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J Ethnopharmacol [journal]
- Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects of a hydroalcoholic extract from the leaves of Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. in rodents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 10.
An ethnopharmacological survey indicated that leaves from Eugenia punicifolia (Kunth) DC. (Myrtaceae) are popularly used as a natural therapeutic agent to treat pain and inflammation.The overall objective of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves from Eugenia punicifolia (HEEP) in rodents.The antinociceptive effects of HEEP were evaluated in mice after oral administration in chemical (formalin and glutamate) and thermal (hot-plate) tests. We evaluated the involvement of the glutamatergic, opioidergic and nitrergic pathways in the antinociception of HEEP and the effect of HEEP on the inhibition of p38α MAPK. The anti-inflammatory effect of HEEP was evaluated in mice and rats using xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema, respectively. Furthermore, the gastroprotective effect of HEEP was evaluated in rats with acute gastric lesions induced by ethanol or indomethacin. Finally, we performed a phytochemical analysis of HEEP.The oral administration of HEEP (125, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the neurogenic and inflammatory phases of formalin-induced licking, and HEEP (250mg/kg, p.o.) also significantly inhibited the nociception caused by glutamate. The antinociceptive effects of HEEP were significantly reversed by L-arginine (500mg/kg, i.p.) but not by naloxone (1mg/kg, i.p.) in the formalin test. HEEP did not affect animal motor performance in the rotarod model. In addition, HEEP also increased the paw withdraw latency in the hot-plate test. HEEP significantly inhibited ear edema induced by xylene (64%) and paw edema induced by carrageenan (50%)compared to the control group. Furthermore, HEEP (3-30mg/mL) also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38α MAPK by approximately 90%. In addition, HEEP (125, 250 and 500mg/kg, p.o.) protected the rats against ethanol (88.4-99.8%) and indomethacin (53-72.3%) and increased the mucus levels of the gastric mucosa without producing an antisecretory effect. The phytochemical profile of HEEP obtained using HPLC-PDA showed secondary metabolites already reported for the genus, mostly flavonoids, gallotannins and proanthocyanidins.These data show for the first time that HEEP has significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, which appear to be related to the inhibition of the glutamatergic system, the synthesis of nitric oxide and the inhibition of the phosphorylation of p38α MAPK. HEEP also has interesting gastroprotective effects related to the maintenance of protective factors, such as mucus production. These results support the use of Eugenia punicifolia in popular medicine and demonstrate that this plant has therapeutic potential for the development of phytomedicines with antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties.
- Cytotoxicity and apoptogenic effects of Lafoensia pacari. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 10.
The stem barks of Lafoensia pacari have been traditionally used not only by South Amerindians but also by Brazilian and Paraguayan populations for treating a variety of unhealthy conditions to which their biological potential has been scientifically documented in several reports over the last decade. Although its anticancer usage is also popular, no scientific support for such activity has been found.To provide scientific evidence for the anticancer popularity of Lafoensia pacari.Extracts prepared according to the popular use along with a methanol extract and its four fractions were produced from L. pacari stem barks. The chromatogram profile of each one was obtained by HPLC. Several tumor cell lines were exposed to these solutions in in vitro assays and the effects evaluated by morphological, growth, and cell cycle status changes.High toxicity determined by the lactate dehydrogenase levels with a significant drop in the cell proliferation index were found for all cell lines included in this study after exposition to L. pacari extract and fractions. The morphological features along with the expression of annexin V have strongly suggested apoptosis induction, which has been confirmed by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest.The data have clearly shown that exposition of human tumor cell lines to L. pacari stem barks extract leads to apoptosis induction due to cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phases, supporting its anticancer use.
- Medicinal plants used for respiratory affections in navarra and their pharmacological validation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 10.
This paper provides important ethnopharmacological information on plants used in respiratory affections in Navarra.Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 667 informants in 265 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological validation of the uses claimed by the informants, monographs from Official International Agencies (ESCOP, Commission E, WHO and EMA) were reviewed. A literature review was conducted focusing on the plants that were widely used but had no published monograph.A total of 456 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 79 plants and 34 families, mainly represented by Lamiaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Crassulaceae and Malvaceae. The most frequently used parts were the aerial parts followed by inflorescences and leaves. Twenty-two out of 79 plants (28%) and 270 of 456 uses (42%), had already been pharmacologically validated.The authors propose Verbena officinalis for validation.
- A survey of plants responsible for causing irritant contact dermatitis in the Amathole district, eastern cape, south Africa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 10.
Potentially harmful plants grow almost everywhere, hence, it is not practical to eradicate them all. However, a basic understanding of adverse cutaneous reactions and the common plants that cause each type can enable vulnerable individuals to discover the source of their dermatitis and thus prevent re-exposure. The aim of this study therefore, was to document the plants responsible for irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) in the Eastern Cape, along with their respective irritants and clinical presentations.Study participants (161) in 12 locations were selected by convenient sampling with particular focus on local people who regularly interact with plants or plant products. Interview questions were focused on the local names of plants that contain irritating chemicals and physical characteristics that cause ICD.Forty four plant species distributed in 24 families and 34 genera were reported as causative agents of irritant contact dermatitis. Herbs constituted 67.35%, trees 24.49% and shrubs 8.16%. Mechanical ICD was reported to be caused by 23 species, closely followed by chemical ICD (20 species) and mechanico-chemical ICD (6 species). Species with the highest frequency of citations were Allium cepa, Acacia karroo, Capsicum annuum, Citrus limon and Zea mays. The most representative families were Euphorbiaceae (for chemical ICD), Urticaceae (for mechanico-chemical ICD), Fabaceae and Rutaceae for mechanical ICD. Most of the classes of chemical compounds identified as being responsible for chemical ICD were restricted to plants of specific genera such as the diterpenes in Euphorbia spp., disulphides in Allium spp., terpenes in Citrus spp. and isothiocyanates in Brassica spp.. Thorns and hairs were reported for causing Mechanical ICD in 6 plant species each, including widely cultivated plants such as Acacia karoo and Citrus reticulata.Irritant contact dermatitis is a common cutaneous disorder in individuals exposed to plants in the Eastern Cape, especially among workers of the food and flower industries. Health practitioners should therefore consider the possible work-related causes of dermatitis, especially in cases associated with a clear history of symptoms.
- Ethno medicine and healthcare practices among Nicobarese of Car Nicobar - an indigenous tribe of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 8.
This study is an attempt to document the use of medicinal plants by Nicobarese tribe from the Car Nicobar Island of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Inspite of the availability of modern healthcare facilities tribal people often take herbal medicines and Traditional Knowledge Practitioners (TKPs) serve as the local medical experts in Car Nicobar Island.The present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the TKPs of Nicobarese tribe of the inhabitants of Car Nicobar Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.Field research was conducted in the 15 villages of Car Nicobar Island during March 2011- February 2012. TKPs were interviewed with a questionnaire-guided ethnomedical survey protocol. The data obtained were quantitatively analysed using the informant consensus factor (ICF) and use value (UV). Voucher specimens of all cited plants were collected and deposited at Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Port Blair.Use of 150 medicinal plant species, belonging to 122 genera encompassing 59 families were recorded during the survey. These 150 species are employed to treat 47 different medicinal uses, divided into nine categories of use. The highest ICF (0.68) was obtained for the gastrointestinal system. The Euphorbiaceae family exhibited the highest number of citations, and the species with the highest UVs were Morinda citrifolia L., Tabernaemontana crispa Roxb. and Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was shrubs (28%). Among several parts of individual plant species are used, leaves constitute the major portion in preparation of medicines. Remedies were generally prepared using water as the excipient.This study is an attempt to document the use of medicinal plants from the Car Nicobar Island of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Future phytochemical and pharmacological studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of the identified plants.
- Bioactivity of Fragaria vesca leaves through inflammation, proteasome and autophagy modulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 8.
Fragaria vesca leaves have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of several diseases, namely gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and urinary disorders, which could be related with the potential anti-inflammatory properties of the extract. This work aims to disclose the bioactivity and the underlying action mechanism of an extract from Fragaria vesca leaves in order to support its traditional uses.A hydroalcoholic extract was prepared from Fragaria vesca leaves and its anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated through inhibition of nitric oxide production and expression of several pro-inflammatory proteins in lipopolysaccharide-triggered macrophages. Nitric oxide scavenger activity was also assessed using a standard nitric oxide donor. Since numerous inflammatory proteins are tightly regulated by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, the putative effect of the extract on these cellular proteolytic pathways was also disclosed. The phytochemical characterization was performed by HPLC-PDA-ESI/MSn and compared with an infusion prepared according to the traditional method.For non-cytotoxic concentrations (80 and 160µg/mL) the extract inhibited nitrite production, probably due to a direct nitric oxide scavenging. Furthermore, inhibition of proteasome activity was verified, leading to accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins. The extract also increased the conversion of the microtubule-associated protein light chain LC3-I to LC3-II, a marker of autophagy. Polyphenols, namely ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, and quercetin and kaempferol glucuronide derivatives were identified in Fragaria vesca leaves extract. Most of the identified phenolic compounds matched with those found in traditional preparation, the infusion.The extract has a direct nitric oxide scavenging activity giving support to the traditional use of this plant for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Furthermore, the extract affects the proteolytic systems but its role in cancer treatment requires further studies.
- Medicinal plants used for cardiovascular diseases in navarra and their validation from official sources. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 7.
This paper provides significant ethnopharmacological information on plants used to treat cardiovascular diseases in Navarra, Spain.Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 667 informants (mean age 72; 55.47% women, 44.53% men) in 265 locations. Official sources such as the European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy (ESCOP), German Commission E, World Health Organization (WHO), European Medicines Agency (EMA), European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and Real Farmacopea Española (RFE) monographs were consulted in order to establish the therapeutic efficacy of the reported uses and to obtain further details about quality and safety aspects. A literature review was carried out on the plants that were most frequently cited and were not the subject of a monograph, using a new tool developed by the University of Navarra, UNIKA.A total of 460 pharmaceutical uses were reported by the informants, belonging to 90 plant species and 39 families, mainly represented by Urticaceae, Rosaceae, Asteraceae, and Equisetaceae. The most frequently used parts of the plants were the aerial parts followed by leaves and flowers. Seventeen out of 90 plants (19%) and 208 out of 460 popular uses (45%) had already been pharmacologically validated in relation to their therapeutic efficacy and safety aspects.The authors propose to validate five species for their use in cardiovascular diseases: Rhamnus alaternus L., Potentilla reptans L., Equisetum telmateia Ehrh., Centaurium erythraea Rafn and Parietaria judaica L.
- Cecropia pachystachya extract attenuated the renal lesion in 5/6 nephrectomized rats by reducing inflammation and renal arginase activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 7.
The plant Cecropia pachystachya Trécul has been used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat hypertension, bladder and kidney inflammation and renal diseases.The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the aqueous fraction from the ethanolic extract of C. pachystachya (FCP) in the management of hypertension, inflammation and progressive renal disease in rats submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy.Thirty male Wistar rats submitted to 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 NE) were untreated (NE) or treated (NE+FCP) with the FCP (0.5g/kg/day). The treatment started 15 days after surgery, and the rats were followed for a period of 60 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and albuminuria were evaluated from 15-60 days after the surgical procedure. Function and estructural renal changes, TGF-β (transforming growth factor β), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) and nitric oxide (NO) urinary excretion were analyzed. Expression and activity of the renal enzymes arginase (ARG), angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and MAP kinase p-JNK expression also were analyzed.The nephrectomized rats developed progressive albuminuria and increased SBP that was less intense in the treated group. There was a reduction in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the nephrectomized rats, which was attenuated by treatment with FCP extract. The treatment with FCP also attenuated the histological changes, reduced the expression and activity of renal arginase, the number of macrophages (ED-1 positive cells) and the p-JNK expression in the renal cortex of the rats submitted to 5/6 NE. The urinary excretion of TGF-β was less intense in the treated group and was associated with the reduction of the expression and activity of the renal arginase.These results suggest that the reduction of renal arginase activity, p-JNK and TGF-β expression can explain the mechanism by which the treatment whit C. pachystachya reduced the inflammation and improved renal function. This study presents the potential use of C. pachystachya to the treatment of chronic renal diseases.
- Safety and antidiarrheal activity of Priva adhaerens aqueous leaf extract in a murine model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 7.
Priva adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov., a wildly growing plant, is reported in central Uganda to be an effective traditional remedy for diarrhea. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for the ethnopharmacological utility of this plant whose aqueous leaf and shoot extract was evaluated for acute toxicity and antidiarrheal activity using a murine model.Acute toxicity of the aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assessed after determining the major phytochemicals present in the extract. The aqueous leaf and shoot extract was assayed against castor oil-induced diarrhea, transit time, and enteropooling, in comparison to loperamide, a standard drug.The oral LD50 value obtained for Priva adhaerens aqueous extract was greater than 5000mg/kg in rats; the aqueous leaf and shoot extract possessed several important phytochemicals. Furthermore, the aqueous extract significantly, and dose-dependently, reduced frequency of stooling in castor oil-induced diarrhea, intestinal motility, and castor oil-induced enteropooling in rats.This murine model shows that it is relatively safe to orally use the aqueous leaf and shoot extract of Priva adhaerens. The aqueous extract contains phytochemicals that are active for the treatment of diarrhea in a rat model.
- Nitrites and nitrates in the human diet: Carcinogens or beneficial hypotensive agents? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Oct 6.
The presence of nitrite in the human diet was thought to be a hazard as that could result in the formation of secondary nitrosamines, known to cause gastric cancers in animal models. Nitrite is added to food as an antibacterial agent and can also be formed by the action of reductase enzymes, present in the mouth, on nitrate. However, the epidemiological evidence linking gastric cancers in humans with nitrite and nitrate in the diet is lacking. In addition, recent work has shown that nitrate in the diet has potential benefit as it can cause a fall in blood pressure. The early use of nitrate in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of angina is described.