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J Egypt Soc Parasitol [journal]
- Risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among children. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):287-94.
Intestinal parasites are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. The effective prevention and control of intestinal parasitic infections requires identification of local risk factors, particularly among high-risk groups. This study retrospectively analyzed demographic factors that may affect the prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children. Interviews, observation, and anthropometric indices assessment were used to identify the risk factors. The findings of the study showed that young age, female gender, and severe malnutrition, Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections all correlated positively with increased rates of infection. Clinical visits were performed on 650 school children aged 5-15 years over a four-year period (2010-2013) in the Nahya Village, Giza Governorate. Stool specimens were examined using the formal ether concentration technique. Data were analysed using the SPSS statistical software. The results suggest that the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites among young children is highly dependent on the specific species of the parasite.
- Changing pattern of fascioliasis prevalence early in the 3rd millennium in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt: an update. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):275-86.
Fascioliasis is an important food- and water-borne parasitic zoonosis caused by liver flukes of genus Fasciola (Digenea: Fasciolidae) of worldwide distribution. In Egypt, fascioliasis was encountered in nearly all Egyptian Governorates, particularly in the Nile Delta and specifically in Dakahlia. All enrolled cases were subjected to complete history taking, clinical examination, routine investigations and abdominal ultrasonography. Stool analysis, IHA and ELISA were used for fascioliasis diagnosis. Rural areas showed highest prevalence of fascioliasis than urban areas, however, but.without significance (x2= 0.042 & P= 0.837). Regarding human fascioliasis in examined the centers, no statistically significant difference (x2 =2.824 & P=0.243) was detected. Regarding gender variation, the difference was statistically insignificant (x2= 0.166 & P= 0.683). The difference between the age groups was statistically insignificant (x2= 3.882 & P=0.274). Clinically, 7 cases (35%) were asymptomatic and another 13 cases (65%) had different clinical pictures. Abdominal pain, anemia, eosinophilia, and tender hepatomegaly were seen in 70%, 80%, 70%, and 10%; respectively. Of them, 1 1cases showed positive abdominal ultrasonographic findings suggestive of fascioliasis.
- Scanning electron microscopy of Subulura brumpti from domestic chicken gallus gallus domesticus from Taif, Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):269-74.
The nematode Subulura brumpti is described from the caecae of the domestic fowl collected from Taif, Saudi Arabia. The surface topography of the worms is described using scanning electron microscopy. This included the description of mouth opening, sensory papillae, cuticular surface, copulatory spicules and copulatory papillae.
- Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites biodiversity of Rattus rattus trapped from Khan Younis and Jabalia in Gaza strip, Palestine. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):259-68.
This study identified the zoonotic endo-parasites and ecto-parasites of Rattus rattus. A total of 41 rats of house (black) rat and Norway (brown) rat were trapped from two regions of Gaza strip. After dissection, isolated protozoa, nematodes and cestodes were identified respectively according standard keys. The results showed that prevalence of intestinal parasites among rats was 24/41 (58.5%) and males were infected more than females. A high prevalence of protozoa was in autumn compared to other seasons. The intestinal parasites were encountered: G. lamblia 6 (14.6%); E. histolytica/dispar 7 (17.1%); Isospora 4 (9.8%); Acanthocephala 1 (2.4%); Syphacia obvelata 6 (20%); Heligmonoides josephi 3(10%); Strongyloides egg 1 (2.4%); Hymenolepis diminuta 15 (36.6%). The insects were Xenopsylla cheopis 7 (17.1%); Polyplax spinulosa 3 (7.3%).
- Digestive enzyme as benchmark for insecticide resistance development in Culex pipiens larvae to chemical and bacteriologic insecticides. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):245-58.
This work monitored changes in some digestive enzymes (trypsin and aminopeptidase) associated with the building up of resistance in Cx. pipiens larvae to two chemical insecticides (methomyl and/or malathion) and one biological insecticide (Bacillus thuringiensis-H14 or B.t H 14). The LC50 value of methomyl for both field- and the 12th generation (F12) of the selected strain was 1.789 ppm and 8.925 ppm respectively. The LC50 value of malathion for both field and the F12 of the selected strain was 0.082 ppm and 0.156 ppm respectively, and those of B.t H14 of field strain and the F12 was 2.550ppm & 2.395ppm respectively. The specific activity of trypsin enzyme in control susceptible colony was 20.806 +/- 0.452micromol/min/mg protein; but at F4 and F8 for malathion and methomyl treated larvae were 10.810 +/- 0.860 & 15.616+/-0.408 micromol/min/mg protein, respectively. Trypsin activity of F12 in treated larvae with B.t.H14 was 2.097 +/- 0.587 microiol/min/mg protein. Aminopeptidase specific activity for susceptible control larvae was 173.05 +/- 1.3111 micromol/min/mg protein. This activity decreased to 145.15 +/- 4.12, 152.497 +/- 6.775 & 102.04 +/- 3.58a micromol/min/mg protein after larval (F 12) treatment with methomyl, malathion and B.t H 14 respectively.
- Expression of Fas protein (CD95) and Fas ligand in liver tissue of patients with HCV-induced chronic liver disease and its correlation with the disease progression. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):235-44.
This study evaluated hepatic expression of both Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in patients with hepatitis c virus (HCV)-induced chronic liver disease and its correlation with the histopathological activity and laboratory parameters as an early predictor of advancement of the disease. The selected patients were (39) males and (21) females, their ages ranged from (20-67years) with a mean of 43.5 +/- 4.5 years, as well as (10) subjects (normal individuals) serving as a control group. They were (7) males and (3) females, their age ranged from (26-53 years) with a mean of 39.5 +/- 7.3 years. Patients were grouped as (1) Chronic hepatitis (CH) group including (30) patients with chronic viral hepatitis C. (2) Liver cirrhosis (LC) group including (30) patients with post hepatitis C cirrhosis. Liver biopsy was done for all subjects using an automated 18-gauge true cut needle. Sections were stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin for histopathological diagnosis and with Maisson and Trichrome for assessment of fibrosis. Unstained paraffin sections from each case were subjected for immuno-histochemical procedures using indirect immunoflourescence technique for detection of apoptotic hepatic and lymphocytic cells using monoclonal antibodies. Semiquantitative analysis of the pattern and distribution of the Fas antigen and Fas Ligand as indicators for hepatic apoptosis was studied and assessed.
- Phenolic content, antioxidant potential and Aedes aegyptii ecological friend larvicidal activity of some selected Egyptian plants. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):215-34.
Polyphenols constitute a distinct group of natural compounds of medicinal importance exhibiting wide range of physiological activities as antioxidant, immunestimulant, antitumor and antiparasitic. Yellow fever and dengue fever are mosquito-borne infectious diseases transmitted by Aedes aegyptii, the presence of yellow fever in Sudan and dengue fever in Saudi Arabia are threats to Egypt with the reemerging of Ae. aegyptii in Southern Egypt, larvae control is feasible than flying adults. This work was conducted targeting estimation of the relative levels of total phenolic content, antioxidant potential and larvicidal activity of 110 selected Egyptian plants. The highest total phenolic contents were estimated in aqueous extracts of Coronilla scorpioides L., Forsskaolea tenacissima L., Crataegus sinaica Boiss., Pistacia khinjuk Boiss. and Loranthus acacia Benth.; they were 916.70 +/- 4.80, 813.70 +/- 4.16, 744.90 +/- 4.93, 549.00 +/- 3.93& 460.80 +/- 4.02 mg% while those of methanol extracts were estimated in Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Loranthus acacia and Pistacia khinjuk, they were 915.60-4.86, 664.60 +/- 4.16, 659.30 +/- 4.80, 590.80 +/- 4.49 & 588.00 +/- 3.85 mg% respectively. Investigation of the antioxidant potentials revealed that the most potent plants were Co-ronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia with calculated values of 454.80 +/- 4.83, 418.4 +/- 4.16, 399.10 +/- 4.90, 342.5 +/- 2.72 & 239.7 +/- 2.91% for aqueous extracts and 452.9 +/- 4.94, 389.6 +/- 4.6, 378.48 +/- 3.84, 352.3 +/- 3.06 & 346.5 +/- 2.98% for methanol extracts respectively while screening of larvicidal activity proved that Coronilla scorpioides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Crataegus sinaica, Pistacia khinjuk and Loranthus acacia exhibited highest potency calculated as 22.53 +/- 2.01, 23.85 +/- 2.07, 28.17 +/- 2.06, 31.60 +/- 2.93 & 39.73 +/- 4.58 mg% aqueous extracts and 18.53 +/- 1.95, 18.8 +/- 1.67, 20.17 +/- 1.85, 23.28 +/- 2.7 & 28.48 +/- 3.9 mg% methanol ones respectively.
- Description of Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinor-hynchidae) from the red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan with new host and locality records in Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):209-14.
Adult worms of Rhadinorhynchus dorsoventrospinosus (Acanthocephala: Rhadinor-hynchidae) were collected from the small intestine of the red spot emperor Lethrinus lentjan (family Lethrinidae) from locations along the Red Sea at Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. Twenty three out of 70 fish specimens (32.9%) were found to be naturally infected. The parasite was described using photo research Zeiss microscopy and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Light microscopic studies revealed that the adult worm possessed a proboscis which was long, cylindrical with a uniform width measured 0.44 +/- 0.02 (0.38-0.46) mm in length and 0.1 +/- 10.02 (0.09-0.15) mm in width. Proboscis hooks observed by scanning electron microscopy were large, uniform in size (14-16 rows of 26 hooks each) with a row of longer hooks at the base. Comparison between the present described species and four species of the same genus was done, it was observed that there was only one comparable species, R dorsoventrospinosus resembled the present parasite in the general morphology and differed from others, so the present studied species is classified as R. dorsoventrospinosus with new host and locality records.
- Antimicrobial peptides as parasiticidal against human trypanosomatids: mechanisms of action and current status in development. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):195-208.
Trypanosomes cause a variety of tropical diseases that affect the livelihood of individuals worldwide. The currently used pharmaceutical treatments rely on chemotherapy. However, many of these drugs are very expensive, and highly toxic. In addition, parasite resistance to several of the therapeutic drugs used is increasing. Therefore, there is a growing need for new control measures for many of these diseases. One new approach is the use of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) to disease control, since these peptides can be used as potential anti-parasite effector molecules. This review summarizes and discusses the parasiticidal properties of AMPs for treating trypanosome infections, highlighting their mechanisms of action and current status in development.
- Impact of hepatocellular carcinoma on health related quality of life in Egyptian patients: a single centre study. [Journal Article]
- J Egypt Soc Parasitol 2013 Apr; 43(1):183-94.
Among patients with chronic liver disease, impairment in HRQOL has been reported. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the major squeal of chronic liver diseases. So, relationship between subjective HRQOL and HCC must be analysed. This study assessed the effect of HCC on HRQOL, and its loco-regional treatment on HRQOL. Forty patients with HCV related chronic liver disease as a control group was enrolled in the study. Eighty HCC patients on top of chronic HCV liver disease categorized according to the modality of loco-regional treatment (BCLC staging system) into GI; 40 HCC patients treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and GII; 40 HCC patients treated with trans-arterial chemoembolization (TACE). The SF-36 questionnaire was performed before and one month after the intervention. Comparing the parameters of HRQOL in GI before and after RFA, and in GII before and after TACE; there was a statistically significant improvement in group I. However, the improvement in group II (TACE) was non-significant (P>0.05).