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J Comp Pathol [journal]
- Automated Analysis of Bone Marrow Aspirates from Dogs with Haematological Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb 26.
Automated analysis of bone marrow (BM) aspirates is a useful 'pre-microscopical' screen to identify hypocellular samples and those with potentially abnormal cells. In order to determine whether automated analysis could also be used to identify haemopoietic abnormalities, EDTA-anticoagulated BM aspirates from 43 dogs were analysed using the Advia 2120 instrument. Corresponding Wright-stained BM smears were evaluated microscopically to determine smear quality, cell composition and 500-cell differential counts, and correlation to automated analysis parameters was computed. Leucocyte cytograms generated by the automated analyzer were scrutinized and compared with those of 'normal' BM. Twenty-three neoplastic and 20 non-neoplastic samples were analysed, including samples from 10 cases of acute myeloid leukaemia, four cases of acute lymphocytic leukaemia, four cases of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, one case of chronic neutrophilic leukaemia, three cases of multiple myeloma, one case of myelodysplastic syndrome, five cases of non-regenerative immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia, one case of immune-mediated neutropenia, three cases of immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, six cases of inflammatory disease, three samples with myelotoxicity and two samples analysed for staging of neoplasia. Automated white blood cell (WBC) counts correlated significantly with smear cellularity, particle cellularity and particle number. There was a significant difference in WBC counts of samples with insufficient versus sufficient particles. Significant correlations between Advia percent neutrophils and microscopical determination of marrow segmented neutrophils/neutrophilic granulocyte reserve, Advia percent lymphocytes and microscopical determination of lymphocytes/rubricytes, Advia percent large unstained cells and microscopical determination of myeloblasts/promyelocytes and between Advia percent eosinophils and manual determination of eosinophils were identified. This suggested that Advia WBC counts may be used to approximate BM sample quality and that Advia differential counts may predict marrow granulocyte reserve and lymphocyte/rubricyte stores. Distinct and consistent alterations in cytogram patterns were observed in cases of acute leukaemia, but were less obvious in chronic leukaemia. Complete automated BM analysis was performed in approximately 2 min, while staining and coverslipping of BM slides required approximately 30 min. Hence, although automated analysis should not supplant microscopical evaluation of BM, it can provide useful ancillary information in a short time and flag potentially inadequate or abnormal samples.
- Dental Pathology of the California Sea Lion (Zalophus californianus). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb 24.
Skulls from 1,085 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined macroscopically according to defined criteria. The museum specimens, 61.8% male and 37.3% female, were acquired from strandings and varied in age from juvenile to adult. The majority of teeth were available for examination (95.7%); 3.8% of teeth were artefactually absent, 0.4% deemed absent due to acquired tooth loss and 0.1% were congenitally absent. Acquired tooth loss was associated significantly with sex (P = 0.004) with males having more tooth loss than females and total ante-mortem tooth loss was associated significantly with age (P <0.0001) with adults having more tooth loss than young adults and juveniles. Eleven teeth were malformed and 81 teeth were observed to have two roots. Supernumerary teeth (usually maxillary molar teeth) were associated with 1.3% of teeth, some specimens demonstrating up to four supernumerary teeth. Thirteen persistent deciduous teeth were identified. A total of 713 specimens showed attrition or abrasion, with 42.4% of teeth affected. A significant association was detected between sex and incidence of abrasion and age and the incidence of abrasion (P <0.0001 for both associations). Males showed more abrasion than females and adults showed more abrasion than young adults or juveniles. Two hundred and sixteen fractured teeth were observed, with root fractures being most prevalent. Fractures were associated significantly with sex and with age (P <0.0001 for each association). Males had more fractures than females and adults had more fractures than young adults and juveniles. Bony changes consistent with periodontitis were found, affecting 19.4% of teeth. Males were shown to have more periodontitis than females and adults were shown to have more periodontitis than young adults and juveniles. Sixty-three periapical lesions were noted.
- Pituitary Null Cell Adenoma in a Domestic Llama (Lama glama). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Mar 3.
Pituitary gland neoplasia has been reported rarely in camelids. A 12-year-old neutered male llama (Lama glama) presented with lethargy, inappetence and neurological signs. On physical examination, the llama was mentally dull and exhibited compulsive pacing and circling to the left. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry revealed haemoconcentration, mild hypophosphataemia, hyperglycaemia, hypercreatininaemia and hyperalbuminaemia. Humane destruction was elected due to rapid clinical deterioration and poor prognosis. Post-mortem examination revealed a pituitary macroadenoma and bilateral internal hydrocephalus. Microscopically, the pituitary tumour was composed of neoplastic chromophobic pituitary cells. Ultrastructural studies revealed similar neoplastic cells to those previously described in human null cell adenomas. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly immunoreactive for neuroendocrine markers (synaptophysin and chromogranin A), but did not exhibit immunoreactivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, neuronal and all major pituitary hormone markers (adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin and thyroid stimulating hormone), consistent with the diagnosis of a pituitary null cell adenoma. This is the first report of pituitary neoplasia in a llama.
- Expression of Protein Gene Product 9.5 and Sal-like Protein 4 in Canine Seminomas. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb 12.
The aim of the present study was to characterize canine classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS) by immunohistochemical expression of gonocytic and spermatogonial cellular markers (c-Kit, placental alkaline phosphatase [PLAP], protein gene product 9.5 [PGP9.5] and Sal-like protein 4 [Sall4]) and histochemically by the periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) reaction. Twenty-five cases of SE and 23 cases of SS were investigated. Two cases of dysgerminoma were also examined. c-Kit was expressed on the cell membrane of 13 of 25 cases of SE (52%) and four of 23 cases of SS (16%). This marker was not expressed in dysgerminoma. PLAP immunoreactivity was observed in the cytoplasm of neoplastic cells of six of 25 cases of SE (24%). PLAP was not expressed in cases of SS and dysgerminoma. All samples of SE, SS and dysgerminoma showed cytoplasmic expression of PGP9.5 and nuclear immunoreactivity for Sall4. There was fine granular cytoplasmic PAS staining in neoplastic cells in five of 25 cases of SE (20%), while all samples of SS and dysgerminoma cases were PAS negative. These findings suggest that it is not possible to differentiate canine SE and SS using these markers. This may be because canine SS may be derived from spermatogonia that can differentiate to spermatocytes and also because cases of canine SE might consist of neoplastic cells that have lost their gonocytic nature. This study was the first to show positive immunoreactivity for Sall4 in canine seminomas and dysgerminomas and expression of PGP9.5 in canine dysgerminomas.
- Verminous Pneumonia and Enteritis due to Hyperinfection with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus in a Kitten. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb 11.
Severe infestation with Aelurostrongylus abstrusus was identified in the lungs and small intestine of a 2-month-old kitten that died due to verminous pneumonia and enteritis. On clinical examination, the kitten had dyspnoea, pneumonia, pleural effusion, ascites and diarrhoea. An interstitial pattern was evident radiographically in the lungs. The kitten died before treatment could be instituted. On gross and histopathological examination, there was severe interstitial pneumonia and large numbers of A. abstrusus eggs and larvae were present in alveoli, together with fewer adult nematodes in small bronchioles. The mucosa of the small intestine was invaded by large numbers of A. abstrusus larvae. The findings were consistent with a hyperinfection syndrome due to A. abstrusus.
- Heat Shock Protein 90 is Associated with Hyperplasia and Neoplastic Transformation of Canine Prostatic Epithelial Cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Jan 28.
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that regulates critical signalling proteins of cancer development and progression. Abnormal levels of HSP90 have been observed in human prostatic carcinoma (PC), with prognostic and therapeutic implications. Since spontaneously arising canine PC is a valuable model for the human disease, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of HSP90 in two normal canine prostates, 17 canine prostates with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and five canine prostates with PC. HSP90 was expressed in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells in all samples, with a significant increase in labelled cells in PCs. Nuclear labelling was observed occasionally in normal tissue, but was increased in BPH and PC. HSP90 immunoreactivity in preneoplastic lesions (proliferative inflammatory atrophy and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) was similar to that in PCs. Increased HSP90 expression in canine PCs suggests the involvement of this molecule in carcinogenesis and tumour progression, supporting HSP90 as a potential target for therapeutic intervention.
- Epidermoid Cysts of the Rumen in a Holstein-Friesian Steer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb 11.
Epidermoid cysts were identified in the rumen of a 2-year-old Holstein-Friesian steer. Small nodules (<4 mm diameter) filled with paste-like, friable, white material were scattered in the rumen wall. Microscopically, the nodules were located in the submucosal connective tissue and comprised of cysts lined by stratified squamous epithelium surrounding keratin debris, exhibiting features identical to those of epidermoid cysts. The cysts were surrounded by chronic inflammation. The ruminal mucosa contained vesicles or cystic cavities filled by inflammatory exudate, in addition to empty cystic spaces lined by flattened endothelial cells, which were possibly of lymphatic origin. The development of these epidermoid cysts might have resulted from implantation of exfoliated squamous epithelial cells from damaged ruminal epithelium into the submucosal connective tissue, although the precise aetiology of this anomaly remains to be defined.
- Primary Central Nervous System T-Cell Lymphoma in a Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis). [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb-Apr; 150(2-3):336-40.
This report describes the pathological findings in an adult female short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) stranded alive in the Canary Islands. Necropsy examination revealed the presence of a nodular neoplastic growth in the central nervous system (CNS) at the level of the thalamus. Microscopical examination revealed the mass to be a lymphoma and immunohistochemical labelling demonstrated a T-cell origin. No significant lesions were observed in other organs, including lymphoid organs. This is the first report of a primary T-cell lymphoma in the CNS in cetaceans.
- Comparative study of infection with tetrahymena of different ornamental fish species. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb-Apr; 150(2-3):316-24.
Tetrahymena is a ciliated protozoan that can infect a wide range of fish species, although it is most commonly reported in guppies (Poecilia reticulata). The aim of this study was to compare the susceptibility to infection with Tetrahymena of five different ornamental fish species from two different super orders. The species examined were platy (Xiphophorus), molly (Poecilia sphenops) and angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) of the Acanthopterygii super order (which also includes guppies) and goldfish (Carassius auratus auratus) and koi carp (Cyprinus carpio) of the Ostariophysi super order. These two super orders are phylogenetically distant from each other. Infection with Tetrahymena resulted in parasite invasion of internal organs, skin and muscle in all fish species. A relatively strong inflammatory response was observed in infected goldfish and koi, with negligible response in fish species of the Acanthopterygii super order. Guppies were the most susceptible to Tetrahymena infection, exhibiting a mortality rate of 87% and 100% in two separate experiments. A high mortality rate was also observed in platy (77%), while that of molly and angelfish was significantly lower (23% and 33%, respectively). Goldfish and koi carp were less susceptible to infection compared with guppies (24% and 59% mortality, respectively). Immunization studies revealed that the Tetrahymena are immunogenic, since infection of koi carp increased their Tetrahymena immobilization response by approximately three-fold at 3 weeks post infection, while immunization with Tetrahymena plus adjuvant increased their immobilization response by approximately 30-fold.
- Effects of Inflammation and Axotomy on Expression of Acetylcholine Transferase and Nitric Oxide Synthetase within the Cocaine- and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript-immunoreactive Neurons of the Porcine Descending Colon. [Journal Article]
- J Comp Pathol 2014 Feb-Apr; 150(2-3):287-96.
This study reports changes in expression of acetylcholine transferase (AChT) and nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) in neurons immunoreactive for cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides during chemically-driven inflammation and axotomy in the porcine descending colon. The co-localization of the neurotransmitters with CART was studied by double immunofluorescence in the myenteric plexus (MP) and outer submucosal plexus (OSP) of the porcine descending colon under physiological and selected pathological conditions. In control animals, neurons expressing CART also expressed AChT in 25.37 ± 0.98% and 26.73 ± 0.96% in the MP and OSP, respectively. Neuronal co-expression of CART with NOS occurred in 90.66 ± 2.13% and 88.09 ± 2.96% in the MP and OSP, respectively. Following axotomy the number of neurons co-expressing CART and AChT decreased to 16.50 ± 3.20% in the MP and increased to 35.49 ± 2.04% in the OSP, while the number of neurons co-expressing CART and NOS increased to 96.66 ± 2.38% in the MP and 97.46 ± 2.22% in the OSP. Experimentally-induced colitis resulted in an increase in the number of neurons co-expressing CART and AChT to 42.40 ± 2.28% in the MP and 63.62 ± 1.83% in the OSP. Similarly, in these animals the number of neurons co-expressing CART and NOS increased to 93.9 ± 2.58% in the MP and 90.43 ± 2.09% in the OSP. Sham-operated controls showed expression levels of 26.22 ± 0.66% (MP) and 27.02 ± 1.73% (OSP) for simultaneous CART and AChT expression and 94.18 ± 0.93% (MP) and 88.21 ± 0.81% (OSP) for CART and NOS co-localization. These data confirm that the examined neurotransmitters have a role in traumatic and inflammatory responses of enteric neurons.