percentage of neoplastic cells expressed glucagon and synaptophysin. The presence of zymogen granules was confirmed in both cases by electron microscopy and occasional fibrillary or glucagon granules were observed in cases 1 and 2, respectively. A diagnosis of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma was established in both horses.
- Polar Bear Encephalitis: Establishment of a Comprehensive Next-generation Pathogen Analysis Pipeline for Captive and Free-living Wildlife. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 19.
This report describes three possibly related incidences of encephalitis, two of them lethal, in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Standard diagnostic methods failed to identify pathogens in any of these cases. A comprehensive, three-stage diagnostic 'pipeline' employing both standard serological methods and new DNA microarray and next generation sequencing-based diagnostics was developed, in part as a consequence of this initial failure. This pipeline approach illustrates the strengths, weaknesses and limitations of these tools in determining pathogen caused deaths in non-model organisms such as wildlife species and why the use of a limited number of diagnostic tools may fail to uncover important wildlife pathogens.
- Expression of β-catenin and Mesenchymal Markers in Canine Prostatic Hyperplasia and Carcinoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 27.
β-catenin is a nuclear signalling molecule that is associated with human prostatic neoplasia and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process. The present study evaluates immunohistochemically the expression of β-catenin and the mesenchymal markers vimentin, desmin, calponin and smooth muscle actin (SMA) in four normal canine prostates and prostate samples from 15 dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and six with prostatic carcinoma (PC). β-catenin was located on the membrane of normal epithelial cells, while the same marker had both cytoplasmic and membrane expression in hyperplastic cells and a nuclear redistribution in PC. Vimentin-positive luminal cells were observed in two of the 15 cases of BPH and in all PC samples, suggesting the conversion of neoplastic epithelial cells to a mesenchymal type. SMA was consistently negative in PC, but there was mild desmin and calponin immunoreactivity in these lesions. As in men, β-catenin is involved in canine prostatic carcinogenesis, thus further validating the use of this animal model to study human prostatic disease.
- Architecture and Inflammatory Cell Composition of the Feline Lung with Special Consideration of Eosinophil Counts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 31.
An increase in the number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is a hallmark of feline asthma; however, a wide range in the percentage of eosinophils in BALF has been documented in healthy cats. In this study, BALF and lung tissue were collected from 15 cats without respiratory disease, BALF was taken from 15 cats with asthma and lung tissue was collected from six different asthmatic cats. Total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and inflammatory cell percentages were measured in BALF and lung tissue was evaluated microscopically. Asthmatic cats had a significantly higher eosinophil count in lung tissue, but BALF TNCC did not differ significantly between groups. Cats without respiratory signs had significantly more numerous macrophages and lymphocytes in BALF than asthmatics, but significantly lower percentages of eosinophils (4.2 ± 7.8% versus 49.4 ± 20.6%, P <0.001). In healthy feline airways a BALF eosinophil percentage of <5% can be expected. Dominant microscopical findings in feline asthma include high eosinophil counts, airway remodelling and inflammation. There is good correlation between the findings in BALF and tissue in feline asthma.
- Characterization of Immune Cell Infiltration in the Placentome of Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Infected with Neospora caninum During Pregnancy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 16.
Neospora caninum infection in cattle stimulates host immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to abortion. Susceptibility of water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) to neosporosis is not well understood, although vertical transmission and fetal death have been documented. The aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in the placentome of water buffalo following experimental infection in early gestation with the Nc-1 strain of N. caninum. Placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry using antibodies specific for T-cell subsets, natural killer cells and CD79αcy cells. Placental inflammation was characterized by the infiltration of CD3(+) and CD4(+) T cells and T cells expressing the γδ T-cell receptor. The distribution of these cellular subsets in buffalo placentomes was similar to that previously described in cattle infected with N. caninum in early gestation, but the lesions were milder, which may explain the lower number of abortions observed in this species after infection.
- Ischiopagus Tripus Conjoined Twins in a Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 13.
Conjoined twinning is rare in man and non-human primates. The current report describes a case of ischiopagus tripus conjoined Western Lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) twins. The female twins were joined at the umbilical and pelvic region, involving the liver, xiphoid, umbilicus, body wall and skin. Computed tomography revealed two complete spines. The combined pelvic space was formed by two sacra, each connected with two iliac bones. The twins were only conjoined by a common pubis. Cause of death was attributed to cardiac and circulatory collapse resulting from a large patent foramen ovale (8 mm in diameter) of one twin and neonatal asphyxia.
- Aberrant Subcellular Immunolocalization of NOTCH-1 Activated Intracellular Domain in Feline Mammary Tumours. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 10.
NOTCH-1 is a transmembrane receptor protein. Ligand proteins expressed on the surface of neighbouring cells bind to the NOTCH-1 extracellular domain by juxtacrine signalling and release the NOTCH intracellular domain (NICD) to alter gene expression. Forty feline mammary lesions (34 malignant and six hyperplastic) were submitted for immunohistochemical analysis of NICD expression using an anti-feline NICD monoclonal antibody. Associations between NICD expression in carcinomas and morphological parameters, as well as overall survival (OS), were investigated. NICD nuclear expression was observed in hyperplastic lesions (100%) while cytoplasmic localization was evident in carcinomas (0% nuclear positive; 87.5% cytoplasmic positive; 12.5% negative). Cytoplasmic NICD localization was statistically associated with carcinomas, while nuclear labelling was associated with hyperplasia. No significant correlation between positive or negative NICD expression and OS or morphological parameters was detected. NOTCH-1 activation, immunohistochemically identified by the NICD active form, appears to play a role in feline mammary carcinoma biology as the majority of tumours express this protein. Nuclear localization is consistent with the established NICD metabolic intranuclear pathway while cytoplasmic accumulation suggests aberrant NOTCH-1 signalling typical of malignant tumour progression.
- Comparative Study of Transforming Growth Factor-β Signalling and Regulatory Molecules in Human and Canine Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Dec 10.
Activation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a key event in the progression of fibrosis in human lung tissue. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in West Highland white terriers (WHWTs) shares histopathological features of human usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), the histopathological counterpart of IPF and non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The aim of the present immunohistochemical study was to investigate TGF-β signalling activity and its known extracellular matrix (ECM) regulatory proteins, latent TGF-β binding protein (LTBP)-1 and fibrillin-2, in lung tissue of WHWTs with IPF and healthy WHWTs and to compare these with findings in human UIP and NSIP. P-Smad2 immunoreactivity, indicating TGF-β signalling activity, was increased in WHWTs with IPF relative to healthy WHWTs and expression was localized predominantly in the altered alveolar epithelium, as seen in both UIP and NSIP. Increased peribronchial and perivascular LTBP-1 immunoreactivity was seen in WHWTs with IPF compared with controls, possibly indicating the importance of the small airways in the canine disease. Alveolar LTPB-1 immunolabelling in diseased WHWTs was seen mainly in the altered alveolar epithelium, resembling more closely the labelling in UIP than in NSIP. Alveolar interstitial fibrillin-2 immunoreactivity, which is up-regulated in the lungs of people with UIP, was also detected in the lungs of WHWTs with IPF and people with NSIP. However, no significant difference was seen between WHWTs with IPF and control WHWTs. The results suggest that increased TGF-β signalling and expression of the ECM regulatory proteins LTBP-1 and fibrillin-2 are part of the molecular pathophysiology of canine IPF.