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J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng [journal]
- Ecotoxicity of silver nanomaterials in the aquatic environment: A review of literature and gaps in nano-toxicological research. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1588-601.
There has been extensive growth in nanoscale technology in the last few decades to such a degree that nanomaterials (NMs) have become a constituent in a wide range of commercial and domestic products. With NMs already in use in several consumer products, concerns have emerged regarding their potential adverse environmental impacts. Although research has been undertaken in order to minimise the gaps in our understanding of NMs in the environment, little is known about their bioavailability and toxicity in the aquatic environment. Nano-toxicology is defined as the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nano-toxicology studies remain poorly and unevenly distributed. To date most of the research undertaken has been restricted to a narrow range of test species such as daphnids. Crabs are bio-indicators that can be used for toxicological research on NMs since they occupy a significant position in the aquatic food chain. In addition, they are often used in conventional ecotoxicological studies due to their high sensitivity to environmental stressors and are abundantly available. Because they are benthic organisms they are prone to contaminant uptake and bioaccumulation. To our knowledge the crab has never been used in nano-toxicological studies. In this context, an extensive review on published scientific literature on the ecotoxicity of silver NPs (AgNPs) on aquatic organisms was conducted. Some of the most common biomarkers used in ecotoxicological studies are described. Emphasis is placed on the use of biomarker responses in crabs as monitoring tools, as well as on its limitations. Additionally, the gaps in nano-toxicological research and recommendations for future research initiatives are addressed.
- Efficacy of hair analysis for monitoring exposure to uranium: A mini-review. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1578-87.
In spite of the ease with which samples may be collected and the stability of the samples after collection, the use of hair mineral analysis for monitoring environmental exposures and evaluating heavy metal poisonings has remained controversial since its initial applications for these purposes in the early 1950s. Among the major arguments against using hair mineral analysis in general were the absence of biokinetic models and/or metabolic data that adequately described the incorporation of trace elements into the hair, the absence of correlations between the concentrations of trace elements in the hair and their concentrations in other tissues, the inability to distinguish between trace elements that were deposited in the hair endogenously and those that were deposited on the hair exogenously, the absence of reliable reference ranges for interpreting the results of hair mineral analysis and a lack of standard procedures for the collecting, preparing and analyzing the hair samples. The developments of the past two decades addressing these objections are reviewed here, and arguments supporting the use of hair analysis for monitoring environmental and/or occupational exposures to uranium are made on the basis of the information presented in this review.
- An integrated use of multiple biomarkers to investigate the individual and combined effect of copper and cadmium on the marine green mussel (Perna viridis). [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1564-77.
The present study documents individual and combined sub-lethal effect of one redox active (copper) and one non-redox active (cadmium) metal on green mussel (Perna viridis). The mussels were exposed to 60 μg L(-1) of Cu and 150 μg L(-1) of Cd (individually and in combination) for 21 days. Histopathological and ultrastructural studies revealed significant metal induced alterations such as vacuolization, fusion of gill lamellae, enhance mucous deposition, hyperplasia and necrosis in gills. Antioxidant enzyme assays revealed significant increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Similarly, single exposure to Cd and Cu caused significant induction in Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity. However, combined Cu+Cd exposure modulated suppression in MDH activity. Unlike MDH, Cu and Cd individual exposure resulted in a decrease in esterase (EST) activity, but their combined exposure caused an induction. Non-enzymatic biomarkers such as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and metallothionein (MT) levels showed no significant change in response to Cu exposure, whereas, individual Cd exposure or Cd exposure in combination with Cu caused significant changes in their levels. Comet assay revealed a significant increase in DNA damage upon metal exposure. These results indicate that Cu (redox active) and Cd (non-redox active) can induce measurable physiological, biochemical as well as genotoxic perturbations in mussels even at sub-lethal concentrations. A monitoring programme based on the biomarkers discussed here would be useful to study the effect of metal pollutants reaching the coastal waters.
- Comparison of five wastewater COD fractionation methods for dynamic simulation of MBR systems. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1553-63.
Five different wastewater COD fractionation methods were employed for simulating an experimental MBR wastewater treatment plant using WEST. The predictions of dynamic simulations using as input the data obtained according to each influent characterization methodology were compared with the results of the experimental system and differences between experimental and predicted values were analyzed in order to select the fractionation method which provides the best fitting and minimizes errors. Three of these methods were based on the determination of the biodegradable fractions using respirometric assays of real wastewater filtered through 0.45- and 0.22-μm pore size filters or adding a previous flocculation step before filtration. Moreover, a method based on physicochemical analyses and another one based on theoretical coefficients were also compared. Simulated system performance and effluent quality greatly depended upon the influent characterization and the proper model calibration. Thus the importance of selecting a suitable fractionation methodology is high, especially in MBR systems working at specific operational conditions that may alter COD fractions. In this study, MLSS in the bioreactors and sludge supernatant COD concentrations were better predicted when the influent characterization was based on respirometric methods. Both the method based on theoretical coefficients and the physicochemical method underestimated the particulate inert fraction and therefore, also the MLSS concentrations. Moreover, these results showed that for a correct effluent COD prediction in MBR systems, it is necessary to take into account that the membrane retained part of the soluble inert fraction.
- Influence of parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of phenolic contaminants in wastewater using TiO2/UV system. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1542-52.
The photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous suspension using commercial TiO2 powder (Degussa P-25) irradiated with UV light was investigated. Photodegradation was compared using a photocatalyst (TiO2 alone), direct photolysis (UV alone) and TiO2/UV in a single batch reactor with mercury lamp irradiation. The study focused on the influence of various operating parameters on phenol treatment efficiency, including catalyst dosage, initial concentration of phenol, temperature, pH and change in pH were systematically investigated. The highest phenol degradation rate was obtained at pH 9.0, temperature 60°C and catalyst dose of 2 g L(-1) with higher mineralization efficiency (in terms of TOC reduction). Experimental results showed that under optimized conditions the phenol removal efficiency was 98% and 100% for the TiO2/UV and TiO2/UV/H2O2 system, respectively. No significant effect on addition of chloride and metal ions was observed. Photodegradation of phenol followed first-order kinetics. To test whether the phenol removal was possible for wastewater using a TiO2/UV system, the degradation study was conducted with the real obtained wastewater. The removal of phenol from obtained wastewater and the synthetic wastewater containing phenol was comparable. The TiO2/UV system developed here is expected to be useful for the treatment of wastewater containing phenol.
- Cosmetic wastewater treatment using the Fenton, Photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1531-41.
Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs), such as the Fenton, photo-Fenton and H2O2/UV processes, have been investigated for the treatment of cosmetic wastewaters that were previously coagulated by FeCl3. The Photo-Fenton process at pH 3.0 with 1000/100 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) was the most effective (74.0% Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal). The Fenton process with 1200/500 mg L(-1) H2O2/Fe(2+) achieved a COD removal of 72.0%, and the H2O2/UV process achieved a COD removal of 47.0%. Spreading the H2O2 doses over time to obtain optimal conditions did not improve COD removal. The kinetics of the Fenton and photo-Fenton processes may be described by the following equation: d[COD]/dt = -a[COD] t(m) (t represents time and a and m are constants). The rate of COD removal by the H2O2/UV process may be described by a second-order reaction equation. Head Space, Solid-Phase MicroExtraction, Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) were used to identify 48 substances in precoagulated wastewater. Among these substances, 26 were fragrances. Under optimal AOP conditions, over 99% of the identified substances were removed in 120 min.
- Strategies of management for the whole treatment of leachates generated in a landfill and in a composting plant. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1520-30.
This study compares the leachates generated in the treatment of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) of similar origin but managed in two different ways: (a) sorting and composting in a Treatment Plant in Aranda de Duero (Burgos, Spain), and (b) direct dumping in a landfill in Aranda de Duero (Burgos, Spain) with no prior treatment. Two different leachates were considered for the former: those generated in the fermentation shed (P1) and those generated in the composting tunnels (P2); another leachate was collected from the landfill (P3). Physical and chemical properties, including heavy metal contents, were seasonally monitored in the different leachates. This study allowed us to conclude that the sampling season had a significant effect on Pb, Cd, Ni, Mg and total-N contents (P < 0.01). Similarly, leachates P1, P2 and P3 exhibited significant overall differences for most of the measured parameters except for Cd, Cu, Pb, K, Fe, C-inorg and C-org contents (P < 0.01). This study concludes with the feasibility of a whole treatment for both leachates using ultrafiltration in a membrane bioreactor (MBR).
- Removal of dicyclohexyl acetic acid from aqueous solution using ultrasound, ozone and their combination. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1512-1519.
Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic components, some of which include saturated alkyl-substituted cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and acyclic aliphatic acids. They are naturally found in hydrocarbon deposits like oil sand, petroleum, bitumen and crude oil. In this study, the oxidation of a relatively high molecular weight naphthenic acid (Dicyclohexyl acetic acid) was investigated using ozonation, ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone and their combinations. Effects on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid (DAA) were measured for different concentrations of ozone ranging between 0.7 to 3.3 mg L(-1) and pH in the range 6 to 10. Ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone were not effective to oxidize dicyclohexyl acetic acid, but combining ultrasonication with H2O2 had a significant effect on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid with maximum removal reaching to 84 ± 2.2% with 81 ± 2.1% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Synergistic effects were observed for combining ultrasonication with ozonation and resulted in 100% DAA removal with 98 ± 0.8% reduction in COD within 15 min at 3.3 mg L(-1) ozone concentration and 130 Watts ultrasonication power. The reaction conditions obtained for the maximum oxidation of DAA and COD removal were used for the degradation of naphthenic acids mixture extracted from oil sands process water (OSPW). The percentage oxidation of NAs mixture extracted from OSPW was 89.3 ± 1.1% in ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication, but COD removal observed was 65 ± 1.2% and 78 ± 1.4% for ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication treatments, respectively.
- Amperometric determination of cadmium, lead, and mercury metal ions using a novel polymer immobilised horseradish peroxidase biosensor system. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1501-1511.
This work was undertaken to develop a novel Pt/PANI-co-PDTDA/HRP biosensor system for environmental applications to investigate the inhibition studies by specific heavy metals, to provide data suitable for kinetic studies and further application of the biosensor to environmental samples. The newly constructed biosensor was compared to the data of the well-researched Pt/PANI/HRP biosensor. Optimised experimental conditions, such as the working pH for the biosensor was evaluated. The functionality of the amperometric enzyme sensor system was demonstrated by measuring the oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide followed by the development of an assay for determination of metal concentration in the presence of selected metal ions of Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+). The detection limits were found to be 8 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for cadmium, 9.38 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for lead and 7.89 × 10(-4) μg L(-1) for mercury. The World Health Organisation recommended that the maximum safety level of these metals should not exceed 0.005 mg L(-1) of Cd(2+), 0.01 mg L(-1) of Pb(2+) and 0.001 mg L(-1) of Hg(2+.), respectively. The analytical and detection data for the metals investigated were observed to be lower than concentrations recommended by several bodies including World Health Organisation and Environmental Protection Agencies. Therefore the biosensors developed in this study can be used to screen the presence of these metals in water samples because of its low detection limit. The modes of inhibition of horseradish peroxidase by Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Hg(2+) as analysed using the double reciprocal plots of the Michaelis-Menten equation was found to be reversible and uncompetitive inhibition. Based on the Km(app) and Imax values for both biosensors the results have shown smaller values. These results also proved that the enzyme modified electrode is valuable and can be deployed for the determination or screening of heavy metals.
- Variation in composition and relative content of accumulated photopigments in a newly isolated Rhodobacter capsulatus strain XJ-1 in response to arsenic. [Journal Article]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2014 Nov 10; 49(13):1493-500.
This study aimed to isolate and characterize a new arsenic (As)-tolerant bacterial strain (XJ-1) from the Halosol soil, to evaluate its As tolerance, and to examine the variation in composition and relative content of accumulated photosynthetic pigments in response to As. The experiments were performed with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and grayscale intensity image analysis using Gel-Pro analyzer software. Strain XJ-1 was identified as Rhodobacter (R.) capsulatus based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and physiological characteristics. Strain XJ-1 was able to grow when exposed to arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] under anaerobic-light conditions. The median effective concentrations (EC50) of As(III) and As(V) were 0.61 mM and 2.03 mM, respectively. Strain XJ-1 could reduce As(V) to As(III), but As(III) could not be transformed back to As(V) or other organic As compounds. Accumulation of bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids in strain XJ-1 varied in the presence of 0.2-1.2 mM As(III) and 0-2.5 mM As(V). As exposure resulted in pronounced variation in compositions and contents of photosynthetic pigments, especially hydroxyspheroidene, bacteriophaeophytin, the ratio of tetrahydrogeranylgeranyl to phytylated BChl a, and the ratio of spheroidene to spheroidenone. This research highlights the adaptative response of R. capsulatus strain XJ-1 photosystems to environmental As, and demonstrates the potential of utilizing the sensitivity of its photosynthetic pigments to As(III) and As(V) for the biodetection of As in the environment.