J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng [journal]
- Characterization of the COD removal, electricity generation, and bacterial communities in microbial fuel cells treating molasses wastewater. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 18.:1-8.
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities were compared in 3 types of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) treating molasses wastewater. Single-chamber MFCs without and with a proton exchange membrane (PEM), and double-chamber MFC were constructed. A total of 10,000 mg L(-1) COD of molasses wastewater was continuously fed. The COD removal, electricity generation, and microbial communities in the two types of single-chamber MFCs were similar, indicating that the PEM did not enhance the reactor performance. The COD removal in the single-chamber MFCs (89-90%) was higher than that in the double-chamber MFC (50%). However, electricity generation in the double-chamber MFC was higher than that in the single-chamber MFCs. The current density (80 mA m(-2)) and power density (17 mW m(-2)) in the double-chamber MFC were 1.4- and 2.2-times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs, respectively. The bacterial community structures in single- and double-chamber MFCs were also distinguishable. The amount of Proteobacteria in the double-chamber MFC was 2-3 times higher than those in the single-chamber MFCs. For the archaeal community, Methanothrix (96.4%) was remarkably dominant in the single-chamber MFCs, but Methanobacterium (35.1%), Methanosarcina (28.3%), and Methanothrix (16.2%) were abundant in the double-chamber MFC.
- Removal of a common antibiotic (Amoxicillin) from different aqueous systems using Octolig®. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 15.:1-4.
Amoxicillin, used to manage bacterial infection, is among the top five popular pharmaceuticals in the United States, based on the number of prescriptions. Problems with environmentally available drugs can arise chiefly; biological resistance in excess amounts becomes available in wastewater samples. Previously, we observed that Amoxicillin could be removed quantitatively from deionized water by passage over Octolig®, a polythylenediimine covalently attached to high-surface-area silica gel. This study was concerned with testing the potential removal of Amoxicillin in different solutions (tap water, well water, river water, and the weakly saline water). These solutions were passed over chromatography columns at a rate of 10 mL per minute; 50-mL fractions were collected and analyzed for total dissolved solids and pH as well as concentration. As noted in our previous work, the percentage removal was related to the length of the column, and this aspect was evaluated again. Consistent results were obtained for DI water, tap water, well water, and river water, indicating quantitative removal, and but not artificial bay water, presumably because of ion competition.
- Effects of anti-androgens cyproterone acetate, linuron, vinclozolin, and p,p'-DDE on the reproductive organs of the copepod Acartia tonsa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 15.:1-10.
The study was performed to detect the effects of anti-androgenic compounds on the reproduction. In this paper alterations observed in the marine calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa exposed to environmental concentrations of cyproterone acetate (CPA), linuron (LIN), vinclozolin (VIN), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) for 21 days covering a full life cycle are described. Histological alterations were studied with a focus on reproductive organs, gonad and accessory sexual glands. Exposure to ≥1.2 µg L(-1) CPA caused degeneration of spermatocytes and deformation of the spermatophore in males. In a single male exposed to 33 µg L(-1) CPA, an ovotestis was observed. In CPA exposed females, enhancement of oogenesis, increase in apoptosis and a decrease in proliferation occurred. Exposure of males to ≥12 µg L(-1) LIN caused degenerative effects in spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids, and at 4.7 µg L(-1) LIN, the spermatophore wall displayed an irregular formation. In LIN exposed females, no such structural alterations were found; however, the proliferation index was reduced at 29 µg L(-1) LIN. At an exposure concentration of ≥100 µg L(-1) VIN, distinct areas in male gonad were stimulated, whereas others displayed a disturbed spermatogenesis and a deformed spermatophore wall. In VIN exposed female A. tonsa, no effects were observed. Male A. tonsa exposed to p,p'-DDE displayed an impairment of spermatogenesis in all stages with increased degrees of apoptosis. In p,p'-DDE-exposed females, a statistical significant increase of the proliferation index and an intensification of oogenesis were observed at 0.0088 µg L(-1).
- Sorption properties of an amorphous hydroxo titanate towards Pb(2+), Ni(2+), and Cu(2+) ions in aqueous solution. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 15.:1-10.
Titanates may be selectively used as inorganic adsorbents for heavy metal ions owing to their stability and fast adsorption kinetics. Nevertheless, the synthesis of such materials usually requires extreme reaction conditions. In this work, a new titanium-based material was rapidly synthesized under mild laboratory conditions. The obtained amorphous hydroxo titanate was tested for heavy metal sorption through kinetic and equilibrium batch tests, which indicated that the new material had high adsorption rates and adsorption capacities towards Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Pb(2) ions. Adsorption kinetics were pseudo-second order, and equilibrium data fitted the Langmuir isotherm model. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Pb(2+) in deionized water were around 1 mmol g(-1), and they decreased for Cu(2+) and Ni(2+) in the presence of Na(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions, whereas the alkali metal ions did not influence Pb(2+) uptake. The efficiency of adsorption and recovery of lead ions were evaluated through column dynamic tests, by feeding the column with groundwater and tap water spiked with Pb(2+). The high performance of the hydroxo titanate over several cycles of retention and elution suggested that the product is potentially useful for the solid phase extraction of lead at trace levels in natural water samples, with potential use in metal pre-concentration for analytical applications.
- Electrochemical degradation of malachite green: Multivariate optimization, pathway identification and toxicity analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 15.:1-9.
Application of a newly developed electrode material, PbO2 coated on mild steel plate (MS-PbO2), for the degradation of malachite green (MG) by photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), electrochemical oxidation (ECO) and photoelectrochemical oxidation (PEC) was explored. PEC performed marginally better at lower current density. However, the performances of PEC and ECO were equally good at higher current densities. One variable at a time optimization was carried out to identify the major parameters influencing ECO. Multivariate optimization was carried out with NaCl concentration, current density and pH as the variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency and current efficiency (CE) as the responses. Increasing the current density aided the COD removal efficiency, but decreased the CE. Low NaCl concentration and acidic pH were beneficial for both. The optimum condition for maximizing the COD removal efficiency and CE of MG (50 mg L(-1)) was obtained as NaCl concentration of 1.56 g L(-1), a current density of 1.91 mA cm(-2) and pH 5. The maximum predicted and experimental COD removal efficiencies were 89.41% and 90.8%, and CEs were 21.52% and 21.1%, respectively. Degradation intermediates were identified and a possible pathway of degradation was proposed. Disc inhibition study showed that the degraded samples are non-toxic. The efficacy of the method was tested for treating wastewater collected from dyebath having a COD of about 2000 mg L(-1). COD removal efficiency of greater than 90% was achieved within 12 h at a current density of 7.2 mA cm(-2).
- Detection of pepper mild mottle virus as an indicator for drinking water quality in Hanoi, Vietnam, in large volume of water after household treatment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 15.:1-7.
The aims of this study were to examine the removal of bacteria and viruses by household point-of-use (POU) treatments and to apply a previously developed large-volume virus concentration method (∼20 L). First, the removal of microbes by household POU treatment was investigated in the laboratory. Second, the prevalence of viruses in drinking water sources for households and the removal efficiency of microbes by POU treatments in two suburban communities in Hanoi, Vietnam, were investigated. Indigenous pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) was used as the main target together with adenovirus, Aichi virus, enterovirus, F-specific bacteriophage genogroup 1, and Escherichia coli to investigate the removal efficiency of household treatments. The results from laboratory and field survey were compared. From the laboratory study, ceramic membranes were not effective for removing viruses and bacteria from water; pathogen reduction was less than 1.5 log10. By contrast, reverse osmosis (RO) devices reduced microbes by 3 to > 5 log10. In a field study, PMMoV was found to be the most prevalent waterborne virus. Household sand filtration was ineffective for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV; the reduction was less than 1 order of magnitude. Boiling the water and then filtering it with a ceramic membrane reduced E. coli by 3 orders of magnitude, but this was not effective for removing PMMoV. RO filtration was one of the promising methods for removing E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV to below their detection limits in most of the samples studied. The removal of E. coli, total coliforms and PMMoV was >2.3, >4 and >3 log10, respectively. The laboratory results of virus removal efficiency by POU devices agreed with the field study. Due to the prevalence and characteristics of PMMoV, it is a strong candidate for an indigenous indicator to investigate the viral removal efficiency of household POU treatments.
- Anthropogenic pressure in a Portuguese river: Endocrine-disrupting compounds, trace elements and nutrients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 13.:1-10.
Natural organic compounds such as phytoestrogens and phytosterols found in various plants, as well as mycotoxins produced by fungi, can be found in aquatic environments. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of three different classes of natural estrogenic compounds, i.e., phytoestrogens, phytosterols and mycotoxins, in estuarine water samples from the Ave River estuary. For that, water samples were collected at five sampling points distributed along the estuary at low tide, during 1 year, processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). To correlate the presence of phytoestrogens and phytosterols in the estuarine water, local flora was collected on riverside. Trace elements content and physicochemical parameters such as nutrients and dissolved oxygen were also determined seasonally at each sampling point, to give insights for the evaluation of water quality and anthropogenic pressure. Both phytoestrogens and phytosterols showed a seasonal variation, with the highest values observed in spring and summer and the lowest in winter. Daidzein (DAID) was found up to 404.0 ng L(-1) in spring and coumestrol (COUM) was found up to 165.0 ng L(-1) in summer. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) was ubiquitously determined with values ranging from 59.5 to 642.4 ng L(-1). Nutrients and metals distribution and concentration varied among sampling stations and seasons. This study revealed for the first time the presence of mycotoxins, various classes of phytoestrogens and stigmasterol (STG) in estuarine water from the Ave River (Portugal), and the evaluation of the water quality confirmed that this estuary is still highly impacted by anthropogenic activities.
- In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assessment of selected pharmaceuticals in relation to Escherichia coli and Cyprinus carpio. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 13.:1-9.
Genotoxicity studies (using SOS chromotest and comet assay) of Escherichia coli and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were performed for three pharmaceutically active compounds, ciprofloxacin, 17α-ethinylestradiol and 5-fluorouracil, used in the treatment of humans. The values of genotoxicity induction coefficient (I) in the SOS chromotest clearly showed genotoxicity for ciprofloxacin, both in the presence and in the absence of S9 fraction; 17α-ethinylestradiol demonstrated slight genotoxicity at the highest tested concentration; and 5-fluorouracil did not induce genotoxic effects in Escherichia coli mutants. Statistical analysis of the results of the comet assay revealed significant differences in cell populations derived from carp placed in a solution of 5-fluorouracil in comparison with the negative control. Statistical analysis also showed a significant increase of "% DNA in tail" of comets in cell populations incubated in solutions of 17α-ethinylestradiol at concentrations of 10000, 2000 and 400 µg/L and in solutions of 5-fluorouracil with S9 fraction at concentrations of 50,000 and 2,000 μg/L in comparison with the negative controls.
- Properties and cellular effects of particulate matter from direct emissions and ambient sources. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 13.:1-9.
The pollution of particulate matter (PM) is of great concern in China and many other developing countries. It is generally recognized that the toxicity of PM is source and property dependent. However, the relationship between PM properties and toxicity is still not well understood. In this study, PM samples from direct emissions of wood, straw, coal, diesel combustion, cigarette smoking and ambient air were collected and characterized for their physicochemical properties. Their expression of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and levels of inflammatory cytokines (i.e., tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)) was measured using a RAW264.7 cell model. Our results demonstrated that the properties of the samples from different origins exhibited remarkable differences. Significant increases in ROS were observed when the cells were exposed to PMs from biomass origins, including wood, straw and cigarettes, while increases in TNF-α were found for all the samples, particularly those from ambient air. The most important factor associated with ROS generation was the presence of water-soluble organic carbon, which was extremely abundant in the samples that directly resulted from biomass combustion. Metals, endotoxins and PM size were the most important properties associated with increases in TNF-α expression levels. The association of the origins of PM particles and physicochemical properties with cytotoxic properties is illustrated using a cluster analysis.
- CR-100 synthetic zeolite adsorption characteristics toward Northern Banat groundwater ammonia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng 2016 Jul 13.:1-7.
The adsorption characteristics of synthetic zeolite CR-100 in a fixed-bed system using continuous flow of groundwater containing elevated ammonia concentration were examined. The possibilities for adsorbent mass calculation throughout mass transfer zone using novel mathematical approach as well as zeolite adsorption capacity at every sampling point in time or effluent volume were determined. The investigated adsorption process consisted of three clearly separated steps indicated to sorption kinetics. The first step was characterized by decrease and small changes in effluent ammonia concentration vs. experiment time and quantity of adsorbed ammonia per mass unit of zeolite. The consequences of this phenomenon were showed in the plots of the Freundlich and the Langmuir isotherm models through a better linear correlation according as graphical points contingent to the first step were not accounted. The Temkin and the Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models showed the opposite tendency with better fitting for overall measurements. According to the obtained isotherms parameter data, the investigated process was found to be multilayer physicochemical adsorption, and also that synthetic zeolite CR-100 is a promising material for removal of ammonia from Northern Banat groundwater with an ammonia removal efficiency of 90%.