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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Lethal Herpesvirosis in 16 Captive Horned Vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes): Pathological and Ultrastructural Findings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Oct 14.
Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen. Transmission electron microscopy revealed numerous virions (100-110 nm) in the nuclei of endothelial cells and intracytoplasmic enveloped virions (140-150 nm) were also found. The gross and histological findings and the ultrastructural features of the intranuclear inclusions and viral particles were consistent with herpesviral infection. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first reported cases of a lethal herpesvirosis in horned vipers and the second report in snakes.
- GM2 Gangliosidosis in British Jacob Sheep. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Oct 23.
GM2 gangliosidosis (Tay-Sachs disease) was diagnosed in 6- to 8-month-old pedigree Jacob lambs from two unrelated flocks presenting clinically with progressive neurological dysfunction of 10 day's to 8 week's duration. Clinical signs included hindlimb ataxia and weakness, recumbency and proprioceptive defects. Histopathological examination of the nervous system identified extensive neuronal cytoplasmic accumulation of material that stained with periodic acid-Schiff and Luxol fast blue. Electron microscopy identified membranous cytoplasmic bodies within the nervous system. Serum biochemistry detected a marked decrease in hexosaminidase A activity in the one lamb tested, when compared with the concentration in age matched controls and genetic analysis identified a mutation in the sheep hexa allele G444R consistent with Tay-Sachs disease in Jacob sheep in North America. The identification of Tay-Sachs disease in British Jacob sheep supports previous evidence that the mutation in North American Jacob sheep originated from imported UK stock.
- Ultrastructural Morphogenesis of an Amphibian Iridovirus Isolated from Chinese Giant Salamander (Andrias davidianus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Nov 12.
Haemorrhagic disease of Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) (CGSs) is an emerging condition caused by an iridovirus of the genus Ranavirus within the family Iridoviridae. Several studies have described different biological properties of the virus, but some aspects of its replication cycle, including ultrastructural alterations, remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe the morphogenesis of Chinese giant salamander iridovirus (GSIV) in an epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cell line at the ultrastructural level. Cells were infected with GSIV at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 and examined at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 84 and 96 h post infection. GSIV entered EPC cells by endocytosis or fusion after adsorption to the cell membrane. Following uncoating, the viral cores translocated to the nucleus and the virus began to replicate. Different stages of virus self-assembly were observed in the slightly electron-lucent viromatrix near the cell nucleus. In the late phase of virus infection, most nucleocapsids were mature and formed a typical icosahedral shape and aggregated in pseudocrystalline array at the viromatrix or were budding at the plasma membrane. Virus infection was readily detected by electron microscopy before cytopathic effect appeared in cell culture. The EPC cell line represents a suitable in-vitro model for study of GSIV morphogenesis and characterization of the GSIV replication cycle.
- Angiogenesis in Canine Mammary Tumours: A Morphometric and Prognostic Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Nov 11.
Angiogenesis in canine mammary tumours (CMTs) has been described previously; however, only the intratumoural (IT) region has been studied and information on peritumoural (PT) angiogenesis is lacking. In this study, the blood vessel density (BVD), blood vessel perimeter (BVP) and blood vessel area (BVA) in IT and PT regions of 56 benign CMTs, 55 malignant CMTs and 13 samples of normal mammary gland tissue were analyzed. In addition, the blood endothelial cell proliferation (BECP) as an indicator of ongoing angiogenesis was investigated. The prognostic value of each parameter was also examined. Blood vessels and proliferating blood endothelial cells were present in IT and PT regions of both benign and malignant tumours. The vessels in the PT region had a significantly higher area and perimeter compared with those in the IT region. Malignant tumours showed significantly more vessels with a smaller total BVA and a higher BECP compared with benign tumours and control tissue. In the PT regions there was a significantly higher BVD, BVA and BVP compared with the vessels in control tissue. Only the IT and PT BVD and PT BECP in benign tumours allowed prediction of survival. The morphology of blood vessels in CMTs shows similarities with those in human breast cancer, which strengthens the case for the use of dogs with CMTs in comparative oncology trials.
- Lymphangiogenesis in Canine Mammary Tumours: A Morphometric and Prognostic Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Nov 11.
Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common tumours of entire female dogs and represent a promising model for human breast cancer. Little is known about the presence and prognostic value of lymphangiogenesis in CMTs. The aims of the present study were to analyze selected characteristics of lymphatic vessels in CMTs, to evaluate their prognostic significance and to compare these results with studies of human breast cancer. Fifty-six benign CMTs, 55 malignant CMTs and 13 control samples of normal canine mammary gland tissue were studied. Serial immunohistochemical labelling with the lymphatic marker prox-1 and the proliferation marker Ki67 was performed. In intratumoural (IT) and peritumoural (PT) regions, the lymphatic vessel density (LVD), mean lymphatic vessel perimeter (LVP) and relative area occupied by lymphatic vessels (LVA) were analyzed. Lymphatic endothelial cell proliferation (LECP) and tumour cell proliferation (TCP) were also measured. Lymphatic vessels were identified in IT and PT regions and lymphangiogenesis was present in both regions. The IT lymphatic vessels were smaller, less numerous and occupied a smaller relative area compared with those of the PT region. Although no differences in lymphatic vessel parameters were observed between benign and malignant tumours, control tissue differed significantly from neoplastic tissue. None of the lymphatic vessel parameters showed a prognostic value, except for LECP in PT regions of benign tumours. The findings were in accordance with results of investigations into human breast cancer, which supports the use of dogs with spontaneously occurring CMTs as an animal model in comparative oncology trials.
- Reduced Expression of Claudin-2 is Associated with High Histological Grade and Metastasis of Feline Mammary Carcinomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Nov 9.
Claudins (CLDNs) are a family of tight junction (TJ) proteins that play an important role in maintaining cell polarity, in controlling paracellular ion flux and in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. There is a growing body of evidence that associates changes in CLDN expression with the development of human breast cancer. In the present study CLDN-2 expression was examined immunohistochemically in samples of normal feline mammary tissue (n = 5) and mammary carcinomas (n = 52), including metastatic lesions (n = 29). Seventy-seven percent of carcinomas showed reduced CLDN-2 expression compared with that observed in normal mammary gland. Reduced expression of CLDN-2 was significantly associated with a high histological grade of carcinoma (P = 0.011), with 88.6% of grade II/III carcinomas showing decreased expression. Furthermore, CLDN-2 down-regulation was significantly associated with metastatic disease (P = 0.0027), with 93.1% of cases with signs of metastasis showing decreased expression of this protein. CLDN-2 may constitute a molecular marker for identification of a subgroup of feline mammary carcinomas characterized by high histological grade and the development of metastasis.
- Acute Oesophageal Necrosis Concurrent with Leishmania chagasi Infection in a Dog. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Oct 31.
A case of acute oesophageal necrosis concurrent with Leishmania chagasi infection is reported in a 6-year-old female mixed-breed dog. The report describes clinical signs, gross and microscopical lesions and immunohistochemical findings.
- Solitary Tumours Associated with Jaagsiekte Retrovirus in Sheep are Heterogeneous and Contain Cells Expressing Markers Identifying Progenitor Cells in Lung Repair. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Oct 29.
Ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) is a naturally occurring lung cancer of sheep caused by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV). This study examines immunohistochemically solitary lung nodules considered as early OPA lesions from 11 sheep infected naturally by JSRV. All 11 neoplastic nodules exhibited features of adenocarcinoma and in four of them mesenchymal growth was also observed. Both types of lesion were labelled with antibody specific for JSRV-Env. In two cases infiltrating lymphoreticular cells also contained JSRV-Env. All tumours had a high Ki67 labelling index and variably contained cells expressing CC10 (a marker of Clara cells (CCs)), SPC (a marker of type II pneumocytes), p63 and keratin 14 (markers for stem/progenitor cells of the lung airway epithelia). Tumours with mesenchymal growth had intense expression of vimentin and desmin, weak expression of smooth muscle actin and did not express pancytokeratin and p63. Both epithelial and mesenchymal proliferations did not express the stem cell markers CD90 and CD117, but some tumour infiltrating cells expressed CD133. Solitary OPA tumours can therefore be adenocarcinomas or mixed tumours and have a heterogeneous cellular composition, containing groups of cells expressing markers that characterize local progenitor cells involved in lung repair.
- Overexpression of Copper Transporter CTR1 in the Brain Barrier of North Ronaldsay Sheep: Implications for the Study of Neurodegenerative Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Oct 27.
Age-related regulatory failure of the brain barrier towards the influx of redox metals such as copper and iron may be associated with the pathological changes that characterize dementias such as Alzheimer's diseases (ADs) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The integrity of the brain barrier to regulate copper in the brain is maintained by the complex interplay of membrane-located transporters, of which copper transporter 1 (CTR1) exerts a defining role. North Ronaldsay (NR) sheep are a primitive breed that have adapted to a copper-deficient environment by an enhanced uptake of the metal, resulting in copper overload in the liver and brain. This study reports that CTR1 is overexpressed in both the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCB) of adult NR sheep when compared with a domesticated breed. The excess copper is stored ultimately in astrocytes as non-injurious copper-metallothionein (MT). NR sheep have apparently retained an immature regulatory setting for CTR1 in the BBB, promoting facilitated copper uptake into the brain. This putative failure of maturation of CTR1 allows insight into the regulatory control of brain copper homeostasis, whereby the BBB and BCB act in concert to sequester excess copper and protect neurons from injury. The elevated copper content of the ageing human brain may derive from a dysregulation of CTR1 at the brain barrier, with a return to the default (immature) setting and implications for neurodegenerative disease.
- Immunohistochemical Expression of Markers of Immaturity in Sertoli and Seminal Cells in Canine Testicular Atrophy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2013 Sep 21.
During maturation from fetal to adult testis, both Sertoli cells (SCs) and germ cells (GCs) switch from an immature to a mature immunophenotype. Immature canine SCs express cytokeratins (CKs), desmin (DES), vimentin (VIM), anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and inhibin (INH)-α, while mature SCs retain only expression of VIM. Immature GCs express placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), which is lost in spermatocytes. Re-expression of markers of immaturity has been observed in human atrophic testes and in human and canine testicular tumours. In human medicine, testicular atrophy is considered a risk factor for testicular cancer. In the present study 13 canine atrophic testes were examined immunohistochemically. VIM was expressed in the SCs of all cases, while CK, DES, INH-α and AMH were expressed in a variable percentage of SCs in two, five, five and eight cases, respectively. PLAP was expressed by single GCs in one case. Markers of immaturity are therefore expressed by SCs and GCs in canine atrophic testes. Similar results were reported previously in canine testicular neoplasia, suggesting that testicular atrophy may represent a risk factor for tumour development in the dog.