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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Early Lesions following Aerosol Challenge of Rhesus Macaques (Macaca mulatta) with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Erdman Strain). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Dec 3.
Three rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), Erdman strain, as part of studies to investigate lesion development at early time points in tuberculosis (TB) and to assess computed tomography (CT) as a method of monitoring disease progression in vivo. Animals were challenged with either a high, mid or low dose of aerosolized Mtb. The low-dose animal was killed humanely at 24 days post challenge (dpc) and the remaining animals at 25 dpc. Abnormalities in clinical parameters were observed in all animals, but clinical signs relating to respiratory disease were not seen. Pulmonary changes consistent with TB infection were detected by CT at 21 dpc and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) post mortem. Pulmonary nodule counts obtained from both imaging techniques were directly proportional to the challenge dose and correlated with gross and microscopical lesion counts. On gross and microscopical examination, lesions of similar size and morphology were observed in the lungs of all three animals, with the majority containing necrotic foci. Concomitant gross and microscopical, granulomatous lesions were observed in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of all animals together with evidence of systemic spread. These findings further contribute to our understanding and knowledge of early lesion formation in the lungs of non-human primates.
- A Case of Feline Gastrointestinal Eosinophilic Sclerosing Fibroplasia Associated with Phycomycetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Oct 13; 151(4):318-321.
Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia (FGESF) is a recently described inflammatory condition of domestic cats with unknown aetiology. A proportion of cases of FGESF are associated with bacteria, but antibiotic treatment is ineffective. It has been hypothesized that genetically predisposed cats may develop FGESF in response to the introduction of bacteria or other antigens into the intestinal wall. A 9-month-old male Persian cat presented with a history of marked acute haematemesis. A mass (10 cm diameter) was detected within the pylorus and proximal duodenum and this was not surgically accessible. On necropsy examination the duodenal wall was seen to be markedly thickened with extensive mucosal ulceration. Microscopically, there were haphazardly oriented trabecular bands of dense eosinophilic collagen, separated by wide, clear areas containing variable numbers of fibroblasts, eosinophils, mast cells, neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes and plasma cells. Numerous pleomorphic, non-parallel walled, sparsely septate hyphae, characteristic of phycomycetes, were present within the collagen matrix. Colonies of gram-positive and gram-negative rods were also present within the lesion. This is the first description of FGESF with intralesional fungi.
- Ileal Ganglioneuromatosis in a Piglet: Histopathological and Immunohistochemical Studies. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 10; 151(4):380-383.
Ganglioneuromatosis (GNM) is a rare condition characterized by the benign proliferation of ganglion cells, nerve fibres and supporting cells of the enteric nervous system. Necropsy examination of a female piglet weighing 4 kg revealed a well-demarcated 20 cm segment of terminal ileum with thickening of the wall. Microscopically, the lamina propria was infiltrated by enteric glial cells and large ganglion cells. Within the submucosal and muscular layers, aggregates of neurons were interlaced by Schwann cells and enteric glial cells arranged in concentric rings. Immunohistochemically, the neurons were weakly labelled for S-100 and neuron-specific enolase, Schwann cells expressed S-100 and vimentin and enteric glial cells expressed glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. Pathological and immunohistochemical findings supported the diagnosis of ileal GNM.
- Age-related Changes in the Articular Cartilage of the Stifle Joint in Non-working and Working German Shepherd Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 11; 151(4):363-374.
The aims of this study were to define age-related histological changes in the articular cartilage of the stifle joint in non-chondrodystrophic dogs and to determine whether physical activity has a positive impact on preservation of cartilage structure during ageing. Twenty-eight German shepherd dogs were included in the study. These dogs had no evidence of joint inflammation as defined by clinical assessment, radiology and synovial fluid analysis (specifically absence of synovial fluid serum amyloid A). The dogs were grouped as young working (n = 4), young non-working (n = 5), aged working (n = 13) and aged non-working (n = 6) animals. Gross changes in the stifle joints were recorded and biopsy samples of femoral and tibial articular cartilage were evaluated for thickness; chondrocyte number, density, surface area and morphology; isogenous group morphology; tidemark integrity; subchondral bone structure; presence of proteoglycans/glycosaminoglycans; and expression of type I, II and X collagens. The major age-related changes, not related to type of physical activity, included elevated chondrocyte density and thinning of tibial cartilage and increased chondrocyte surface area in the superficial and intermediate zone of the femoral cartilage. There was also expression of type X collagen in the femoral and tibial calcified and non-calcified cartilage; however, type X collagen was not detected in the superficial zone of old working dogs. Therefore, ageing, with or without physical activity, leads to slight cartilage degeneration, while physical activity modulates the synthesis of type X collagen in the superficial cartilage zone, partially preserving the structure of hyaline cartilage.
- An Update on the Epidemiology and Pathology of African Swine Fever. [REVIEW]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 11.
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important infectious diseases of swine and has major negative consequences for affected countries. ASF is present in many sub-Saharan countries, Sardinia and several countries of eastern and central Europe, where its continuous spread has the swine industry on heightened alert. ASF is a complex disease for which no vaccine or treatment is available, so its control is based on early detection and rapid control of spread. For a robust and reliable early detection programme it is essential to be able to recognize the clinical signs and pathological changes of ASF, keeping in mind that in most cases the first introductions don't show high mortality nor characteristic clinical signs or lesions, but fever and some hemorrhagic lymph nodes. Knowledge of the main characteristics of this infection, including its current distribution and routes of transmission, is also essential for preventing and controlling ASF. This review addresses each of these topics and aims to update knowledge of the disease in order to improve early detection of ASF in the field and allow implementation of public health programmes.
- Comparative Pathology of Canine Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Possible Models of Human Non-rhabdomyosarcoma Soft Tissue Sarcomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 27.
Comparative analyses of canine and human soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are lacking. This study compared the histological and immunohistochemical (labelling for desmin, smooth muscle actin [SMA], CD31, pancytokeratin, S100 and CD34) appearance of 32 archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin wax-embedded canine STS tumour specimens by board-certified veterinary and medical pathologists, both blinded to the other's interpretations. Comparison between the veterinary and human diagnoses revealed a generally consistent pattern of interpretation with few notable variations. Most tumours (13/32) were judged to display similar histomorphological appearance to human low-grade spindle cell sarcomas, appearing non-distinctive and morphologically of a fibroblastic/myofibroblastic type. Five canine cases resembled human liposarcoma, but with atypical desmin-positive epithelioid cells present. Five canine cases resembled human spindle cell sarcoma with myxoid features and two additional cases resembled human myxofibrosarcoma. Seven canine cases were noted to resemble human undifferentiated sarcoma. Findings in the present study demonstrate that canine STSs display histological and immunohistochemical features similar to their human equivalents. Because of these cross-species similarities, a particular opportunity exists to understand the biology and treatment of human STS by potentially including dogs as clinical models.
- Acute Tracheal Oedema and Haemorrhage with Fibrinonecrotic Tracheitis in Pigs - A Porcine Counterpart of Bovine Honker Syndrome? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 27.
Cases of acute tracheal oedema and haemorrhage with fibrinonecrotic tracheitis have been described in Hungarian pig herds. Clinical signs and gross and microscopical tracheal lesions bore resemblance to those of bovine 'honker syndrome'. Diagnostic examination of affected tracheas and corresponding lungs revealed the presence of a variety of agents; however, in some cases tracheal lesions developed without detectable pathogens or associated pulmonary pathology. In line with the bovine condition, this suggests the possibility of cough-induced tracheal damage as an initiating factor for this tracheal change in swine.
- Absence of Canine Papillomavirus Sequences in Canine Mammary Tumours. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 27.
Human papillomaviruses (PVs) are found in human breast cancer tissue; however, it remains controversial as to whether these viruses play a role in the aetiology of this tumour. There has been minimal study of whether PVs are found in normal or abnormal mammary glands of animals. The present study investigated whether a PV sequence could be found in the mammary glands of 33 female dogs by rolling circle amplification and polymerase chain reaction. No PV DNA was found in normal or neoplastic canine mammary tissues, suggesting that canine PVs are probably not involved in the pathogenesis of canine mammary neoplasia.
- Influence of Breed and Genotype on the Onset and Distribution of Infectivity and Disease-associated Prion Protein in Sheep Following Oral Infection with the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Agent. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov 27.
The onset and distribution of infectivity and disease-specific prion protein (PrP(d)) accumulation was studied in Romney and Suffolk sheep of the ARQ/ARQ, ARQ/ARR and ARR/ARR prion protein gene (Prnp) genotypes (where A stands for alanine, R for arginine and Q for glutamine at codons 136, 154 and 171 of PrP), following experimental oral infection with cattle-derived bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. Groups of sheep were killed at regular intervals and a wide range of tissues taken for mouse bioassay or immunohistochemistry (IHC), or both. Bioassay results for infectivity were mostly coincident with those of PrP(d) detection by IHC both in terms of tissues and time post infection. Neither PrP(d) nor infectivity was detected in any tissues of BSE-dosed ARQ/ARR or ARR/ARR sheep or of undosed controls. Moreover, four ARQ/ARQ Suffolk sheep, which were methionine (M)/threonine heterozygous at codon 112 of the Prnp gene, did not show any biological or immunohistochemical evidence of infection, while those homozygous for methionine (MARQ/MARQ) did. In MARQ/MARQ sheep of both breeds, initial PrP(d) accumulation was identified in lymphoreticular system (LRS) tissues followed by the central nervous system (CNS) and enteric nervous system (ENS) and finally by the autonomic nervous system and peripheral nervous system and other organs. Detection of infectivity closely mimicked this sequence. No PrP(d) was observed in the ENS prior to its accumulation in the CNS, suggesting that ENS involvement occurred simultaneously to that of, or followed centrifugal spread from, the CNS. The distribution of PrP(d) within the ENS further suggested a progressive spread from the ileal plexus to other ENS segments via neuronal connections of the gut wall. Differences between the two breeds were noted in terms of involvement of LRS and ENS tissues, with Romney sheep showing a more delayed and less consistent PrP(d) accumulation than Suffolk sheep in such tissues. Whether this accounted for the slight delay (∼5 months) in the appearance of clinical signs in Romney sheep is debatable since by the last scheduled kill before animals reached clinical end point, both breeds showed widespread accumulation and similar magnitudes of PrP(d) accumulation in the brain.
- Virulence of Two Strains of Mycobacterium bovis in Cattle Following Aerosol Infection. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Nov; 151(4):410-9.
Over the past two decades, highly virulent strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have emerged and spread rapidly in man, suggesting a selective advantage based on virulence. A similar scenario has not been described for Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle (i.e. bovine tuberculosis). An epidemiological investigation of a recent outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in a USA dairy indicated that the causative strain of M. bovis (strain 10-7428) was particularly virulent, with rapid spread within the herd. In the present study, the virulence of this strain (10-7428) was directly compared in the target host with a well-characterized strain (95-1315) of relevance to the USA bovine tuberculosis eradication programme. Aerosol inoculation of 10(4) colony forming units of M. bovis 95-1315 (n = 8) or 10-7428 (n = 8) resulted in a similar distribution and severity of gross and microscopical lesions of tuberculosis as well as mycobacterial colonization, primarily affecting the lungs and lung-associated lymph nodes. Specific cell-mediated and antibody responses, including kinetics of the response, as well as antigen recognition profiles, were also comparable between the two treatment groups. Present findings demonstrate that M. bovis strains 95-1315 and 10-7428 have similar virulence when administered to cattle via aerosol inoculation. Other factors such as livestock management practices likely affected the severity of the outbreak in the dairy.