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J Electromyogr Kinesiol [journal]
- Walking kinematics and kinetics following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 17.
The goal of this investigation was to investigate how walking patterns are affected following muscle-damaging exercise by quantifying both lower limb kinematics and kinetics. Fifteen young women conducted a maximal isokinetic eccentric exercise (EE) muscle damage protocol (5×15) of the knee extensors and flexors of both legs at 60°/s. Three-dimensional motion data and ground reaction forces (GRFs) were collected 24h pre-EE while the participants walked at their preferred self-selected walking speed (SWS). Participants were asked to perform two gait conditions 48h post-EE. The first condition (COND1) was to walk at their own speed and the second condition (COND2) to maintain the SWS (±5%) they had 24h pre-EE. Walking speed during COND1 was significantly lower compared to pre-exercise values. When walking speed was controlled during COND2, significant effects of muscle damage were noticed, among other variables, for stride frequency, loading rate, lateral and vertical GRFs, as well as for specific knee kinematics and kinetics. These findings provide new insights into how walking patterns are adapted to compensate for the impaired function of the knee musculature following muscle damage. The importance to distinguish the findings caused by muscle damage from those exhibited in response to changes in stride frequency is highlighted.
- Kinematics and muscle activities of the lumbar spine during and after working in stooped postures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 16.
Existing biomechanical evidence suggests mechanisms of low back injuries and disorders associated with prolonged stooping. However, no research has tested realistic and more natural stooped work conditions with human subjects in the investigation of the biomechanical responses of the low back in prolonged stooping. The current study was aimed to explore various biomechanical responses of the low back in more realistic and work-related loading and posture conditions of prolonged stooping. Twenty two subjects performed stooped work tasks for 7min with periodic micro-breaks in upright standing, and various measures for assessing biomechanical responses of the low back were obtained before, during and immediately after the stooped work period. Study results found significant increases (p<0.05) in the range of lumbar flexion and myoelectric activation of the low back muscles after the stooped work period. During stooped work, the low back extensor muscles did not show flexion-relaxation. It could be concluded that the natural and unrestricted stooped work conditions produced similar viscoelastic responses of the low back to what more severe stooping conditions with posture restrictions did in previous research, but could be more fatigue-prone due to low but consistent activation of the low back extensor muscles during stooped work activities.
- Deep abdominal muscle activity following supratentorial stroke. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 15.
This study assessed the level and symmetry of deep abdominal muscle activation following a supratentorial stroke during a modified hip flexion task. Movement-related activation levels in the transversus abdominus (TrA) and internal oblique (IO) were investigated in people with a subacute (<3.25months) supratentorial stroke (n=11) and a matched control group (n=11). Electromyographic activity in TrA and IO were recorded using fine wires inserted under ultrasound guidance while participants performed a standardised head lift or unilateral hip flexion. During head lift there was no significant difference in the amplitude of activation ipsi- and contra-lateral to the stroke or between groups. During unilateral hip flexion the TrA and IO were activated more on both sides when moving the paretic leg. In the control group muscle activity was modulated by task with activity being higher ipsilateral to the moving leg; in contrast in the stroke group IO muscle activity tended to be higher on the non-paretic side irrespective of moving limb. Greater TrA and IO muscle activity during hip flexion of the paretic leg may represent compensatory activity that acts to facilitate activation of the paretic hip flexors and/or the presence of overflow.
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation attenuates thigh skeletal muscles atrophy but not trunk muscles after spinal cord injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 14.
The current study examined the effects of 12weeks of surface neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and ankle weights on the cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of three thigh [Gracilis (Gra), Sartorious (Sar) and Adductor (Add)] as well as two trunk [hip flexor (HF) and back extensor (BE)] muscle groups in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI were randomly assigned into a resistance training +diet (RT+diet; n=4) or diet control (n=3) groups. The RT+diet group underwent twice weekly training with surface NMES and ankle weights for 12weeks. Training composed of four sets of 10 repetitions of leg extension exercise while sitting in their wheelchairs. Both groups were asked to monitor their dietary intake. Magnetic resonance images were captured before and after 12weeks of interventions. Gra muscle CSA showed no change before and after interventions. A significant interaction (P=0.001) was noted between both groups as result of 9% increase and 10% decrease in the Gra muscle CSA of the RT+diet and diet groups, respectively. Sar muscle CSA increased [1.7±0.4-2.5±0.5cm(2); P=0.029] in the RT+diet group with no change [2.9±1.4-2.6±1.3cm(2)] in the diet group; with interaction noted between both groups (P=0.002). Analysis of covariance indicated that Add muscle CSA was 38% greater in the RT+diet compared to the diet group (P=0.025) after 12weeks; a trend of interaction was also noted between both groups (P=0.06). HF and BE muscle groups showed no apparent changes in CSA in both groups. The results suggested that surface NMES can delay the process of progressive skeletal muscle atrophy after chronic SCI. However, the effects are localized to the trained thigh muscles and do not extend to the proximal trunk muscles.
- Characteristics of balance control in older persons who fall with injury - A prospective study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 10.
OBJECTIVE:Older adults who have recently fallen demonstrate increased postural sway compared with non-fallers. However, the differences in postural control between older adults who were seriously injured (SI) as a result of a fall, compared with those who fell but were not injured (NSI) and non-fallers (NFs), has not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the underlying postural control mechanisms related to injuries resulting from a fall.
METHODS:Both traditional postural sway measures of foot center-of-pressure (CoP) displacements and fractal measures, the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis (SDA), were used to characterize the postural control. One hundred older adults aged 65-91years were tested during narrow base upright stance in eyes closed condition; falls were monitored over a 1-year period.
RESULTS:Forty-nine older adults fell during the 1-year follow-up, 13 were seriously injured as a result of a fall (SI), 36 were not injured (NSI), and 49 were non-fallers (NFs); two passed away. The SDA showed significantly higher short-term diffusion coefficients and critical displacements in SI in the anterior-posterior direction compared with both NSI and NF. However, in the medio-lateral direction there were no statistically significant differences between groups. For the traditional measures of sway, the average anterior-posterior CoP range was also larger in SI individuals.
CONCLUSIONS:This work suggests that older fallers with a deterioration of anterior-posterior postural control may be at higher risk of serious injury following fall events.
- Influence of the knee flexion on muscle activation and transmissibility during whole body vibration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 2.
The influence of the knee flexion on muscle activation and transmissibility during whole body vibration is controversially discussed in the literature. In this study, 34 individuals had electromyography activity (EMG) of the vastus lateralis and the acceleration assessed while squatting with 60° and 90° of knee flexion either with or without whole-body vibration (WBV). The conditions were maintained for 10s with 1min of rest between each condition. The main findings were (1) the larger the angle of knee flexion (90° vs. 60°), the greater the EMG (p<0.001), with no difference on acceleration transmissibility; (2) for both angles of knee flexion, the addition of WBV produced no significant difference in EMG and higher acceleration compared to without WBV (p<0.001). These results suggest that the larger the knee flexion angle (60° vs. 90°), the greater the muscle activation without acceleration modification. However, the addition of WBV increases the transmissibility of acceleration in the lower limbs without modification in EMG of vastus lateralis.
- Effects of aging in postural strategies during a seated auto-stabilization task. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 2.
Impaired sensory, motor and central processing systems combining with biomechanical changes are risk of fall factors in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to assess the auto-adaptation and the regulation of the dynamic control of equilibrium in age-related adaptive strategies, by using a seated position on a seesaw. 15 young adults and 12 healthy middle-aged adults were asked to actively maintain a sitting posture as stable as possible during 12.8s, on a 1-degree of freedom seesaw (auto-stabilization paradigm), with and without vision. The seesaw was placed in order to allow roll or pitch oscillations. We determine length and surfaces CoP shifts, mean positions and variability, a Postural Performance Index (PI) and a Strategy Organization Ratio (SOR). Our results shows that adopted strategies are plane-dependant during auto-stabilization (parallel and perpendicular axes control is impacted) and age-dependant. PIx during roll seated auto-stabilization tasks appears as the most relevant parameter of aged-related instability. The visual effect, during pitch auto-stabilization, characterizes the postural sensory-motor human behavior. The quantitative and qualitative postural assessment, thanks to seated auto-stabilization task, need to be promoted for long-term health care and probably for the rehabilitation of various disorders.
- Viscoelastic creep induced by repetitive spine flexion and its relationship to dynamic spine stability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 May 1.
Repetitive trunk flexion elicits passive tissue creep, which has been hypothesized to compromise spine stability. The current investigation determined if increased spine flexion angle at the onset of flexion relaxation (FR) in the lumbar extensor musculature was associated with altered dynamic stability of spine kinematics. Twelve male participants performed 125 consecutive cycles of full forward trunk flexion. Spine kinematics and lumbar erector spinae (LES) electromyographic (EMG) activity were obtained throughout the repetitive trunk flexion trial. Dynamic stability was evaluated with maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents over five sequential blocks of 25cycles. Spine flexion angle at FR onset, and peak LES EMG activity were determined at baseline and every 25th cycle. Spine flexion angle at FR increased on average by 1.7° after baseline with significant increases of 1.7° and 2.4° at the 50th and 100th cycles. Maximum finite-time Lyapunov exponents demonstrated a transient, non-statistically significant, increase between cycles 26 and 50 followed by a recovery to baseline over the remainder of the repetitive trunk flexion cycles. Recovery of dynamic stability may be the consequence of increased active spine stiffness demonstrated by the non-significant increase in peak LES EMG that occurred as the repetitive trunk flexion progressed.
- Impact of the method of exposure in total hip arthroplasty on the variability of gait in the first 6months of the postoperative period. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 Apr 30.
OBJECTIVE:Gait analysis has provided important information about the variability of gait for patients prior to and after total hip arthroplasty (THA). The objective of this research was to clarify how the method of exposure in total hip arthroplasty affects the variability of gait. MATERIALS AND
METHOD:Gait analysis was performed at 0.8m/s, 1.0m/s, and 1.2m/s on 25 patients with direct-lateral exposure (DL), 22 with antero-lateral exposure (AL) and 25 with posterior exposure (P) during total hip arthroplasty. The control group was represented by 45 healthy subjects of identical age. Gait analysis was performed pre-operatively and 3 and 6months after the surgery. Gait parameter variability was characterized by the coefficient of variance (CV) of spatial-temporal parameters and by the mean coefficient of variance (MeanCV) of angular parameters.
RESULTS:The variability of gait tends to reach control values during the first 6months of the postoperative period in all three patient groups. Six months after THA, in patients operated with DL and AL exposure the variability of gait differs significantly from control values; however, in patients operated with P exposure, the variability of spatial-temporal and angular parameters - except the rotation of pelvis - was similar to that of controls. DISCUSSION,
CONCLUSION:The type of surgical technique significantly influences the variability of gait. Difference in the variability of angular parameters predicts gait instability and increased risk of falling after THA without the joint capsule preserved. Joint capsule preservation ensures a recovery of gait variability. It should be taken into account when compiling rehabilitation protocols. Differences related to the method of exposure should be considered when abandoning therapeutic aids.
- An electromyographic analysis of two handwriting grasp patterns. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2013 Apr 30.