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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Oxidative Modification, Inflammation and Amyloid in the Normal and Diabetic Cat Pancreas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 11.
The pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction leading to pancreatic β-cell failure seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus is incompletely understood. Pancreatic tissues were collected from nine control cats and nine diabetic cats and labelled immunohistochemically to examine expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Thioflavin-S was used to stain for amyloid. All control cats showed positive labelling for IL-1β and 4-HNE. Diabetic cats showed varying degrees of inflammation and oxidative modification, owing in large part to the very small amount of islet structure remaining in the typical diabetic cat pancreas. Amyloid deposition was identified in 8/9 diabetic cats and 1/9 control cats. In order to validate these findings, paired biopsy samples taken from an additional group of cats enrolled in a study of obesity and hyperglycaemia (sampling at baseline and after 8-16 weeks of obesity and hyperglycaemia) were labelled for IL-1β and 4-HNE. A similar pattern of labelling was identified in the baseline samples to that seen in control cats. A significant increase in IL-1β and 4-HNE expression was seen after a period of hyperglycaemia and obesity. Taken together, these findings suggest that while present in normal cats, markers of inflammation and oxidative modification increase very early during the development of disease. Future studies focusing on these earlier time points are needed to understand the factors that function in protection of the islet β cell and the development of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes mellitus in the cat.
- Protective Effects of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Glycoprotein D in Pregnant BALB/c Mice Challenged with Different Strains of Equine Herpesvirus 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 11.
Equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 induces respiratory infection, neurological disorders and abortion in horses. Most of the currently available attenuated or inactivated vaccines against this infection are administered intramuscularly and only provide partial protection against the respiratory disease. The present study examines the effect of intranasal immunization with purified EHV-1 recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) in BALB/c mice followed by challenge with three different EHV-1 strains during early to mid-pregnancy. The induced viral infection was evaluated by virus isolation, DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction, histopathology and immunohistochemical localization of antigen in the lung, placenta and uterus. Non-immunized mice showed clinical signs of infection, positive virus isolation from lungs and uteri, and abortion induced by one of the virus strains. Endometrial lesions developed in some of these animals that have been described previously only in horses. Immunized mice and their offspring had no viral infection or typical lesions. Intranasally administered gD therefore induced partial or complete protection against three different EHV-1 strains in BALB/c mice.
- Expression of Nestin in Remodelling of α-Naphthylisothiocyanate-induced Acute Bile Duct Injury in Rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 August - October; 151(2-3):255-263.
The function of the intermediate filament protein nestin is poorly understood. The significance of nestin expression was assessed in α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholangiocyte injury lesions in F344 rats. Liver samples obtained from rats injected intraperitoneally with ANIT (75 mg/kg) on post-injection days 0 (control) and 1-12 were labelled immunohistochemically for expression of nestin and markers specific for mesenchymal cells (vimentin), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]), endothelial cells (rat endothelial cell antigen [RECA]-1), cholangiocytes (cytokeratin [CK] 19) and cellular proliferation (Ki67). Cholangiocyte injury led to infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages followed by aggregation of mesenchymal cells and regeneration of bile ducts. Nestin expression was detected in mesenchymal cells (vimentin positive) on days 1-7 with a peak on days 3-5 and in newly-formed RECA-1-positive endothelial cells on day 3. Nestin expression was also observed in regenerating CK19-positive cholangiocytes on days 2-5, with a peak on day 3. Labelling for Ki67 showed proliferation of cholangiocytes, mesenchymal cells and HSCs. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with microdissected samples showed significantly elevated nestin mRNA on day 3. The findings suggest an association between nestin expression and cellular proliferation. Based on these findings, it was considered that nestin-expressing mesenchymal cells, HSCs and endothelial cells may be possible progenitors of repopulating cholangiocytes. Nestin expression may serve as an indicator for cellular remodelling and behaviour of injured and repopulating bile ducts.
- Comparison of Renal Biomarkers with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Susceptibility to the Detection of Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 31.
Fourteen renal biomarkers were compared with measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in beagle dogs given gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection) for 7 consecutive days. Serum and urinary biomarkers were measured before administration of gentamicin and then on days 4 and 8 after starting administration. GFR was derived by use of a simplified equation. Increased urinary cystatin C and decreased GFR occurred from day 4 and were detected before increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations and changes in other urinary parameters. The closest correlation was between urinary cystatin C and GFR. At termination, microscopical examination revealed extensive necrosis of proximal tubular epithelium with hyaline casts in the kidney of treated dogs. These data indicate that urinary cystatin C is the most sensitive index of kidney injury and GFR reflects the kidney functional mass.
- Congenital multifocal increase of purkinje fibres in a calf with cardiac conduction delay. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug-Oct; 151(2-3):234-7.
A female 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian calf was presented in heart failure. Microscopical examination of samples of the cardiac wall taken at necropsy examination revealed numerous aggregates of Purkinje fibres, particularly in the perivascular areas. Some Purkinje fibres were stained strongly with phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and immunohistochemically were shown to express alpha smooth muscle actin, indicating an embryonic-like Purkinje fibre phenotype. A diagnosis of congenital multifocal increase of Purkinje fibres was made. The histological features of this case resemble multifocal cardiac Purkinje cell tumour of the heart in man.
- Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Japanese Forest Green Tree Frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 18.
Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs.
- CD117 Expression Influences Proliferation but not Survival in Canine Mammary Tumours. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 12.
CD117 is a transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptor encoded by the c-Kit proto-oncogene. The immunohistochemical expression of CD117 was examined in 49 specimens of canine mammary glands (eight normal/hyperplastic, 11 benign tumours and 30 malignant tumours). Expression was assessed as: (1) presence or absence of CD117; (2) membrane, cytoplasmic, or both, distributions; and (3) percentage of CD117-labelled cells. None of these three immunohistochemical parameters was correlated with the type of mammary tissue (i.e. normal, benign or malignant), histotypes or histological stage of malignant tumours, or survival. An association was observed between Ki67 index and all three CD117 labelling parameters only for malignant tumours, with a significant increase in proliferative activity in tumours expressing CD117, mainly with both cytoplasmic and membrane expression.
- Necrotizing and Eosinophilic Masticatory Myositis in Farmed Mink: a Preliminary Description. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 9.
This report describes necrotizing and eosinophilic myositis affecting the masticatory muscles of a group of mink. Affected animals demonstrated sudden death with marked subcutaneous oedema over the dorsal head. The temporalis and masseter muscles were pale, swollen and friable. Histologic changes consisted of varying degrees of myodegeneration, myonecrosis and inflammation. Eosinophils were prominent in the inflammatory infiltrate. Similar to dogs, masticatory muscles in mink were found to contain unique type 2M fibres, suggesting a possible target for an immune response. Aerobic and anaerobic tissue cultures of the affected musculature revealed no significant pathogens. Histological and nutritional analyses were not typical of vitamin E/selenium deficiency. This case series supports the existence of a novel disease entity in mink with some features comparable with masticatory muscle myositis in dogs.
- Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis in a Calf with Nephrotic Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 5.
A 2-month-old Japanese black calf was presented with a history of weight loss, exophthalmos and subcutaneous oedema of the brisket. Urinalysis and serum biochemistry showed proteinuria and hypoproteinaemia suggestive of nephrotic syndrome. Microscopically, lesions in the kidney were characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells and diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membranes with the appearance of double contours. Immune complex deposits were confirmed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence using reagents specific for bovine immunoglobulin G, complement factor C3 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Consequently, the glomerular lesion in this case was diagnosed as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. BVDV type 1 was detected in serum by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was also identified in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence. These results suggest that BVDV may have been the cause of immune complex glomerulonephritis in this calf.
- Meningoencephalitis in a Dog Due to Trichosporon montevideense. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 5.
Meningoencephalitis due to infection with Trichosporon montevideense was diagnosed in a 4-year-old dog with a brief clinical history of rapidly progressing neurological signs that culminated in a comatose state. No significant gross lesions were found at post-mortem examination. Microscopically, a few scattered areas of pyogranulomatous inflammation with a few small, non-pigmented fungal hyphae were found within the cerebrum surrounding the lateral ventricles. A Trichosporon sp. was identified through culture of the brain and species was determined via sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of the Trichosporon rRNA gene. DNA in-situ hybridization confirmed the diagnosis. This is the first reported case of Trichosporon-associated meningoencephalitis in a dog.