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J Ethnopharmacol [journal]
- Chemical characterization of Centaurium erythrea L. and its effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in experimental diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 6.
Centaurium erythrea L. fam. Gentianaceae (CE) has been traditionally used for centuries in folk medicine of Balkans as a bitter medicinal herb for digestive complications and for treating febrile conditions and diabetes.The aim of this study was to gain insight into the chemical composition and underlying biochemical mechanism of action of the antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic activities of the dry extract of Centaurium erythrea L., wildly growing and traditionally used medicinal plant in the Republic of Macedonia.An ultrasonic methanol maceration of the aerial parts of the dried plant was performed and the extract was freeze-dried. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) was carried out on 150mm×4.6mm, 5μm RP-18 Eclipse XDB column, at 40°C. Mobile phase: water with 1% formic acid (A) and methanol (B) with linear gradient starting with 10% B was used to reach 15% at 5min, 40% B at 25min, 55% of B at 50min and 100% at 60min, with flow rate of 0.4mLmin(-1). Normal and streptozotocin (STZ) hyperglycemic Wistar rats were used for assessment of the antihyperglycemic and antilipidemic activity by measurement of the key carbohydrate-related enzymes and substrates, as well as lipid state of the organism.HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n) analyses revealed presence of 4 different secoiridoids, 7 flavonoid glycosides and 7 xanthones in freeze-dried extract of CE representing 53%, 25% and 22% of all compounds, respectively. The short-term (12 days) treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with CE-extracts resulted in 74% reduction of the produced hyperglycaemia, which is only 6% less than the reduction caused by glibeclamide (GLB, positive control). The CE-extract had a significant impact on the hepatic carbohydrate metabolism enhancing the direct synthesis of glycogen, normalization of phosphorylase a activity and reducing the activity of glucose-6-phosphatase, which further causes reduction in production of blood glucose level. The long-term (45 days) treatment showed that the HbA1c in CE-treated group of animals was even lower than in the GLB-treated groups. The antilipidemic assessment of the CE-extract revealed decrease of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL and LDL level in the blood of the normal and STZ-hyperglycemic rats.The obtained results indicate that treatment with CE extract in STZ-diabetic rats regulates the elevated level of blood glucose and carbohydrate-related disturbances slightly better than the effect of glibenclamide. There was also regulation of the serum lipid status in diabetic rats. Identified groups of bitter compounds in the extract (flavonoides, iridoids and xanthones) probably have influence on the expressed antihyperglycaemic effect.
- Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 6.
Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science.Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research.In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science.
- Simulated Digestion of Dried Leaves of Artemisia annua Consumed as a Treatment (pACT) for Malaria. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 5.
Artemisinin (AN) is produced by Artemisia annua, a medicinal herb long used as a tea infusion in traditional Chinese medicine to treat fever; it is also the key ingredient in current artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) effective in treating malaria. Recently we showed that dried leaves from the whole plant A. annua that produces artemisinin and contains artemisinin-synergistic flavonoids seems to be more effective and less costly than ACT oral malaria therapy; however little is known about how digestion affects release of artemisinin and flavonoids from dried leaves.In the current study we used a simulated digestion system to determine how artemisinin and flavonoids are released prior to absorption into the bloodstream. Various delivery methods and staple foods were combined with dried leaves for digestion in order to investigate their impact on the bioavailability of artemisinin and flavonoids. Digestate was recovered at the end of the oral, gastric, and intestinal stages, separated into solid and liquid fractions, and extracted for measurement of artemisinin and total flavonoids.Compared to unencapsulated digested dried leaves, addition of sucrose, various cooking oils, and rice did not reduce the amount of artemisinin released in the intestinal liquid fraction, but the amount of released flavonoids nearly doubled. When dried leaves were encapsulated into either hydroxymethylcellulose or gelatin capsules, there was >50% decrease in released artemisinin but no change in released flavonoids. In the presence of millet or corn meal, the amount of released artemisinin declined, but there was no change in released flavonoids. Use of a mutant A. annua lacking artemisinin showed that the plant matrix is critical in determining how artemisinin is affected during the digestion process.This study provides evidence showing how both artemisinin and flavonoids are affected by digestion and dietary components for an orally consumed plant delivered therapeutic and that artemisinin delivered via dried leaves would likely be more bioavailable if provided as a tablet instead of in a capsule.
- From local to global-Fifty years of research on Salvia divinorum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 4.
In 1962 ethnopharmacologists, Hofmann and Wasson, undertook an expedition to Oaxaca, Mexico. These two researchers were the first scientists to collect a flowering specimen of Salvia divinorum allowing the identification of this species. While the species' traditional use is confined to a very small region of Mexico, since Hofmann and Wasson's expedition 50 years ago, Salvia divinorum has become globally recognized for its main active constituent, the diterpene salvinorin A, which has a unique effect on human physiology. Salvinorin A is a kappa-opioid antagonist and the first reported psychoactive diterpene.This review concentrates on the investigation of Salvia divinorum over the last 50 years including ethnobotany, ethnopharmacology, taxonomy, systematics, genetics, chemistry and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic research. For the purpose of this review, online search engines were used to find relevant research. Searches were conducted between October 2011 and September 2013 using the search term "Salvia divinorum". Papers were excluded if they described synthetic chemical synthesis of salvinorin A or analogues.Ethnobotanically there is a comprehensive body of research describing the traditional Mazatec use of the plant, however, the modern ethnobotanical use of this plant is not well documented. There are a limited number of botanical investigations into this plant and there are still several aspects of the botany of Salvia divinorum which need further investigation. One study has investigated the phylogenetic relationship of Salvia divinorum to other species in the genus. To date the main focus of chemistry research on Salvia divinorum has been salvinorin A, the main active compound in Salvia divinorum, and other related diterpenoids. Finally, the effects of salvinorin A, a KOR agonist, have primarily been investigated using animal models.As Salvia divinorum use increases worldwide, the emerging cultural use patterns will warrant more research. More botanical information is also needed to better understand this species, including germination, pollination vector and a better understanding of the endemic environment of Salvia divinorum. As well there is a gap in the genetic knowledge of this species and very little is known about its intra-species genetics. The terpenes in Salvia divinorum are very well documented, however, other classes of constituents in this species warrant further investigation and identification. To date, the majority of the pharmacology research on Salvia divinorum has focused on the effects of salvinorin A using animal models. Published human studies have not reported any harmful effects when salvinorin A is administered within the dose range of 0.375-21µg/kg but what are the implications when applied to a larger population? More data on the toxicology and safety of Salvia divinorum are needed before larger scale clinical trials of the potential therapeutic effects of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A are undertaken.
- A UPLC-MS/MS method for in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetic studies of psoralenoside, isopsoralenoside, psoralen and isopsoralen from Psoralea corylifolia extract. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 3.
The dried fruit of Psoralea corylifolia L. has been used to prevent and treat vitiligo, osteoporosis, arthralgia and asthma in Traditional Chinese Medicine for some 1600 years. Psoralen (P), isopsoralen (IP), psoralenoside (PO) and isopsoralenoside (IPO) are the major coumarins and coumarin-related benzofuran glycosides in Psoraleae Fructus, which have been reported to show estrogen-like activity, osteoblastic proliferation accelerating activity, antitumor effects and antibacterial activity.The first aim of this study is to develop a rapid, sensitive and selective ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) approach for simultaneous determination of PO, IPO, P and IP in rat plasma and samples collected from in vitro incubation experiments. The second aim is to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of PO, IPO, P and IP after oral administration of Psoralea corylifolia extract (PCE) to rats. The third aim is to confirm the biotransformation of PO to P or IPO to IP under gastrointestinal conditions.A UPLC-MS/MS method with a C18 column and a mobile phase of methanol-0.1% aqueous formic acid was validated according to the criteria in FDA guidelines about bioanalytical method, which was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic behavior of PO, IPO, P and IP from PCE and the metabolic pathways of PO to P or IPO to IP.The criteria for establishment of a new UPLC-MS/MS method including selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, extraction recovery, matrix effect and stability were validated. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of PO, IPO, P and IP in biological samples collected from both in vitro incubations and in vivo rat experiments. After oral administration of PCE to rat, pharmacokinetic parameters of these four compounds indicated that in vivo biotransformation may occur between PO and P or IPO and IP. Purified benzofuran glycosides fraction (PBGF), containing only PO and IPO, was orally administered to rats to further confirm the biotransformation of PO to P or IPO to IP under gastrointestinal conditions. An in vitro incubation study elucidated that PO and IPO were metabolized to P and IP by intestinal microflora through de-glucosylation.This paper developed a rapid, sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of PO, IPO, P and IP from PCE in biological samples, and investigated on their comprehensive in vivo and in vitro pharmacokinetic studies. These obtained results showed that the metabolism by intestinal bacteria plays an important role in pharmacological effects of orally administered PCE.
- Chondroprotective activity of a detoxicated traditional Chinese medicine (Fuzi) of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx against severe-stage osteoarthritis model induced by mono-iodoacetate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 4.
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Fuzi is an effective but toxic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from Aconitum carmichaeli. In our previous study, detoxicated Fuzi (d-Fuzi) has been originally developed with no toxicity but significant efficacy. However, whether d-Fuzi can be used for therapy of osteoarthritis (OA), remain unknown.Materials and methods: Severe OA model was established by intra-articular mono-iodoacetate (MIA) injection (1.25mg) into rats and orally treated with 2g/ml d-Fuzi at a dosage of 7ml/kg body weight for 28 days. In vivo, the articular radiographic and histopathologic analyses were performed to qualitatively assess the chondroprotective effect of d-Fuzi, followed by quantitative measurements of bone density and Mankin scores. In vitro, such effect on chondrocyte viability after MIA attack was evaluated. Hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF-MS) was performed for chemical analysis of d-Fuzi.Results: d-Fuzi was demonstrated to possess chondroprotective activity on MIA-induced OA model by in vivo preventing the articular degeneration and the reducing of bone density and Mankin score, as well as by in vitro promoting the chondrocyte proliferation and inhibiting the MIA-induced chondrocyte damage. A total of 23 compounds were identified in d-Fuzi, most of which were deduced as the non-toxic derivatives of aconite alkaloids.Conclusions: This is the first report regarding chondroprotective effect and chemical profile of d-Fuzi, originally revealing its great anti-OA potential and thereby providing a promising TCM candidate for OA therapy.
- Short-term administration of an aqueous extract of kalanchoe integra var. crenata (andr.) cuf leaves produces no major organ damage in sprague-dawley rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 3.
Kalanchoe intergra (Ki) leaf extract is an orally administered multipurpose plant medicine in Ghana and other parts of the world for the treatment of ulcers, pain and adenoma of the prostate gland. There is paucity of information concerning its short-term usage. The present study is aimed at conducting histopathological and biochemical studies in a 14-day sub acute toxicity studies using female sprague-dawley rats.Crude extract of Ki leaves was prepared and freeze-dried. . A 14-day sub- acute toxicity studies was conducted using 2 week old nulliparous and non-pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats (120g-150g). Reconstituted Ki was administered at a dosage of 900 mgkg(-1) (high dose), 300 mgkg(-1) with a control group receiving an equivalent volume of distilled water (as vehicle) by gastric lavage. Histopathological studies of major organs and blood chemistry analysis were performed on blood obtained via cardiac puncture into EDTA tubes after euthanisation.There was a significant decrease in urea (p<0.016) and creatinine levels (p<0.001) in both the high and low dose group. There was an increase in ALP levels (P=0.01) in both the high and low dose group. ALT and AST rather decreased significantly in both the high and low dose groups (p<0.0001). Histopathological results did not show any abnormalities in all the H&E stained paraffin sections. Thus the photo micrographs of the liver, kidney and heart were within histopathological limits.Ki leaf extract is non-toxic when administered by the oral route over a time period of 14 days at the above doses.
- Munronia pinnata (Wall.) Theob.: Unveiling phytochemistry and dual inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 4.
Preparations from Munronia pinnata (Wall.) Theob. are extensively used in traditional medicine in Sri Lanka for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. However, neither the pharmacological features nor the phytochemistry of this plant are explored in order to understand and rationalize the reported ethnobotanical significance. As 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 are crucial enzymes in inflammatory disorders, we evaluated their inhibition by M. pinnata extracts and studied the chemical profile of the plant for the identification of relevant constituents.Cell-free and cell-based assays were employed in order to investigate the suppression of 5-LO and mPGES-1 activity. Cell viability, radical scavenger activities, and inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation (ROS) in neutrophils were studied to assess cytotoxic and antioxidant effects. Gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometric analysis enabled the characterization of secondary metabolites.The n-hexane extract of M. pinnata efficiently suppressed 5-LO activity in stimulated human neutrophils (IC50 =8.7µg/ml) and potently inhibited isolated human recombinant 5-LO (IC50 =0.48µg/ml) and mPGES-1 (IC50 =1.0µg/ml). In contrast, no significant radical scavenging activity or suppression of ROS formation was observed, and neutrophil viability was unaffected. The phytochemistry of the plant was unveiled for the first time and phytosterols, fatty acids, sesquiterpenes and several other types of secondary metabolites were identified.Together, potent inhibition of 5-LO and mPGES-1 activity, without concomitant antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects, rationalizes the ethnopharmacological use of M. pinnata as anti-inflammatory remedy. Detailed chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis reveals discrete chemical structures of relevant constituents.
- In vitro genotoxicity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil in human lymphocytes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 3.
The volatile essential oil derived from the plant Melaleuca alternifolia, also called tea tree oil (TTO), is largely employed for its antimicrobial properties against several human pathogens. It is used in many topical formulations to treat cutaneous infections.Since very few studies have been done on the safety and toxicity of the crude M. alternifolia essential oil, current investigation evaluates the possible genotoxic effects of TTO in human lymphocyte cultures.The composition of current TTO sample was determined by GC/MS and NMR. The level of cytotoxicity in TTO treated cultures was determined by decrease of mitotic index when compared to that in negative control. The genotoxic potential of TTO was assessed by the in vitro mammalian cell micronucleus and the chromosome aberrations (CA) tests.Twenty-seven compounds were identified, accounting for 98.9% of the constituents. Terpinen-4-ol (42.8%), γ-terpinene (20.4%), p-cymene (9.6%), α-terpinene (7.9%), 1,8-cineole (3%), α-terpineol (2.8%) and α-pinene (2.4%) were the major compounds of the oil sample. None of the tested TTO concentrations (95μg/ml, 182μg/ml and 365μg/ml) caused a significant increase in the observed frequencies of micronuclei when compared to those in the untreated cultures (negative control). Additionally, no significant differences regarding the frequencies of CA were observed among the tested TTO concentrations and the negative control.Results demonstrate that TTO, in the tested concentrations, is not genotoxic in in vitro mammalian cells.
- Proteomic profiling and post-translational modifications in human keratinocytes treated with Mucuna pruriens leaf extract. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2013 Dec 4.
Mucuna pruriens (Mp) is a plant belonging to the Fabaceae family, with several medicinal properties among which its potential to treat diseases where reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogeneses.The aim was to investigate the effects of Mp leaf methanolic extract (MPME) on human keratinocytes protein expression and its role in preventing proteins oxidation after oxidative stress (OS) exposure.The effects of MPME on HaCaT cells protein expression were evaluated treating cells with different concentrations of MPME, with glucose oxidase (GO, source of OS) and with MPME subsequently treated with GO. The protein patterns of treated HaCaT cells are analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and compared with that of untreated HaCaT. Immunoblotting was then used to evaluate the role of MPME in preventing the 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts (4-HNE PAs) formation (marker of OS).Eighteen proteins, identified by mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-CID-MS/MS), were modulated distinctly by MPME in HaCaT. Overall, MPME counteract GO effect, reducing the GO-induced overexpression of several proteins involved in stress response (T-complex protein 1, Protein disulfide-isomerase A3, Protein DJ-1, Stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1), in cell energy methabolism (Inorganic pyrophosphatase, Triosephosphate isomerase isoform 1, 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase, Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A isoform 1), in cytoskeletal organization (Cytokeratins 18, 9, 2, Cofilin-1, Annexin A2 and F-actin-capping protein subunit beta isoform 1) and in cell cycle progression (Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A-1 isoform B). In addition, MPME decreased the 4-HNE PAs levels, in particular on 2-phosphopyruvate-hydratase alpha-enolase and Cytokeratin 9.Our findings show that MPME might be helpful in the treatment of OS-related skin diseases by preventing protein post-translational modifications (4-HNE PAs).