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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng [journal]
- The physiological effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on conidia and the development of the entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sorok. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):741-52.
The aim of the study was an in vitro evaluation of the effect of MWCNTs on the conidia of two strains of entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium anisopliae. The study made use of water suspensions of MWCNTs (concentration ∼ 3 mg·mL(-1)) made from commercial nanotubes and centrifuged. The conidia were placed in contact with nanotubes for 240 h. An assessment of MWCNT influence on conidia was performed after 1, 24, 72 and 240 h and focused on the linear growth of vegetative mycelium derived from these conidia, mycelium sporulation in subcultures and pathogenicity. Using TEM imaging, it was demonstrated that carbon nanotubes are able to damage cell membranes of the examined fungi conidia. However, the absence was noted of a significantly fungistatic effect of both MWCNT suspensions on the examined strains with respect to the physiological features in question. The increase in vegetative mycelium effected by spores after contact with MWCNTs was characterized by a slight modification in relation to the control. There was no strong trend (inhibition - stimulation), in relation to the effect of the tested suspension of carbon nanotubes, on the development of the vegetative mycelium in in vitro culture. Sporulation of the mycelium after completion of the culture only occurred in one case (strain Ma73F and culture of spores after 24-h contact with MWCNTs) significantly more intensely than in the controls. With respect to pathogenicity for test insects compared to the control strain, Ma73F spores grown from the longest contact with nanotubes suspensions performed significantly better. On the basis of the calculated of mycelium index growth rates and the time of death of the test insects (LT50), it was found that the adverse effects of water suspension MWCNTs on the spores of M. anisopliae were applied after a short contact with biological material. This indicates unfavorable physical rather than chemical effects on the tested cell. Over time, nanotube aggregation in water suspensions led to changes in their influence on the cells under examination.
- Impacts of natural organic matter on perchlorate removal by an advanced reduction process. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):731-40.
Perchlorate can be destroyed by Advanced Reduction Processes (ARPs) that combine chemical reductants (e.g., sulfite) with activating methods (e.g., UV light) in order to produce highly reactive reducing free radicals that are capable of rapid and effective perchlorate reduction. However, natural organic matter (NOM) exists widely in the environment and has the potential to influence perchlorate reduction by ARPs that use UV light as the activating method. Batch experiments were conducted to obtain data on the impacts of NOM and wavelength of light on destruction of perchlorate by the ARPs that use sulfite activated by UV light produced by low-pressure mercury lamps (UV-L) or by KrCl excimer lamps (UV-KrCl). The results indicate that NOM strongly inhibits perchlorate removal by both ARP, because it competes with sulfite for UV light. Even though the absorbance of sulfite is much higher at 222 nm than that at 254 nm, the results indicate that a smaller amount of perchlorate was removed with the UV-KrCl lamp (222 nm) than with the UV-L lamp (254 nm). The results of this study will help to develop the proper way to apply the ARPs as practical water treatment processes.
- Fate of microconstituents in biosolids composted in an aerated silage bag. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):720-30.
Although most composting studies report pathogen concentrations, little is known about the fate of Endocrine Disruptor Chemicals (EDCs) during composting. In this study, a positively aerated polyethylene bag composting system was filled with a mixture of woodchips and limed biosolids from a large Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) to study the removal efficiency of two different groups of EDCs. Two antibacterial compounds, Triclocarban (TCC) and Triclosan (TCS), and a TCS byproduct, Methyltriclosan (MeTCS), as well as seven congeners of flame retardants known as PBDEs (Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers) were studied during two phases of composting: 1) a thermophilic phase, in which positive mechanical aeration, pushing air into and through the materials matrix, was conducted for 2 months; and 2) a curing and stabilization phase in which no mechanical aeration was provided and the bag was opened to ambient passive aeration to simulate storage conditions for seven months. Our results showed that while TCC concentrations remained constant, TCS degradation took place during both phases. The degradation of TCS was corroborated by the formation of MeTCS in both phases. The TCS concentrations decreased from 18409 ± 1,877 to 11955 ± 288 ng g(-1) dry wt. during the thermophilic phase and declined from 11,955 ± 288 to 7,244 ± 909. ng g(-1) dry wt. by the end of the curing phase. Thus, slightly greater TCS transformation occurred during the second than during the first (35.1 vs. 39.4%). MeTCS concentrations increased from 189.3 ± 8.6 to 364.6 ± 72.5 ng g(-1) dry wt. during the first phase and reached 589.0 ± 94.9 ng g(-1) dry wt. at the end of the second phase. PBDEs concentrations were below quantification limits for all but two of the congeners analyzed (BDE-47 and BDE-99). PBDE concentrations were measured at the end of the first phase only and were comparable to initial concentrations.
- Adsorption features of heavy metal ions on activated carbon in single and multisolute systems. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):710-9.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the adsorption characteristics of cobalt, nickel and copper ions, which are harmful heavy metals released from various industries, in single, binary and ternary systems. The results showed that the adsorption extent decreased as the system changed from a single to a ternary system but adsorption percentages were not below 79%. The adsorption percentage of cobalt ion was superior to that of the other ions regardless of the type of system. In this study, the Langmuir isotherm was adapted for every adsorption result, and an extended version of the Langmuir isotherm was employed for the binary and ternary systems. The qmax value became smaller and KL value increased in the binary and ternary systems compared with that of the single system. The equilibrium parameter (RL) was between 0 and 1 under every condition, which indicated that adsorption was favorable. Finally, an adsorption experiment for real wastewater was performed, and the results were compared with those obtained for artificial wastewater.
- Microbial communities in uranium mine tailings and mine water sediment from Jaduguda U mine, India: A culture independent analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):694-709.
Microbial diversity within uranium mine tailings and mine water sediment from the Jaduguda uranium mine, India was characterized by metagenome-derived 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Samples from fresh tailings (JFT244), abandoned (vegetated) tailings (JOT245) and mine water sediment (J1-5) having wide ranges of pH (5.7 to 10.4), nitrogen, phosphorus and organic carbon [150-5700 ppm, 800-9100 ppm and 0.18-6.5% (w/w)] and elevated metals (Ni, Cu, Zn and U) were used to explore the inhabitant bacterial and archaeal community structures. Consistent to the sample's physicochemical properties, up to four orders of magnitude variation in bacterial CFU counts was observed. The data showed that with increasing metal and decreasing nutrient (organic C, N, P, etc.) contents, microbial diversity indices decrease within the samples. Culture-independent analyses revealed predominance of phyla Proteobacteria and/or Acidobacteria within the samples along with members of Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Genera incertae sedis OP10, Firmicutes and Planctomycete as relatively minor groups. Abundance of Crenarchaeota in tailings samples and Euryachaeota in mine water sediment was noted. Diversity of dissimilatory sulfate reductase gene (dsr) was studied. Putative metabolic properties as derived from taxonomy and phylogenetic lineages indicated presence of chemolithotrophic and heteotrophic aerobic and anaerobic organisms capable of nitrogen fixation, nitrate reduction and biogeochemical cycling of metals, sulfur and methane. The data indicated that indigenous microbial populations are capable of maintaining self-sustenance in these highly hazardous environments and possess catalytic potential for their use in in situ bioremediation.
- Different susceptibilities of bacterial community to silver nanoparticles in wastewater treatment systems. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):685-93.
The release of silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) into sewage streams has heightened concerns about potential adverse impacts on wastewater treatment processes. Here, we show that the rate constants of both biological nitrification and organic oxidation decreased exponentially with an increase in the Ag NP concentration, but nitrification was more severely inhibited than the organic oxidation even at low Ag NP concentrations (<1 mg Ag L(-1)) in batch experiments. The long-term exposure effects of Ag NPs on activated sludge bacteria were evaluated in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed with two different substrates favoring heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria. From a continuous operation for 50 days, it was found that heterotrophic bacteria in the organic removal process have higher tolerance to Ag NPs than do nitrifying bacteria. The effects of Ag NPs on the microbial community in both SBRs were analyzed using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences obtained from pyrosequencing. The results showed that the level of microbial susceptibility is different for each type of microorganism and that the microbial diversity decreased dramatically after continuous exposure to Ag NPs for 50 days, resulting in a decrease of wastewater treatment efficiency.
- A unified method to process biosolids samples for the recovery of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):679-84.
For land application, biosolids are classified as Class A or Class B based on the levels of bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens in residual biosolids. The current EPA methods for the detection of these groups of pathogens in biosolids include discrete steps. Therefore, a separate sample is processed independently to quantify the number of each group of the pathogens in biosolids. The aim of the study was to develop a unified method for simultaneous processing of a single biosolids sample to recover bacterial, viral, and helminths pathogens. At the first stage for developing a simultaneous method, nine eluents were compared for their efficiency to recover viruses from a 100 gm spiked biosolids sample. In the second stage, the three top performing eluents were thoroughly evaluated for the recovery of bacteria, viruses, and helminthes. For all three groups of pathogens, the glycine-based eluent provided higher recovery than the beef extract-based eluent. Additional experiments were performed to optimize performance of glycine-based eluent under various procedural factors such as, solids to eluent ratio, stir time, and centrifugation conditions. Last, the new method was directly compared with the EPA methods for the recovery of the three groups of pathogens spiked in duplicate samples of biosolids collected from different sources. For viruses, the new method yielded up to 10% higher recoveries than the EPA method. For bacteria and helminths, recoveries were 74% and 83% by the new method compared to 34% and 68% by the EPA method, respectively. The unified sample processing method significantly reduces the time required for processing biosolids samples for different groups of pathogens; it is less impacted by the intrinsic variability of samples, while providing higher yields (P = 0.05) and greater consistency than the current EPA methods.
- Phosphate interference during in situ treatment for arsenic in groundwater. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):671-8.
Contamination of groundwater by arsenic is a problem in many areas of the world, particularly in West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh, where reducing conditions in groundwater are the cause. In situ treatment is a novel approach wherein, by introduction of dissolved oxygen (DO), advantages over other treatment methods can be achieved through simplicity, not using chemicals, and not requiring disposal of arsenic-rich wastes. A lab-scale test of in situ treatment by air sparging, using a solution with approximately 5.3 mg L(-1) ferrous iron and 200 μg L(-1) arsenate, showed removal of arsenate in the range of 59%. A significant obstacle exists, however, due to the interference of phosphate since phosphate competes for adsorption sites on oxidized iron precipitates. A lab-scale test including 0.5 mg L(-1) phosphate showed negligible removal of arsenate. In situ treatment by air sparging demonstrates considerable promise for removal of arsenic from groundwater where iron is present in considerable quantities and phosphates are low.
- Oxidative degradation of sulfathiazole by Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):661-70.
This article presents experimental results on 47 μmol L(-1) sulfathiazole (STZ) degradation by Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions using multivariate analysis. The optimal experimental conditions for reactions were obtained by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). In the case of the Fenton reactions there were 192 μmol L(-1) ferrous ions (Fe(II)) and 1856 μmol L(-1) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as compared with 157 μmol L(-1) (Fe(II)) and 1219 μmol L(-1) (H2O2) for photo-Fenton reactions. Under these conditions, around 90% of STZ degradation were achieved after 8 minutes treatment by Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions, respectively. Moreover, a marked difference was observed in the total organic carbon (TOC) removal after 60-min treatment, achieving 30% and 75% for the Fenton and photo-Fenton reactions, respectively. Acetic, maleic, succinic and oxamic acids could be identified as main Fenton oxidation intermediates. A similar pattern was found in the case of photo-Fenton reaction, including the presence of oxalic acid and ammonia at short periods of irradiation with UV-A. The calculated values of Average Oxidation State (AOS) corroborate the formation of oxidized products from the initial steps of the reaction.
- Chemometric exploration of the abundance of trace metals and ions in desalinated and bottled drinking water in Kuwait. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014; 49(6):648-60.
Chemometric exploration of desalinated and bottled water in Kuwait was employed to interpret the spatial variation in the physicochemical parameters. The data set consisted of the concentrations of principal macronutrient elements, ions, trace elements, temperature, pH, electrolytic conductivity, and total dissolved solids measured in indoor, outdoor, and bottled water samples. Quantitative assessment of the Cd, Hg, and Sb contents revealed rare cases of elevated concentrations; however, these concentrations were always below international health agency standards. Two general clusters of similar parameters were discovered in the variables mode and were associated with "natural" water characteristics or "conditions" of the pipeline system. We found that an increase in temperature facilitates the leaching of metals from the metallic equipment in the system. Spatial variation in the water quality was discovered, which indicates that residential areas fed from the Az-Zoor plant are supplied with water that contains lower concentrations of Ca, Cr, Mg, Mo, Ni, Na, TDS, and SO4 (2-) than the desalinated water produced and fed from the Doha plant. However, on the basis of the aluminum concentration in the water, cement mortar lining is assumed to be prevalent in the pipeline systems of the Mubarak Al-Kabeer, Ahmadi, Umm Al-Haiman, and Sorra areas.