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J Ethnopharmacol [journal]
- Ginseng treatment reverses obesity and related disorders by inhibiting angiogenesis in female Db/Db mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 26.
Korean red ginseng (ginseng, Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has traditionally been used in the treatment of most ageing-related diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, but the mechanism of the effects is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of ginseng on obesity in a mouse model of female obesity (obese female db/db mouse) and to investigate the mechanism of anti-obesity effects.After female db/db (B6.Cg-m Lepr(db)/++/J) mice were treated with 5% (w/w) ginseng for 13 weeks, variables and parameters of obesity and disorders related to obesity were examined. Blood vessel density and the expression of genes involved in angiogenesis were also measured.Mice treated with ginseng for 13 weeks had less body weight and lower adipose tissue mass compared to control, untreated mice. The size of adipocytes was smaller in visceral adipose tissues of ginseng-treated mice. Obesity-related complications, such as hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperglycemia, were markedly improved in treated mice. Blood vessel density was lower in visceral adipose tissue sections from treated mice than those from control mice. Concomitantly, mRNA levels for VEGF-A and FGF-2 were lower in both visceral adipose tissue from treated mice and treated 3T3-L1 cells compared to those from untreated controls. Protein levels for VEGF were also lower in visceral adipose tissue from treated mice. In contrast, ginseng increased mRNA expression of genes responsible for energy expenditure and fatty acid β-oxidation in visceral adipose tissue during ginseng-induced weight reduction.These results suggest that ginseng may effectively treat female obesity and related disorders in part by inhibition of angiogenesis.
- An ethnopharmacological assessment of the use of plants against parasitic diseases in humans and animals. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 26.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Ethnobotanical surveys are detecting an increasing frequency of exotic plant species in pharmacopeias, which has led researchers to investigate the role of such species in traditional medical systems. According to the diversification hypothesis, exotic species are included to complete pharmacopeias, i.e., to treat diseases for which no native species are known, thus broadening the scope of the plant repertoire. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at two rural communities in northeastern Brazil aiming at a survey of the plants known or used by the population to treat endo- and ectoparasitic diseases in humans and animals. In addition, plant extracts exhibiting acaricide activity were assessed using the engorged female immersion and larval packet tests (LPT).The results of the present study showed a tendency for native species to be used against ectoparasites and exhibit a broader scope of use compared to exotic species. In turn, exotic species were predominantly indicated to treat diseases caused by endoparasites, although there was an overlap of native and exotic species relative to some therapeutic purpose, e.g., ticks. Only two of the plant species tested exhibited acaricide activity (Nicotiana glauca Graham and Croton blanchetianus Baill.), and in both cases, the activity was weak.The ethnobotanical data do not fully support the suggested hypothesis. Overall, the wide versatility of exotic species was not exclusively used to treat parasitic diseases in humans and animals. In addition, the selection of acaricide plants based on the ethnopharmacological study generated uninteresting results.
- Screening and Identification of Potential Biomarkers and Establishment of the Diagnostic Serum Proteomic Model for the Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndromes of Tuberculosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 26.
Chemotherapy is the mainstay of modern tuberculosis (TB) control. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) can enhance the effect of anti-TB drug, promote the absorption of the foci in the lung and reduce drug toxicity. In TCM, the determination of treatment is based on ZHENG (also called TCM syndrome).To establish a diagnostic model by using proteomics technology in order to identify potential biomarkers for TCM syndromes of TB.The surface-enhanced laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometer (SELDI-TOF MS) combined with weak cation exchange (WCX) magnetic beads was used to screen serum samples from 71 cases of deficiency of lung yin syndrome (DLYS), 64 cases of fire (yang) excess yin deficiency syndrome (FEYDS) and 45 cases of deficiency of both qi and yin syndrome (DQYS). A classification model was established by Biomarker Pattern Software (BPS). Candidate protein biomarkers were purified by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatograph (RP-HPLC), identified by MALDI-TOF MS, LC-MS/MS and validated by ProteinChip Immunoassays.A total of 74 discriminating m/z peaks (P<0.001) among three TCM syndromes of TB were detected. A diagnostic model for the TCM syndrome of TB based on the five biomarkers (3961.7, 4679.7, 5646.4, 8891.2 and 9416.7m/z) was established which could discriminate DLYS, FEYDS and DQYS patients with an accuracy of 74.0%, 72.5%, and 96.7%, respectively. The candidate biomarker with m/z of 9416.7 was identified as a fragment of apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) by MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-MS/MS.The TCM syndrome diagnostic model of TB could successfully distinguish the three TCM syndromes of TB patients. This provided a biological basis for the determination of treatment based on different TCM syndromes of TB. ApoC-III was identified as a potential biomarker for TCM syndromes of TB and revealed the biochemical basis and pathogenesis of TCM syndromes in TB.
- Reproductive toxicology and clastogenic evaluation in mice of a phytotherapeutic formulation obtained from cinchona calisaya Weddel (Rubiaceae) used in Brazilian folk medicine as female fertility stimulant. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 25.
In Brazil, a phytotherapeutic preparation produced from a standardized tincture of Cinchona calisaya Weddel such that each mL of product contains 400µg of quinine, known in Portuguese as Água Inglesa® (English water), is indicated by the manufacturer as a tonic, appetite stimulant, and digestive. However, this preparation has long been used in folk medicine as a female fertility stimulant.Despite its widespread use in folk medicine to stimulate female fertility, no study has been undertaken to assess the potential teratogenic and genotoxic effects of this phytotherapeutic preparation. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible toxic reproductive effects in mice caused by exposure to Água Inglesa®, either before mating or during the pre- and post-embryo implantation periods. The genotoxic potential was evaluated using the micronucleus assay.Virgin female mice, with at least one estrous cycle evidenced by vaginal cytology, were divided into five groups of 15 individuals each (Group I - control, Group II - treated with ethanol solution at 16%, Group III - IV and V treated with phytotherapeutic preparation at 1.5mL/kg/day, 3.0mL/kg/day and 4.5mL/kg/day, respectively). After the first 28 days of treatment, females were caged individually with adult fertile males. Pregnant females continued to receive treatment for seven days (preimplantation period). Body weight was recorded weekly during treatment. Signs of toxicity (weight loss, food intake, piloerection, apathy, prostration, diarrhea, seizures, behavioral changes, and locomotion) were also observed. The females were sacrificed on the 15th day of pregnancy, uterine horns were evaluated for implantation, and the placental index was recorded. In the micronucleus test, two thousand polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) per animal, obtained from bone marrow, were scored. The results showed that exposure of the females during the pre- and post-implantation periods did not significantly alter the reproductive capacity (p<0.05), however, in higher dose (three times human dose) was observed reduction of fetal weight. There was no difference between the control and phytotherapeutic preparation (p>0.05) in terms of the average number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes.Although folk medicine suggests that the Água Inglesa® preparation is useful as a female fertility stimulant, no such effect was confirmed in mice.
- UPLC/MS/MS method for quantification and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Saussurea lappa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 25.
Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae) roots have repute for the usage in traditional medicinal systems of India, China and Japan for the treatment of various kinds of disorders such as anti-ulcer, anti-convulsant, anti-cancer, hepatoprotective, anti-arthritic and anti-viral activities.Compounds were isolated using column chromatographic technique. The root extract, fractions and isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against A549 (human lung carcinoma) and C-6 (rat glioma) cells using the Sulphorhodamine B assay. Chromatographic separations of active sesquiterpene lactones were accomplished on BEH-HSS-T3 column at 25°C.Phytochemical investigation of Saussurea lappa root extract resulted in the isolation of isoalantolactone (1), β-cyclocostunolide (2) α-cyclocostunolide (3), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxycinnamyl-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), sucrose (5), and alantolactone (6). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic means. Ethanolic extract, chloroform fraction, compounds 1, 2, 3 and 6 possessed significant activity against both tested cells. The quantification was performed using the transitions of m/z 233/105 for isoalantolactone and m/z 233/105 for alantolactone respectively. Costunolide and dehydrocostus lactone were also characterised by comparison of MS/MS fragmentation pattern.This is the first study on simultaneous quantification of isoalantolactone and alantolactone by UPLC/MS/MS method in S. lappa. Our study against A549 and C-6 cells showed higher cytotoxicity. It is suggested that roots of S. lappa might be a potential source of anticancer compounds.
- Inhibition of airway inflammation by the roots of angelica decursiva and its constituent, columbianadin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 25.
The roots of Angelica decursiva Fr. Et Sav (Umbelliferae) have been frequently used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antitussive, analgesic agents and expectorant, especially for treating cough, asthma, bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections.To establish the scientific rationale for the clinical use of Angelica decursiva and to identify new agents for treating inflammatory lung disorders, pharmacological evaluation of the roots of A. decursiva and the isolated constituents was performed.In vitro study was carried out using two lung cells, lung epithelial cells (A549) and alveolar macrophages (MH-S). The inflammatory markers such as IL-6 and nitric oxide (NO) for each cell line were examined. For in vivo study, a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury was used and the effects on lung inflammation were established by measuring the cell numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and by histological observation.The water and 70% ethanol extracts of the roots of A. decursiva showed considerable inhibitory activity against LPS-induced lung inflammation in mice following oral administration at a dose of 400mg/kg. Five coumarin derivatives including columbianadin, umbelliferone, umbelliferone 6-carboxylic acid, nodakenin and nodakenetin were isolated. Among the isolated compounds, columbianadin was found to possess strong inhibitory activity against the inflammatory response of IL-1β-treated A549 cells and LPS-treated MH-S cells. Columbianadin was found to inhibit NO production by down-regulation of inducible NO synthase. Moreover, columbianadin was also proved to possess significant inhibitory activity against LPS-induced lung inflammation following oral administration at a dose of 20-60mg/kg.The roots of A. decursiva was proved to be effective in the treatment of lung inflammation. Columbianadin can be a potential new agent for treating inflammatory lung disorders.
- Ethnomedicinal knowledge and relative importance of indigenous medicinal plants of Cholistan desert, Punjab province, Pakistan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 24.
Ethnomedicinal studies are significant for the discovery of new crude drugs from indigenous reported medicinal plants. The current study aimed to report the indigenous medicinal knowledge of plants and herbal remedies used as folk medicines in Cholistan desert, Punjab Province, Pakistan.Rapid Appraisal Approach (RAA), semi-structured interviews, group meetings with herbalists, landowners and local people having awareness about the medicinal action of plants were employed to collect the data.This study reports 70 medicinal plants belonging to 27 families that were disseminated among 60 different genera and Poaceae was the predominant family over others with 13 reported medicinal plants. Among plant parts, leaves were the dominant over others with 26.4% used in herbal preparations followed by the stem (25.2%), fruit (21.5%), flower (16.3%), seed (6.5%), bark and pod (02%). Haloxylon recurvum exhibited the highest use vale (UV) 0.83 while least UV was exhibited by Mollugo cerviana that was 0.16.Important medicinal plants, reported in this study have been screened for phytochemical and pharmaceutical activities in different parts of the globe. It is recommended that reported medicinal plants having potent action for cancer and hepatitis must be screened for pharmacological activities.
- Hoodia gordonii extract targets both adipose and muscle tissue to achieve weight loss in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 24.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Hoodia gordonii (Masson) Sweet ex Decne (family Apocynaceae) is consumed globally as a natural appetite suppressant. While this effect - and its subsequent effect of weight loss - has been reported in the scientific literature, no information is available on the specific tissue types affected that accounts for the significant weight loss reported after consumption of the plant. Furthermore, most studies are performed on lean animals, so that the response of overweight or obese individuals to this plant supplement remains largely unknown. Materials and Methods: Twelve lean and twelve obese male Wistar rats were supplemented with different doses of Hoodia gordonii extract (80 or 160mg/kg body mass twice daily) in a placebo-controlled study, for a period of 14 days. Results: All supplemented rats exhibited significant weight loss (P<0.001). This could be ascribed to decreases in both adipose cell size and skeletal muscle fibre size. Conclusions: We conclude that the weight loss seen after consumption of Hoodia gordonii is due to loss of both adipose and muscle mass.
- Severity of khat dependence among adult khat chewers: The Moderating Influence of Gender and Age. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 23.
The escalating use of khat (Catha edulis) in East Africa and Arabia is a major concern for public health. Yet little is known about the impact of khat on behaviour. To that end, there has been no study in the region to assess the extent to which dependence syndrome is associated with khat use in this population. We examined in this study was psychometric properties of the Severity of Dependence Scale-Khat (SDS-khat), gender differences in patterns of khat use and dependence, and the extent to which age moderated the link between gender and khat dependence. Two-hundred and ninety-two khat chewers recruited in two Yemeni cities completed face-to-face interviews asking about demographics and patterns of khat use. Validity of SDS-khat was examined by the principle component analysis and reliability of the scale was tested by the Cronbach's alpha. A series of chi-square tests and analysis of variances (ANOVAs) were conducted to examine gender differences in khat use variables. The results indicated that the mean age of khat chewers was 30.52 years (95% CI: 29.34, 31.70) years, and 52% of them were males. The SDS-khat was found to have two factors with moderate reliability. This pattern was consistent when the analysis was conducted in the entire sample and in each gender. Male khat chewers reported more symptoms related to khat dependence than female chewers. A significant gender by age interaction in SDS-khat levels (p =0.013) revealed a positive association between age and khat dependence in women only. These results provide initial support for the use of SDS-khat in the assessment of khat dependence in Yemen. Gender differences in khat use patterns and dependence observed in this study call the need for more studies carefully examining the role of gender in khat research.
- Identification of antihyperlipidemic constituents from the roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Jul 23.
The roots of Rubia yunnanensis Diels (Rubiaceae) have been used as an alternative for Rubia cordifolia for the treatment of various diseases including cardiovascular disease and metabolic disease for a long history in traditional Chinese medicine.To evaluate antihyperlipidemic activity of the roots of R. yunnanensis Diels and to identify active compounds from the active fraction.Antihyperlipidemic effects of extract and compounds of the roots of Rubia yunnanensis were studied in HepG2 cells and in vivo model in olive oil-loaded mice. The isolation of compounds was conducted using various chromatographic methods and the structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by NMR and MS techniques.Methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of R. yunnanensis potently decreased the triglycerides accumulation in HepG2 cells and the methanol extract of R. yunnanensis (125, 250 and 500mg/kg) significantly inhibited the TG elevation in a dose dependent manner in olive oil-loaded mice. Through various chromatographic methods, twenty-three compounds (1-23) were isolated in which arborinane-type triterpenoids and a free anthraquinone potently inhibited TG levels in HepG2 cells.Arborinane-type triterpenoids, especial rubiarbonone C (16) and an anthraquinone, 2-methyl-1, 3, 6- trihydroxy-9, 10-anthraquinone (MTHA) (22) were identified as the main active compounds responsible for antihyperlipidemic activity. Based on these findings, we proposed that the extract of R. yunnanensis and its active components, arborinane-type triterpenoids and the free anthraquinone might be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of hyperlipidemic disease.