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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Platelet-derived Growth Factors and Receptors in Canine Lymphoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 27.
Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) belong to a family of polypeptide growth factors that signal through cell surface tyrosine kinase receptors to stimulate growth, proliferation and differentiation. Platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs) are also considered important targets for specific kinase inhibitors in the treatment of several human tumours. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PDGF-A, PDGF-B, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β in canine lymphoma by determining gene and protein expression in lymph nodes of dogs with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), T-lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and in healthy control dogs. One lymph node was also studied at the end of therapy in a subset of dogs in remission for DLBCL. In controls, PDGF-A, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β mRNA levels were significantly higher than in DLBCLs, PTCLs and T-LBLs. However, PDGFR-α and PDGFR-β were minimally expressed by lymphocytes and plasma cells in normal lymph nodes as determined by immunohistochemistry, while neoplastic B and T cells showed the highest score (P <0.05). This discordant result may be compatible with the constitutive expression of these molecules by endothelial cells and fibroblasts in normal lymph nodes, thereby influencing gene expression results. Furthermore, these cells were not included in the immunohistochemical analysis. Similarly, dogs with DLBCL that were in remission at the end of therapy showed significantly higher gene expression of PDGFs and receptors than at the time of diagnosis and with an opposite trend to the protein assay. PDGF-B protein and mRNA were overexpressed in PTCLs and T-LBLs when compared with DLBCLs and controls (P <0.05). Additionally, there was a correlation between protein expression of PDGF-B and both PDGFRs in PTCLs and T-LBLs, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine loop in the aetiology of aggressive canine T-cell lymphomas. These data provide a rationale for the use of PDGFR antagonists in the therapy of aggressive T-cell lymphomas, but not in DLBCLs.
- Correlation of Nodal Mast Cells with Clinical Outcome in Dogs with Mast Cell Tumour and a Proposed Classification System for the Evaluation of Node Metastasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 26.
Lymph node metastasis in dogs with mast cell tumour has been reported as a negative prognostic indicator; however, no standardized histological criteria exist to define metastatic disease. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different histological patterns of node-associated mast cells correlate with clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumour. A secondary goal was to propose a criteria-defined classification system for histological evaluation of lymph node metastasis. The Colorado State University Diagnostic Medicine Center database was searched for cases of canine mast cell tumours with reported lymph node metastasis or evidence of node-associated mast cells. Additional cases were obtained from a clinical trial involving sentinel lymph node mapping and node extirpation in dogs with mast cell neoplasia. Forty-one cases were identified for inclusion in the study. Demographic data, treatment and clinical outcome were collected for each case. Lymph nodes were classified according to a novel classification system (HN0-HN3) based on the number of, distribution of, and architectural disruption by, nodal mast cells. The findings of this study indicate that characterization of nodal mast cells as proposed by this novel classification system correlates with, and is prognostic for, clinical outcome in dogs with mast cell tumours.
- Mixed Glioma (Oligoastrocytoma) in the Brain of an African Hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 26.
This report describes an oligoastrocytoma in the brain of a 3.5-year-old female pet African hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris) that showed progressive central nervous system signs for 6 months. Microscopical examination of the brain revealed a widely infiltrative, deep-seated glioma within the white matter of the cerebral hemispheres, basal nuclei, hippocampus, thalamus, midbrain, pons and the medulla of the cerebellum with extension of neoplastic cells into the cerebral cortex and overlying leptomeninges. Morphological features of the neoplastic cells, together with variable immunohistochemical expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Olig-2 and Nogo-A, indicated the presence of intermingled astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumour cells with an astrocytic component of approximately 40% consistent with an oligoastrocytoma. The distribution of the tumour is consistent with gliomatosis cerebri.
- Immunohistochemical Expression of Ionized Calcium Binding Adapter Molecule 1 in Cutaneous Histiocytic Proliferative, Neoplastic and Inflammatory Disorders of Dogs and Cats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 26.
Ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba1) has been used widely as a marker for microglial cells and, recently, was also recognized as a 'pan-macrophage marker', as it is expressed by all subpopulations of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. To determine the specificity of Iba1 as an immunohistochemical marker for canine and feline histiocytic proliferative, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders of the skin, we evaluated its expression in two types of histiocytic tumours, two non-neoplastic histiocytic proliferative conditions, one case of granulomatous dermatitis and four non-histiocytic tumours. Cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in all cases of canine cutaneous histiocytoma (9/9), reactive histiocytosis (9/9), histiocytic sarcomas (5/5), feline progressive dendritic cell histiocytosis (3/3) and macrophages in cutaneous mycobacteriosis (7/7) showed strong cytoplasmic expression of Iba1. Neoplastic cells of melanomas (10/10), lymphomas (7/7), mast cell tumours (7/7) and plasmacytomas (4/4) did not express Iba1. Iba1 is therefore a useful marker of cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage in canine and feline inflammatory, proliferative and neoplastic conditions and can be used to identify these cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded tissues. Iba1 is not able to differentiate between macrophages and dendritic antigen presenting cells and expression does not allow classification of these histiocytic disorders.
- Oxidative Modification, Inflammation and Amyloid in the Normal and Diabetic Cat Pancreas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 11.
The pathogenesis of β-cell dysfunction leading to pancreatic β-cell failure seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus is incompletely understood. Pancreatic tissues were collected from nine control cats and nine diabetic cats and labelled immunohistochemically to examine expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, insulin, islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Thioflavin-S was used to stain for amyloid. All control cats showed positive labelling for IL-1β and 4-HNE. Diabetic cats showed varying degrees of inflammation and oxidative modification, owing in large part to the very small amount of islet structure remaining in the typical diabetic cat pancreas. Amyloid deposition was identified in 8/9 diabetic cats and 1/9 control cats. In order to validate these findings, paired biopsy samples taken from an additional group of cats enrolled in a study of obesity and hyperglycaemia (sampling at baseline and after 8-16 weeks of obesity and hyperglycaemia) were labelled for IL-1β and 4-HNE. A similar pattern of labelling was identified in the baseline samples to that seen in control cats. A significant increase in IL-1β and 4-HNE expression was seen after a period of hyperglycaemia and obesity. Taken together, these findings suggest that while present in normal cats, markers of inflammation and oxidative modification increase very early during the development of disease. Future studies focusing on these earlier time points are needed to understand the factors that function in protection of the islet β cell and the development of islet pathology in type 2 diabetes mellitus in the cat.
- Protective Effects of Intranasal Immunization with Recombinant Glycoprotein D in Pregnant BALB/c Mice Challenged with Different Strains of Equine Herpesvirus 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug 11.
Equine herpesvirus (EHV)-1 induces respiratory infection, neurological disorders and abortion in horses. Most of the currently available attenuated or inactivated vaccines against this infection are administered intramuscularly and only provide partial protection against the respiratory disease. The present study examines the effect of intranasal immunization with purified EHV-1 recombinant glycoprotein D (gD) in BALB/c mice followed by challenge with three different EHV-1 strains during early to mid-pregnancy. The induced viral infection was evaluated by virus isolation, DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction, histopathology and immunohistochemical localization of antigen in the lung, placenta and uterus. Non-immunized mice showed clinical signs of infection, positive virus isolation from lungs and uteri, and abortion induced by one of the virus strains. Endometrial lesions developed in some of these animals that have been described previously only in horses. Immunized mice and their offspring had no viral infection or typical lesions. Intranasally administered gD therefore induced partial or complete protection against three different EHV-1 strains in BALB/c mice.
- Expression of Nestin in Remodelling of α-Naphthylisothiocyanate-induced Acute Bile Duct Injury in Rats. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug-Oct; 151(2-3):255-63.
The function of the intermediate filament protein nestin is poorly understood. The significance of nestin expression was assessed in α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT)-induced cholangiocyte injury lesions in F344 rats. Liver samples obtained from rats injected intraperitoneally with ANIT (75 mg/kg) on post-injection days 0 (control) and 1-12 were labelled immunohistochemically for expression of nestin and markers specific for mesenchymal cells (vimentin), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) (desmin and glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP]), endothelial cells (rat endothelial cell antigen [RECA]-1), cholangiocytes (cytokeratin [CK] 19) and cellular proliferation (Ki67). Cholangiocyte injury led to infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages followed by aggregation of mesenchymal cells and regeneration of bile ducts. Nestin expression was detected in mesenchymal cells (vimentin positive) on days 1-7 with a peak on days 3-5 and in newly-formed RECA-1-positive endothelial cells on day 3. Nestin expression was also observed in regenerating CK19-positive cholangiocytes on days 2-5, with a peak on day 3. Labelling for Ki67 showed proliferation of cholangiocytes, mesenchymal cells and HSCs. Real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with microdissected samples showed significantly elevated nestin mRNA on day 3. The findings suggest an association between nestin expression and cellular proliferation. Based on these findings, it was considered that nestin-expressing mesenchymal cells, HSCs and endothelial cells may be possible progenitors of repopulating cholangiocytes. Nestin expression may serve as an indicator for cellular remodelling and behaviour of injured and repopulating bile ducts.
- Comparison of Renal Biomarkers with Glomerular Filtration Rate in Susceptibility to the Detection of Gentamicin-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 31.
Fourteen renal biomarkers were compared with measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in detecting acute kidney injury (AKI) in beagle dogs given gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day by subcutaneous injection) for 7 consecutive days. Serum and urinary biomarkers were measured before administration of gentamicin and then on days 4 and 8 after starting administration. GFR was derived by use of a simplified equation. Increased urinary cystatin C and decreased GFR occurred from day 4 and were detected before increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine concentrations and changes in other urinary parameters. The closest correlation was between urinary cystatin C and GFR. At termination, microscopical examination revealed extensive necrosis of proximal tubular epithelium with hyaline casts in the kidney of treated dogs. These data indicate that urinary cystatin C is the most sensitive index of kidney injury and GFR reflects the kidney functional mass.
- Congenital multifocal increase of purkinje fibres in a calf with cardiac conduction delay. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Aug-Oct; 151(2-3):234-7.
A female 4-month-old Holstein-Friesian calf was presented in heart failure. Microscopical examination of samples of the cardiac wall taken at necropsy examination revealed numerous aggregates of Purkinje fibres, particularly in the perivascular areas. Some Purkinje fibres were stained strongly with phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin and immunohistochemically were shown to express alpha smooth muscle actin, indicating an embryonic-like Purkinje fibre phenotype. A diagnosis of congenital multifocal increase of Purkinje fibres was made. The histological features of this case resemble multifocal cardiac Purkinje cell tumour of the heart in man.
- Mycobacterium marinum Infection in Japanese Forest Green Tree Frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jul 18.
Four Japanese forest green tree frogs (Rhacophorus arboreus) were presented with emaciation, abdominal distention and ulcerative and nodular cutaneous lesions affecting the brisket, limbs, digits and ventral abdomen. Another three frogs had been found dead in the same tank 1 year previously. Necropsy examination of these seven frogs revealed splenomegaly and hepatomegaly, with multiple tan-yellow nodular foci present in the liver, spleen, heart, lungs, ovaries and kidneys. Microscopically, five frogs had necrosis and surrounding granulomatous inflammation in the liver, spleen, kidneys, lungs, intestine and ovaries, with numerous acid-fast bacilli in the areas of necrosis. Two frogs had granulomatous lesions in the lungs, liver, spleen, heart, coelomic membrane, stomach and intestinal wall. These lesions had no or minimal necrosis and few acid-fast bacilli. Mycobacterium spp. was cultured from three frogs and identified as Mycobacterium marinum by colony growth rate and photochromogenicity and DNA sequencing. This is the first report of M. marinum infection in Japanese forest green tree frogs.