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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng [journal]
- Physiological aspects of the interaction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes with Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillem in entomopathogenic spores. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):863-8.
The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of aqueous suspensions of commercial multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on spores of three entomopathogenic fungus species of Beauveria bassiana. Spores were placed in contact with MWCNTs for 1, 24, 72 and 216 h and then an in vitro evaluation in the subculture was performed on the linear growth of the vegetative mycelium of the spores after the contact with nanomaterial, as well as its sporulation after completion of the culture. No fungistatic effect of MWCNTs against B. bassiana spores was identified. Modification of vegetative mycelium surface growth in the culture of spores after contact with MWCNTs was mainly due to less effective inoculation, especially when shorter contact times with nanomaterial were applied. For one of the investigated strains, growth stimulation was observed in the culture of spores in contact with nanotubes for 72 and 216 h. Based on the significant intensification of sporulation observed in combination with the longest (216 h) contact with the investigated spore strains before culture with MWCNTs, it can be concluded that the tested nanomaterial constitutes a stress factor and may modify the metabolism of B. bassiana cells. Detailed evaluation of B. bassiana metabolic changes induced by MWCNTs should be conducted.
- Effect of dissolved oxygen and temperature on macromolecular composition and PHB storage of activated sludge. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):857-62.
The macromolecular composition of activated sludge (lipids, intracellular proteins and intracellular polysaccharides) was studied together with its capacity to store macromolecules such as polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in a conventional activated sludge system fed with synthetic sewage water at an organic load rate of 1.0 kg COD/(m(3)·d), varying the dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature. Six DO concentrations (0.8, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 8 mg/L) were studied at 20°C with a sludge retention time (SRT) of 6 days. In addition, four temperatures (10ºC, 15ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC) were assessed at constant DO (2 mg/L) with 2 days SRT in a second experimental run. The highest lipid content in the activated sludge was 95.6 mg/g VSS, obtained at 30°C, 2 mg/L of DO and a SRT of 2 days. The highest content of intracellular proteins in the activated sludge was 87.8 mg/g VSS, obtained at 20°C, 8 mg/L of DO and a SRT of 6 days. The highest content of intracellular polysaccharides in the activated sludge was 76.6 mg/g VSS, which was achieved at 20°C, a SRT of 6 days and a wide range of DO. The activated sludge PHB storage was very low for all the conditions studied.
- Comparison of nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide production from enriched anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria in suspended and attached growth reactors. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):851-6.
Attached growth-systems for the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process have been postulated for implementation in the field. However, information about the anammox process in attached growth-systems is limited. This study compared nitrogen removal rates and nitrous oxide (N2O) production of enriched anammox cultures in both suspended and attached growth sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). Suspended growth reactors (SBR-S) and attached growth reactors using polystyrene sponge as a medium (SBR-A) were used in these experiments. After inoculation with an enriched anammox culture, significant nitrogen removals of ammonium (NH4 (+)) and nitrite (NO2 (-)) were observed under NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios ranging from 1:1 to 1:2 in both types of SBRs. The specific rates of total nitrogen removal in SBR-S and SBR-A were 0.52 mg N/mg VSS-d and 0.44 mg N/mg VSS-d, respectively, at an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2. N2O production by the enriched anammox culture in both SBR-S and SBR-A was significantly higher at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of 1:2 than at NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratios of 1:1 and 1:1.32. In addition, N2O production was higher at a pH of 6.8 than at pH 7.3, 7.8, and 8.3 in both SBR-S and SBR-A. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the anammox process may avoid N2O emission by maintaining an NH4 (+):NO2 (-) ratio of less than 1:2 and pH higher than 6.8.
- Feasibility of electrochemical degradation of pharmaceutical pollutants in different aqueous matrices: Optimization through design of experiments. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):843-50.
Electrochemical degradation of different effluents polluted with carbamazepine, a well-known refractory pharmaceutical contaminant, was addressed in this article. Ultrapure water (Milli-Q(TM) technology), surface water from a lake and urban wastewater were the matrices used to evaluate the feasibility of performing the electro-oxidation of carbamazepine. Specific designs of experiments were planned for each of the aqueous media. The initial carbamazepine concentration and the electric current density were considered as the operational variables. Although the optimal values of both variables follow the same trend in the three cases, significant differences are observed regarding the comparative influence of each variable on the degradation of carbamazepine.
- Trace level enrichment of lead from environmental water samples utilizing dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and quantitative determination by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):833-42.
Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed and successfully applied, as a sample preconcentration and extraction method, for the determination of trace quantities of lead (Pb) in environmental water samples utilizing graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS). Experimental parameters optimized include; extraction and disperser solvent types and their volumes, pH, extraction period, effect of the co-existing ions and the amount of chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC). Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factor of 195 at 5 μg L(-1) level and detection limit of 0.16 μg L(-1) were obtained. Linearity from 25-75 μg L(-1) with R(2) of 0.995 was achieved. The procedure was validated utilizing four environmental water samples at the spiking levels of 10 and 20 μg L(-1) and the corresponding recoveries ranged from 89.6 to 95.1% and 91.6 to 97.1%, respectively, indicating the reliability and applicability of the method for selective extraction of trace level lead.
- The evaluation of heavy metal content in water and sediments of small reservoirs in light of various environmental quality regulations. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):827-32.
This article reports the heavy metal concentrations assessed both in bottom sediments and water flowing into two small reservoirs at Krempna and Zesławice, southern Poland. The experiments were carried out in spring, summer, autumn and winter 2010-2011. The resulting concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and copper were compared with the Environmental Quality Standards, guidelines of the Regulation of the Minister of Environmental Protection, regulations of the Polish Geological Institute and State Institute of Environment Protection, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, and with the regulations adopted in Germany, Denmark, the United States and Canada. Regarding the total heavy metal concentrations, water flowing into the examined reservoirs was not polluted. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found in water flowing into the reservoirs in spring and summer. The heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the reservoirs at Krempna and Zesławice were much higher than the concentrations of the elements discussed present in waters flowing into these reservoirs.
- Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):819-26.
Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening the bottle.
- Bioleaching of metals from spent refinery petroleum catalyst using moderately thermophilic bacteria: Effect of particle size. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):807-18.
The present work investigated the leaching potential of moderately thermophilic bacteria in the recovery of metals from spent petroleum catalyst of varying particle sizes. The batch bioleaching experiments were conducted by employing a mixed consortium of moderate thermophilic bacteria at 45°C and by using five different particle sizes (from 45 to >2000 μm) of acetone-washed spent catalyst. The elemental mapping by FESEM confirmed the presence of Al, Ni, V and Mo along with sulfur in the spent catalyst. During bioleaching, Ni (92-97%) and V (81-91%) were leached in higher concentrations, whereas leaching yields of Al (23-38%) were found to be lowest in all particle sizes investigated. Decreasing the particle size from >2000 μm to 45-106 μm caused an increase in leaching yields of metals during initial hours. However, the final metals leaching yields were almost independent of particle sizes of catalyst. Leaching kinetics was observed to follow the diffusion-controlled model showing the linearity more close than the chemical control. The results of the present study suggested that bioleaching using moderate thermophilic bacteria was highly effective in removing the metals from spent catalyst. Moreover, bioleaching can be conducted using spent catalyst of higher particle size (>2000 μm), thus saving the grinding cost and making process attractive for larger scale application.
- Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) by hydrolyzed acrylamide-grafted PET films. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):798-806.
Selective Hg(II) adsorption from aqueous solutions of Hg(II) and Pb(II) using hydrolyzed acrylamide (AAm)-grafted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films was examined to explore the potential reuse of waste PET materials. Selective recovery of Hg(II) from a mixture of soft acids with similar structure, such as Hg(II) and Pb(II), is important to allow the reuse of recovered Hg(II). An adsorbent for selective Hg(II) adsorption was prepared by γ-ray-induced grafting of AAm onto PET films followed by partial hydrolysis through KOH treatment. The adsorption capacity of the AAm-grafted PET films for Hg(II) ions increased from 15 to 70 mg/g after partial hydrolysis because of the reduction of hydrogen bonding between -CONH2 groups and the corresponding improved access of metal ions to the amide groups. The prepared adsorbent was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The absorbent film showed high selectivity for the adsorption of Hg(II) over Pb(II) throughout the entire initial metal concentration range (100-500 mg/L) and pH range (2.2-5.6) studied. The high selectivity is attributed to the ability of Hg(II) ions to form covalent bonds with the amide groups. The calculated selectivity coefficient for the adsorbent binding Hg(II) over Pb(II) was 19.2 at pH 4.5 with an initial metal concentration of 100 mg/L. Selective Hg(II) adsorption equilibrium data followed the Langmuir model and kinetic data were well fitted by a pseudo-second-order equation. The adsorbed Hg(II) and Pb(II) ions were effectively desorbed from the adsorbent film by acid treatment, and the regenerated film showed no marked loss of adsorption capacity upon reuse for selective Hg(II) adsorption.
- Health effects and arsenic species in urine of copper smelter workers. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(7):787-97.
The aim of this study was to compare indices of exposure in workers employed at different work posts in a copper smelter plant using neurophysiological tests and to evaluate the relationship between urinary arsenic species with the aid of sensitive respiratory and renal biomarkers. We have attempted to elucidate the impact of different arsenic speciation forms on the observed health effects. We focused on the workers (n = 45) exposed to atmospheres containing specific diverse mixtures of metals (such as those occurring in Departments of Furnaces, Lead and Electrolysis) compared to controls (n = 16). Subjective symptoms from the central (CNS) and the peripheral (PNS) nervous system were recorded and visual evoked potential (VEP), electroneurography (ENeG) and electroencephalography (EEG) curves were analysed. Levels of airborne lead (PbA), zinc (ZnA) and copper (CuA) and Pb levels in blood (PbB) and the relationships between airborne As concentrations (AsA) and the urinary levels of the inorganic (iAs); As(+3), As(+5) and the organic; methylarsonate (MMA(V)), dimethylarsinate (DMA(V)) and arsenobetaine (AsB) arsenic species were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of exposure were expressed in terms of biomarker levels: Clara cell protein (CC16) in serum as early pulmonary biomarker and β2-microglobulin (β2M) in urine and serum, retinol binding protein (RBP) as renal markers, measured by sensitive latex-immunoassay (LIA). Abnormal results of neurophysiological tests, VEP, EEG and ENeG showed dominant subclinical effects in CNS and PNS of workers from Departments of Lead and Furnace. In group of smelters from Departments of Furnace exposed to arsenic above current TLV, excreted arsenic species As(+3) and As(+5) seemed to reduce the level of Clara cell protein (CC16), thereby reducing anti-inflammatory potential of the lungs and increasing the levels of renal biomarker (β2M) and copper in urine (CuU). The study confirmed deleterious arsenic effects to the kidney by increased levels of low-molecular weight protein in urine and the extent of the renal copper accumulation/excretion. The results of our work also support the usefulness of application of the sensitive neurophysiologic tests, such as VEP, EEG and ENeG, for the detection of early subclinical effects of the exposure of the nervous system in copper smelters.