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J Ethnopharmacol [journal]
- An ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants used by the village peoples of Thoppampatti, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 27.
This study provides significant ethnopharmacological information, both qualitative and quantitative on medicinal plants in the Thoppampatti village, Dindigul district, Tamilnadu, India. There is urgency in recording such data to conserve the traditional medicinal plants. This is the first ethnobotanical study which records the traditional important medicinal plants of Thoppampatti village. To collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnopharmacologic knowledge in Thoppampatti village in order to protect it. This study reports the results of an ethnopharmacological survey on the uses of medicinal plants by inhabitants of the Thoppampatti.The field study was carried out in a period of about one year (April 2012-May 2013) in Thoppampatti village. The information was obtained through open and semi-structured interviews with 48 (27 males, 21 females) knowledgeable local people and traditional healers (THs). The collected data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. In addition, use value (UV), relative importance (RI) and Jaccard index (JI) was determined.A total of 139 species of plants, mostly trees and herbs, belonging to 54 families were identified in this study. This is used to treat 142 diseases and ailments. These ailments were categorized into 18 major categories. Leaves were the most frequently used parts, while decoction and juice are the most common method of preparation to treat various diseases. Based on IUCN Red data the identified medicinal plants include 11 least concerned species, 3 vulnerable species and one endangered species. The most important species according to their use value were Cynodon dactylon (0.79), Azadirachta indica (0.73), Ocimum tenuiflorum (0.71), Moringa oleifera (0.68), Coriandrum sativum (0.62), Abelmoschus esculentus (0.61), Acalypha indica (0.59) and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (0.59).As a result of the present study, medicinal plants play an important role in the health care of Thoppampatti village inhabitants; they rely on medicinal plants to treat various ailments. In addition, the medicinal plants with high RI values might give some useful leads for further pharmacological investigations. Deforestation and overexploitation of a particular plant species leads to extinction so sustainable utilization of medicinal plants is recommended in the study area.
- Anti-melanoma activity of Cynanchi atrati Radix is mediated by regulation of NF-kappaB activity and pro-apoptotic proteins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
Cynanchi atrati Radix has been traditionally prescribed for patients with inflammatory fever or chronic tumoral disorders. Melanoma is one of the most devastating cancer types, in which overexpression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) enables the cancer to survive without apoptosis. To identify a potential anti-melanoma candidate, we evaluated the apoptotic activity of an ethanol extract of Cynanchi atrati Radix (CAE) on melanoma and its underlying mechanisms.Sixty C57BL/6N mice with melanoma were orally administrated CAE (100 or 200mg/kg) or distilled water for 10 days. Survival, tumor weight and volume were monitored and measured. Intratumoral apoptotic change was measured using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. To confirm the pro-apoptotic activity of CAE (10, 50 or 100μg/mL) compared to positive drug (10μg/mL of IKK-2 inhibitor IV), cell proliferation, caspase-3/7 activity, flow cytometric analysis, TUNEL and DAPI staining, immunoblotting and gene expression analyses for apoptosis-associated genes were conducted using B16F10 cell line.CAE administration remarkably improved survivability with a significant reduction in tumor weight (p<0.01) and volume (p<0.01), as well as increased apoptotic bodies in melanoma tissue. The CAE treatment significantly inhibited proliferation of B16F10 cells (p<0.001), but increased caspase-3/7 activity (p<0.01 or 0.001) and apoptotic population. The CAE partially blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB but activated the p53-associated apoptotic pathway.These results indicate that the CAE has anti-melanoma potential, and the underlying mechanisms involve inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and its target proteins as well as promoting the activities of pro-apoptotic proteins.
- Pharmacokinetic comparison of seven major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of Danggui Buxue decoction by UPLC-TQ/MS. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
Blood deficiency is commonly encountered among women, and is the root of many gynecological disorders. Danggui Buxue Decoction (DBD), a classical traditional Chinese formula which is composed of Astragali Radix (AR) and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR) at the ratio of 5:1 (w/w), is widely used in TCM clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome. This study is to compare the in vivo pharmacokinetic properties of seven major bio-active components in normal and blood deficiency rats after oral administration of DBD.Blood deficiency rats were induced by bleeding from orbit at the dosages of 5.0mL/kg each day for 12 days. Normal and blood deficiency rats were administrated of DBD on the 12th day at the dosage of 20g/kg, and blood was collected at different time points after then. Concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, butylphthalide, ligustilide, calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, ononin, and astragaloside IV in plasma were quantified by UPLC-TQ/MS, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0.It was found that Cmax, Tmax and MRT0~T of astragaloside IV, Cmax, T1/2Z, AUC0~T and MRT0~T of calycosin-7-O-β-glucoside, T1/2Z and AUC0~T of ferulic acid, T1/2Z, AUC0~T and MRT0~T of ononin, and MRT0~T of ligustilide, butylphthalide, and caffeic acid in blood deficiency rats was significantly different (P<0.05) from normal rats.This study was the first report about pharmacokinetic investigation in blood deficiency animals which was conducted by bleeding. And the results demonstrated that the seven DBD constituents in normal and blood deficiency rats had obvious differences in some pharmacokinetic characteristics, suggesting that the rate and extent of drug metabolism were altered in blood deficiency animals.
- Anti-diabetic effects of the acetone fraction of Senna singueana stem bark in a type 2 diabetes rat model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
Senna singueana is currently used in the traditional treatment of diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. The present study examined the anti-diabetic activity of the Senna singueana acetone fraction (SSAF) of stem bark in a type 2 diabetes (T2D) rat model.Crude extract of the Senna singueana stem bark was fractionated with various solvents and the acetone fraction was selected for in vivo studies based on the high α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities. In the in vivo study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced with T2D and treated with the SSAF at 150 and 300mg/kg body weight. Several T2D-related parameters were measured in the study.After 4 weeks of intervention, non-fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly decreased and the glucose tolerance ability was significantly improved in the SSAF treated groups compared to the diabetic control group. Serum insulin concentrations, pancreatic β-cell function (HOMA-β) and liver glycogen were significantly (P<0.05) increased while serum alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and urea were significantly decreased in the SSAF treated diabetic rats compared to the diabetic control group. Though insignificantly (P>0.05), other T2D-induced abnormalities such as food and fluid intake, body weight change, serum lipids, serum fructosamine level and peripheral insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were also partially ameliorated by the SSAF treatment.Data of this study suggest that orally administered SSAF could ameliorate most of the T2D-induced abnormalities in a T2D model of rats.
- Antihypertensive activities of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) in high salt-loaded rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
The leaves of Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassulaceae) are used in Cameroon folk medicine to manage many diseases such as cardiovascular dysfunctions. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the activities of aqueous leaf extract of Kalanchoe pinnata on the blood pressure of normotensive rat (NTR) and salt hypertensive rats (SHR), as well as its antioxidant properties.Hypertension was induced in rats by oral administration of 18% NaCl for 4 weeks. For the preventive study, three groups of rats received 18% NaCl solution and the plant extract at 25mg/kg/day, 50mg/kg/day or 100mg/kg/day by gavage. Two positive control groups received 18% NaCl solution and either spironolactone (0.71mg/kg/day) or eupressyl (0.86mg/kg/day) by gavage for 4 weeks. At the end of this experimental period, systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured by the invasive method. Some oxidative stress biomarkers (reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitric monoxide (NO) were evaluated in heart, aorta, liver and kidney. NO level was indirectly evaluated by measuring nitrite concentration.Kalanchoe pinnata extract prevented significantly the increase of systolic and diastolic arterial pressures in high salt-loaded rats (SHR). In SHR, concomitant administration of Kalanchoe pinnata at 25, 50 and 100mg/kg/day significantly prevented the increase in blood pressure by 32%, 24% and 47% (for SAP); 35%, 33% and 56% (for DAP), respectively. No significant change was recorded in heart rate of those rats. The plant extract improved antioxidant status in various organs, but more potently in aorta. Thus, antioxidant and modulatory effects of Kalanchoe pinnata at the vasculature might be of preponderant contribution to its overall antihypertensive activity.The work demonstrated that the concomitant administration of high-salt and the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata elicits prevention of salt-induced hypertension in rat. This antihypertensive activity is associated with an improvement of antioxidant status. Overall, results justify and support the use of Kalanchoe pinnata as antihypertensive medicine.
- Use of medicinal plants in the South-Eastern area of the Partenio Regional Park (Campania, Southern Italy). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 25.
This study documents the pharmaceutical importance of plant resources in the South-Eastern area of the Partenio Regional Park (PRP), inland Campania, Avellino province. This is reflected in the great diversity of plants used for medicinal purposes as well as in their wide range of medicinal applications.In order to collect information on medicinal plants used in the investigated area and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, informants were randomly contacted in the streets, squares and fields. Data were collected through both open and semi-structured interviews with native people between April 2012 and April 2013.The study recorded 87 plant species belonging to 76 genera and 35 families used as medicine for treating various diseases, both human and veterinary. Herbs represent the majority (56 species), followed by trees (18) and shrubs (13). Among the recorded plants, leaves were the most frequently used and topic use is the most common remedy. Cough is the most treated human disease followed by wounds healing.The investigated area is endowed with a strong tradition of herbal medicine usage for primary healthcare (PHC). The preservation of this knowledge is due to the continued use of plants for PHC by the local community. This is due to the fact that in the study area still exists an oral tradition that allows the persistence of such information. Recovering ancient knowledge is very important for preserving ethno-biodiversity and to discover new entities for a further evaluation of their biological activity.
- Topical continuous use of Lippia sidoides Cham. essential oil induces cutaneous inflammatory response, but does not delay wound healing process. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 25.
The essential oil of Lippia sidoides (EOLS) has been used in Brazilian folk medicine as a topical antiseptic agent in skin for treatment of wounds and superficial infections of the body. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EOLS on intact and damaged skin, including its action on expression of mediators, COX-2 and VEGF, involved in healing full-thickness cutaneous lesions in vivo.EOLS was analyzed chemically and used at different concentrations to dose-response experiments in skin mice. Skin irritation tests by one-dosage and multiple-dosages and irritation to damaged skin were assessed by macroscopy, morphometry and histological and immunohistochemical analyses. To evaluate the effects of EOLS on wound healing, excision wounds were surgically created on the dorsum of rats, and the ointments at 6% and 12% were applied daily to the wound area. Cutaneous lesions were assessed by planimetric (wound contraction) and macroscopic parameters.Skin irritation tests showed that topical application of EOLS promoted cutaneous inflammation in a concentration-dependent manner, which was demonstrated by increase of skin thickness and formation of cutaneous edema and erythema. Topical administration of EOLS in high concentrations presented an irritant response to skin, but this irritation is lighter when low concentrations this oil were used. Histological evaluation supported the outcome of these models, which revealed accentuated presence of inflammatory cells infiltration. In wound healing process, the lesions treated with EOLS showed intense edema and exsudation up to day 5, but there were not significant differences in the wound contraction on days 14 and 21. No immunohistochemical staining was verified to COX-2 and VEGF mediators in skin treated with EOLS 12%.The continuous application of EOLS in adequate concentrations on cutaneous wounds increases inflammatory response without delay the lesions closure. The association of these results with antimicrobial action previously related to EOLS allows its indication as an alternative therapeutic modality for topical treatment of infected cutaneous wound. Nevertheless, further studies need to be performed to determine the mechanism of action and support its application in clinical practice.
- Pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Carissa carandas in constipation and diarrhea. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 25.
Carissa carandas Linn. commonly known as "Karaunda" (Apocynaceae) is a popular medicinal herb widely distributed in different parts of Pakistan. In addition to other medicinal uses, Carissa carandas is popular in indigenous system of medicine for its medicinal use in gut motility disorders like, constipation and diarrhea.This study was planned to provide pharmacological basis to the medicinal use of Carissa carandas in constipation and diarrhea.The crude extract of the leaves of Carissa carandas (Cc.Cr) was prepared in methanol and its fractionation was carried out with ethylacetate, petroleum ether and n-butanol. In-vivo studies were conducted on mice, while isolated rabbit jejunum and guinea-pig ileum preparations were used for the in-vitro experiments. The spasmogenic and spasmolytic responses of gut tissues were recorded using isotonic transducers coupled with PowerLab data acquisition system.Cc.Cr was tested positive for steroids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and phenols, while the HPLC fingerprints of Cc.Cr, its petroleum (Cc.Pef), ethylacetate (Cc.Eaf) and n-butanol (Cc.Baf) fractions showed the presence of oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol. Oral administration of Cc.Cr to mice increased fecal output at lower doses (30 and 50mg/kg), while it showed protection against castor oil-induced diarrhea at higher doses (300 and 600mg/kg). In isolated guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum, Cc.Cr and Cc.Baf exhibited stimulatory effect at 0.003-3mg/ml, which was partially sensitive to atropine or pyrillamine or partially/fully sensitive to atropine+pyrillamine, followed by relaxation at higher tested concentrations, being more potent in rabbit tissues. The ethylacetate fraction (0.1-5mg/ml) exhibited fully atropine-sensitive contractions in both guinea-pig and rabbit tissues, being more potent in guinea-pig while more efficacious in rabbit tissues. However, the petroleum fraction (0.003-1.0mg/ml) showed only spasmolytic activity in spontaneously contracting rabbit tissues, similar to nifedipine. In guinea-tissue, Cc.Pef did not cause any stimulant effect. When studied against high K(+) (80mM)-induced contraction, the crude extract and its fractions caused a dose-dependent inhibition, with the following order of potency: Cc.Pef>Cc.Eaf>Cc.Cr≥Cc.Baf, similar to nifedipine indicating Ca(++) channel antagonist like activity, which was further confirmed when the plant extract displaced Ca(++) curves to the right with suppression of maximum effect similar to that of nifedipine.This study demonstrates that the crude extract of Carissa carandas possesses a gut-stimulatory effect mediated primarily through the activation of muscarinic and histaminergic receptors while its spasmolytic effect was mediated possibly through Ca(++) antagonist pathway. Thus, this study provides a clear evidence for the dual effectiveness of Carissa carandas in constipation and diarrhea, thus validating its medicinal use.
- Therapeutic effects of dichloromethane fraction of Securidaca inappendiculata on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rat. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
Securidaca inappendiculata (SI) is a traditional antirheumatic medicine used in China. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of dichloromethane fraction of SI (SID) at three different doses on adjuvant induced arthritis (AA) rats.Arthritis severity was evaluated by arthritic score, body weight loss, paw circumference, histological changes and hyperplasia of lymphatic tissues. Serum samples were collected for estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), hydroxy radical (OH·), nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG), sialic acid (SA), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT). The levels of GSH, MDA, NAG and SA in liver were also assessed. The levels of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were determined using ELISA method. Another portion of blood was used for total and differential leucocyte counts.Administration with SID (at high dose with 100mg/kg) significantly ameliorated the AA severity, suggested by the modulatory effects on body weight loss, paw swelling, hyperplasia of lymphatic tissues and synovial membrane, neutrocytosis and lymphocytosis. It also decreased levels of NO, MDA and OH·, restored SOD and GSH levels in serum. The abnormal increased levels of AST, ALT, ALP, NAG and SA significantly were reverted (compared with AA rats, P<0.01). A similar result was observed in livers. Levels of IL-1, TNF-α, MCP-1 and VEGF were reduced dramatically by SID too.The results suggest SID possesses substantial anti-arthritic activity. The therapeutic efficacy may be due to immumodepressive effects, cytokines regulation, increasing membrane stability and antioxidantive activity.
- Consensus analysis of sastric formulations used by non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners of Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Feb 26.
Siddha system of traditional medicine has been practiced in Tamil Nadu. This system of medicine has a high number of non-institutionally trained practitioners but studies on their traditional medicinal knowledge are not adequate.The present study is aimed to document and analyze the sastric (traditional) formulations used by the non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners in Virudhunagar and Tirunelveli districts of Tamil Nadu, India.After obtaining prior informed consent, interviews were conducted with 115 non-institutionally trained siddha medical practitioners about the sastric formulations used by them for the treatment. Successive free listing method was adopted to collect the data and the data were analyzed by calculating Informant Consensus Factor (Fic) and Informant Agreement Ratio (IAR).The study documented data regarding 194 sastric formulations and they were classified into plant, mineral and animal based formulations. Quantitative analysis showed that 62.5% of the formulations were plant based, while the mineral based formulations had a high mean number of citations and versatile uses. Gastrointestinal (12.0%), kapha (11.3%) and dermatological (10.8%) ailments had a high percentage of citations. Jaundice had a high Fic value (0.750) followed by the dermatological ailments. The illness categories with high Fic values under each type of formulation were as follows: jaundice, aphrodisiac and urinary ailments (plant based); jaundice, cuts & wounds and dermatological ailments (mineral based); and hemorrhoids, kapha ailments and heart ailments (animal based formulations). The scientific studies conducted with important formulations under each illness category are discussed.The present study indicated the importance of some illnesses over the others and inclusion of new illnesses under each formulation. The ingredients used to prepare these formulations have shown varying degrees of scientific evidence; generally limited studies were available on the efficacy of them as formulations. Further in-depth studies on the formulations with high IAR value and Fic value of illness categories will be helpful to improve health status of the people.