J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Intermittent Haemoptysis due to an Aortobronchial Fistula in a Warmblood Mare. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Aug 14.
A 7-year-old warmblood mare showed sudden onset of mild intermittent haemoptysis. Clinical examination revealed no significant abnormalities. Haematological examination showed mild anaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and neutrophilia. Coagulation tests were normal. Endoscopic examination revealed unilateral pulmonary haemorrhage with blood clots in the bronchi and trachea. Treatment with antibiotics was started and the horse was given stable rest. Two weeks later, the horse was found dead with blood and frothy sputum leaking from the nostrils. Post-mortem examination revealed a large thoracic aortic aneurysm communicating with a pseudoaneurysm that had formed a fistula into a right bronchial branch. Microscopical examination of the aneurysm showed extensive medial fibrosis with prominent degeneration, fragmentation and mineralization of the elastic fibres and deposition of mucoid material in the tunica media. The pseudoaneurysm was lined by collagen bundles admixed with fibroblasts and a small amount of adipose tissue. Aortobronchial fistula is a rare condition in man that is usually associated with primary aortic pathology, most often aneurysms. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of a fatal aortobronchial fistula in a horse or any other animal species.
- Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Aug 13.
Maxillae and/or mandibles from 76 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. The museum specimens were acquired between 1932 and 2014. Forty-five specimens (59.2%) were from male animals, 29 (38.2%) from female animals and two (2.6%) from animals of unknown sex, with 58 adults (76.3%) and 18 young adults (23.7%) included in this study. The number of teeth available for examination was 830 (33.6%); 18.5% of teeth were absent artefactually, 3.3% were deemed to be absent due to acquired tooth loss and 44.5% were absent congenitally. The theoretical complete dental formula was confirmed to be I 3/3, C 1/1, P 4/3, M 2/2, while the most probable dental formula is I 1/0, C 1/1, P 3/3, M 0/0; none of the specimens in this study possessed a full complement of theoretically possible teeth. The majority of teeth were normal in morphology; only five teeth (0.6% of available teeth) were malformed. Only one tooth had an aberrant number of roots and only one supernumerary tooth was encountered. No persistent deciduous teeth were found in any of the young adult or adult specimens, nor were any specimens affected by enamel hypoplasia. The majority of teeth (85.5%) displayed attrition/abrasion. Of the adult and young adult specimens, 90.8% showed some degree of attrition/abrasion on at least one tooth. Tooth fractures were noted in eight walruses, affecting 10.5% of specimens and 1.3% of the total number of teeth, nearly three-quarters of which were maxillary canine teeth (tusks). Three specimens (3.9%), all adult males, displayed overt periapical disease. The majority (99.2%) of dental alveoli did not have bony changes indicative of periodontitis, with only five specimens (6.6%) affected by periodontitis. Lesions consistent with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) were found in 46 specimens (60.5%) and TMJ-OA was significantly more common in adults than young adults and males than females. Although the clinical significance of dental and TMJ pathology in the walrus remains unknown, the occurrence and severity of these lesions may play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of this species.
- Immunohistochemical Expression of P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein in Canine Mammary Hyperplasia, Neoplasia and Supporting Stroma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Aug 12.
The ability of a tumour to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs is known as multidrug resistance and is often due to the expression of ATP-dependent binding cassette transporters (ABC-transporters) such as P-glycoprotein (PGP) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). In this study, the expression of PGP and BCRP was determined in the components of hyperplastic and neoplastic canine mammary glands, including the supporting stroma. The variation of expression of these molecules in carcinomas was evaluated between lesions of different histological stage and grade of malignancy. Samples included 47 hyperplastic tissues and 10 benign and 46 malignant neoplasms. Tumours were classified into histological subtype, histological stage and grade. Immunohistochemical evaluation of PGP and BCRP expression showed that both markers are potentially expressed by epithelial cells, myoepithelial cells in complex tumours and mesenchymal cells in mixed tumours, but expression of both proteins was significantly higher in malignant epithelial cells versus hyperplastic epithelium or the epithelium of benign tumours. BCRP showed significantly higher expression in epithelial cells of simple carcinomas versus those of complex and mixed carcinomas. Grade II and III carcinomas had higher epithelial PGP expression than grade I tumours. The positivity of stromal fibroblasts was higher in histological stage II versus I carcinomas, and in histological grade II versus I carcinomas. Malignant and invasive tumours were more likely to express PGP and/or BCRP in luminal and stromal components and evaluation of these markers could provide valuable information for the identification of tumours characterized by an aggressive and chemoresistant phenotype.
- Companion Animals as a Source of Viruses for Human Beings and Food Production Animals. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Aug 10.
Companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. Despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viruses and viruses of food production animals, and prioritized these viruses in terms of human health and economic importance. In total, 138 virus species reportedly capable of infecting companion animals were of concern for human and food production animal health: 59 of these viruses were infectious for human beings, 135 were infectious for food production mammals and birds, and 22 were infectious for food production fishes. Viruses of highest concern for human health included hantaviruses, Tahyna virus, rabies virus, West Nile virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, Aichi virus, European bat lyssavirus, hepatitis E virus, cowpox virus, G5 rotavirus, influenza A virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production mammals and birds included bluetongue virus, African swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth disease virus, lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus, porcine circovirus, classical swine fever virus, equine herpesvirus 9, peste des petits ruminants virus and equine infectious anaemia virus. Viruses of highest concern for food production fishes included cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (koi herpesvirus), viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. Of particular concern as sources of zoonotic or food production animal viruses were domestic carnivores, rodents and food production animals kept as companion animals. The current list of viruses provides an objective basis for more in-depth analysis of the risk of companion animals as sources of viruses for human and food production animal health.
- Dental and Temporomandibular Joint Pathology of the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 29.
Museum specimens (maxillae and/or mandibles) from 317 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria and 249 specimens were included in this study. The specimens were acquired between 1906 and 2011. There were 126 specimens (50.6%) from male animals, 93 (37.3%) from female animals and 30 (12.1%) from animals of unknown sex. The ages of the animals ranged from neonate to adult, with 125 adults (50.2%) and 124 young adults (49.8%) included and neonates/juveniles excluded from the study. The number of teeth available for examination was 7,638 (73.5%); 12.3% of teeth were absent artefactually, 0.8% were deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 13.4% were absent congenitally. With respect to tooth morphology, 20 teeth (0.26% of available teeth) in 18 specimens (7.2% of available specimens) were small vestigial structures with crowns that were flush with the level of surrounding alveolar bone. One supernumerary tooth and one tooth with enamel hypoplasia were encountered. Persistent deciduous teeth and teeth with an aberrant number of roots were not found. Relatively few teeth (3.7%) displayed attrition/abrasion, 90% of which were the maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth, in 41 polar bears (16.5%). Nearly twice as many adult specimens exhibited attrition/abrasion as those from young adults; significantly more males were affected than females. Dental fractures were noted in 52 polar bears, affecting 20.9% of specimens and 1.3% of the total number of teeth present. More adult polar bears had dental fractures than young adults. There were 21 specimens (8.4%) that displayed overt periapical disease, affecting a total of 24 dental alveoli (0.23%). Some degree of periodontitis was seen in 199 specimens (79.9%); however, only 12.6% of dental alveoli had bony changes indicative of periodontitis. Lesions consistent with temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis (TMJ-OA) were found in 23 specimens (9.2%). TMJ-OA was significantly more common in adults than in young adults and in males than in females. Although the clinical significance of dental and TMJ pathology in the polar bear remains elusive, the occurrence and severity of these lesions may play an important role in the morbidity and mortality of this species.
- Characterization of Immune System Cell Subsets in Fixed Tissues from Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 27.
Immune system cell subsets in lymph nodes and spleen from alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra subspecies rupicapra) living in the Italian Alps were characterized immunohistochemically. Seven primary antibodies (against human CD3, CD79αcy, CD68, or ovine CD4, CD8, CD21 and γδ T-cell receptor [TCR] epitopes) were tested on tissues fixed either in formalin or in zinc salts (ZS) and cross-reactivity with chamois immune cell epitopes was shown. ZS fixation allowed wider identification of immune cells, without the need for antigen retrieval. CD4(+) and CD21(+) cells were labelled only in ZS-fixed tissues. Reagents specific for human CD3, CD79 and CD68 antigens successfully detected chamois immune cells, both in ZS-fixed and formalin-fixed tissues. The reactivity and distribution of immune cells in lymph nodes and spleen were similar to those described in other domestic and wild ruminants. Results from this study may allow future investigation of the immune response and pathogenesis of diseases in the chamois.
- Cutaneous Ossifying Fibroma in a Neon Tetra (Paracheirodon innesi). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 27.
A cutaneous proliferative mass was identified arising from the caudal peduncle of a captive neon tetra fish (Paracheirodon innesi). The lesion was histologically consistent with an ossifying fibroma (OF), a fibro-osseous proliferative lesion typically identified in the jaws or tooth-associated supportive tissues of mammals. Although it has been previously reported, there is no recent report of this lesion occurring in a fish. This is the first report of a cutaneous ossifying fibroma in a characin fish. The authors speculate on the pathogenesis of this lesion, which may have arisen from the scale-associated mesenchymal tissues.
- Fungal Diseases: the Last Frontier? [EDITORIAL]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 27.
- Pathological, Immunohistochemical and Molecular Findings Associated with Senecavirus A-Induced Lesions in Neonatal Piglets. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 26.
This study investigated the cause of the mortality of piglets with cutaneous, enteric and neurological disorders from seven pig farms located in different geographical regions of Brazil. Twelve 1- to 5-day-old piglets were submitted for pathological evaluation. The principal gross findings included faint rib impressions on the pleural surface of the lungs (n = 9), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 6) and ulcerative lesions at the coronary band (n = 5). Histopathology revealed interstitial pneumonia (n = 12), myocarditis (n = 6), diphtheritic glossitis (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 3) and atrophy of intestinal villi with vacuolation of the superficial epithelial cells (n = 6). Immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies specific for Senecavirus A (SenV-A) demonstrated immunoreactivity of the choroid plexus of the cerebrum, degenerate epithelium of ulcerative lesions of the tongue, the urothelium of the kidney and urinary bladder, and the superficial cells of the intestine. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), PCR and/or quantitative PCR assays were used to investigate viral agents associated with vesicular and/or enteric diseases. Antigens and RNA of SenV-A were identified in multiple tissues of all piglets; molecular assays for all other viruses evaluated yielded negative results. These findings confirm the participation of SenV-A in the multiple lesions observed in these piglets. Several theories are proposed: SenV-A may be eliminated via the urinary system, neurological disease may occur due to initial invasion of choroid plexus, enteric disease may be related to atrophy and fusion of villi of the small intestine, and vertical transmission could be a form of dissemination.
- On the Pathology of Some Specific Granulomata in Horses and Cattle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2016 Jul 25.