Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
J Ethnopharmacol [journal]
- Protective effects of Penthorum chinense Pursh against chronic ethanol-induced liver injury in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 12.
Penthorum chinense Pursh (Penthoraceae), has been used as a Miao ethnomedicine for treatment of jaundice, cholecystitis, oedema, infectious hepatitis and anti-drunk hangover in China. The aim of present study is to investigate the possible protective effects of P. chinense against chronic ethanol-induced liver injury.Mice were fed a Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin as control diet with or without aqueous extract of P. chinense (PCP, 5.15 and 10.30mg/kg/BW) for 4 weeks. Silymarin (86mg/kg) was used as positive control to compare the efficacy of PCP against chronic ethanol-induced induced hepatotoxicity.Treatment with PCP (10.30mg/kg) significantly reduced the increases in serum ALT and AST levels, hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammatory cytokines (i.g. TNF-α, IL-6), which induced by chronic ethanol exposure. PCP was also found to attenuate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, restore the glutathione (GSH) depletion, and increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Additionally, PCP supplementation (10.30mg/kg) inhibited the induction of hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), a major contributor to ethanol-mediated oxidative stress, and up-regulated the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its downstream anti-oxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in ethanol-treated mice.These results indicate that the co-treatment with aqueous extract of P. chinense (10.30mg/kg) protects against chronic ethanol-induced liver injury, possibly through suppressing CYP2E1-mediated oxidative stress and enhancing the oxidant defense systems via the activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
- Jinlida granule inhibits palmitic acid induced-intracellular lipid accumulation and enhances autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells through AMPK activation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 12.
Jinlida granule (JLDG), composed of seventeen Chinese medical herbs, is a widely used Chinese herbal prescription for treating diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear.To determine the main components in JLDG and to explore the effect of JLDG on autophagy and lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells exposed to politic acid (PA) through AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway.JLDG was prepared and the main components contained in the granules were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) fingerprint. Intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 cells was induced by culturing with medium containing PA. Intracellular lipid droplets were observed by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) content was measured by colorimetric assay. The formation of autophagosomes was observed under transmission electron microscope. The expression of AMPK and phospho-AMPK (pAMPK) proteins as well as its downstream fatty acid metabolism-related proteins (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-coA carboxylase, ACC; carnitine acyltransferase 1, CPT-1) and autophagy-related genes (mammal target of rapamycin, mTOR; tuberous sclerosis complex 1, TSC1; microtubule-associated protein 1 1ight chain 3, LC3-II) were determined by western blot. The expression of sterol regulating element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA was examined by real time PCR (RT-PCR).Our data showed that JLDG could significantly reduce PA-induced intracellular lipid accumulation in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells. This effect was associated with increased protein expression of pAMPK and AMPK in NIT-1 cells. Treatment with JLDG also decreased the expression of AMPK downstream lipogenic genes (SREBP-1c mRNA, FAS and ACC proteins) where as increased the expression of fatty acid oxidation gene (CPT-1 protein). Additionally, JLDG-treated cells displayed a markedly increase in the number of autophagosomes which was accompanied by the down-regulation of mTOR and the up-regulation of TSC1 and LC3-II proteins expression. However, when AMPK phosphorylation was inhibited by Compound C, JLDG supplementation did not exhibit any effect on the expression of these AMPK downstream molecules in NIT-1 cells.The results suggest that JLDG could reduce intracellular lipid accumulation and enhance the autophagy in NIT-1 pancreatic β cells cultured with PA. The mechanism is possibly mediated by AMPK activation.
- Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract Of Hedyotis corymbosa Linn. whole plant in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 12.
Hedyotis corymbosa (Linn.) Lam. is a small herb commonly called as khetpapra, traditionally used to treat a wide range of diseases including abdominal pain, arthritis and inflammation. This study was conducted to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of ethanol extract of Hedyotis corymbosa (EEHC) whole plant.The antinociceptive activity of EEHC was evaluated in mice using both chemical- and heat-induced pain models such as acetic acid-induced writhing, hot plate, tail immersion, formalin, and glutamate tests at 50, 100, and 200mg/kg doses. In order to verify the possible involvement of opioid receptors in the central antinociceptive effect of EEHC, the effects found in hot plate and tail immersion tests were antagonized with naloxone.EEHC produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect against the chemical- and heat-induced pain in mice, significantly at 100 and 200mg/kg doses. These findings suggest that the action of EEHC involves both peripheral and central antinociceptive mechanisms. The antinociceptive activity of EEHC was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with naloxone, indicating the influence of opioid receptors on the exertion of EEHC action centrally.This study reports the antinociceptive activity of Hedyotis corymbosa and possible underlying mechanism(s) that supports the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of different painful conditions.
- Effects of extracts of leaves from Sparattosperma leucanthum on hyperuricemia and gouty arthritis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 8.
The species Sparattosperma leucanthum (Vell.) K. Schum is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat rheumatism, throat ulcers, stomatitis, syphilis, bladder stones and as blood cleanser.The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential, in vitro and in vivo, of the extracts of leaves from Sparattosperma leucanthum to treat hyperuricemia and inflammation in gouty arthritis model.Ethyl acetate extract (SLE), methanolic extract (SLM) and aqueous extract (SLW) were evaluated in vitro on XO inhibitory activity and in vivo in an experimental model with oxonate-induced hyperuricemia in mice which was used to evaluate anti-hyperuricemic activity and liver xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibition. Anti-inflammatory activity was also investigated on MSU crystal-induced paw oedema model.Sparattosperma leucanthum crude extracts showed expressive results on urate-lowering activity in blood. SLW at the dose of 125mg/kg has proved to be active in reducing hyperuricemia and was capable to inhibit the hepatic xanthine oxidase enzyme (XOD). SLM showed anti-hyperuricemic activity on all doses tested, however, this extract showed activity on the XOD only at the dose of 500mg/kg. SLE, at the three evaluated doses, has proved to be active in reducing hyperuricemia in vivo and was able to inhibit XO activity in vitro at the concentration of 100µg/mL. This extract was also able to inhibit XOD activity in vivo at the doses of 250mg/kg and 500mg/kg. SLE (125 and 250mg/kg) and SLW (500mg/kg) showed significant anti-inflammatory activity on monosodium urate crystal-induced paw oedema model.The ethyl acetate, methanolic and aqueous extracts of Sparattosperma leucanthum showed significant results on evaluated models and therefore may be important agents for the treatment of gouty arthritis and hyperuricemia.
- Supplementation with Pfaffia glomerata (Sprengel) Pedersen does not affect androgenic-anabolic parameters in male rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 8.
Due to the widespread use of Paffia spp (Amaranthacea) in Brazil as a possible hormonal supplement, substitute of Panax ginseng, and the scarce information on its reproductive effects, we evaluated possible anabolic-androgenic or anti-androgenic effects of Pfaffia glomerata (PG) extract using intact eight-months-old male rats and pre-pubertal castrated rats.Three different dose levels of PG (8.5, 30 and 85mg/kg/day) were administered to eight-months-old rats for 28 days or to castrated males for 7 days (Hershberger assay). In the experiment with intact animals, 24-hour fecal samples were collected for quantification of fecal metabolites of androgens throughout treatment. At the end of the treatment period, animals were euthanized for evaluation of serum testosterone, reproductive organ weights, number of spermatids per testis, diameter of seminiferous tubules and cross-sectional area of soleus muscle fibers. In the Hershberber assay, androgenic or anti-androgenic effects were evaluated by the weights of androgen-dependent tissues: ventral prostate, seminal vesicle, glans penis and levator ani muscle/bulbocavernosus muscle.No effects were observed in the concentrations of fecal metabolites of androgens monitored during the treatment of intact eight-months-old rats. Moreover, at the end of treatment, no changes were seen in any of the investigated parameters. In the Hershberger assay, the PG extract did not induce androgenic or anti-androgenic effects at the dose levels tested. Significant effects were only observed in animals treated with testosterone and testosterone plus flutamide, which were used as positive controls for androgenicity and anti-androgenicity, respectively.At the dose levels tested, PG extract does not induce anabolic-androgenic or anti-androgenic effects in rats.
- Hancornia speciosa Gomes (Apocynaceae) as a potential anti-diabetic drug. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 8.
The leaves of Hancornia speciosa Gomes are traditionally used to treat diabetes in Brazil.To evaluate the potential anti-diabetic effect of H. speciosa extract and derived fractions.The ethanolic extract from H. speciosa leaves and chromatographic fractions thereof were evaluated on α-glucosidase assay, on hyperglycemic effect and glucose uptake. The chemical composition of the extract and its most active fraction was investigated by ESI-LC-MS.The ethanolic extract and derived fractions inhibited α-glucosidase in vitro. However, only the crude extract and the dichloromethane fraction inhibited the hyperglycemic effect induced by starch or glucose. Both the extract and dichloromethane fraction were also able to increase glucose uptake in adipocytes. Bornesitol, quinic acid, and chorogenic acid were identified in the extract, along with flavonoid glycosides, whereas the dichloromethane fraction is majorly composed by esters of lupeol and/or α/β-amirin.H. speciosa has a potential anti-diabetic effect through a mechanism dependent on inhibition of α-glucosidase and increase on glucose uptake. These results give support to the use on traditional medicine of this medicinal plant.
- The effects of modified sini decoction on liver injury and regeneration in acute liver failure induced by d-galactosamine in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 9.
Modified sini decoction (MSND) is a well-known traditional Chinese medical formula that has been used to treat cardiovascular and liver diseases for many years. We investigated the effects of MSND on acute liver failure and identified the possible mechanisms of these effects.Acute liver failure was induced by intraperitoneal injection of d-galactosamine (d-GalN) into specific pathogen-free male Wistar rats. Next, the rats were treated with Stronger Neo-Minophagen C and MSND via gavage. Biochemical parameters, histological changes in the liver, the survival of rats and the mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were analyzed.MSND prolonged the survival times of the acute liver failure rats. The biochemical parameters were improved, and necrosis in the liver tissues was reduced by both Stronger Neo-Minophagen C (SNMC) and MSND, but MSND induced greater effects. The mRNA expressions of HMGB1, TLR4, NF-κB, and Caspase-3 were remarkably decreased, and the expression of PCNA was remarkably increased by SNMC and MSND, and the effects of MSND were greater.MSND protected the liver and increased the survival rate of acute liver failure rats. These effects were likely mediated by the inhibitions of the inflammatory reaction and apoptosis and the promotion of liver tissue regeneration.
- The importance of cultural factors in the distribution of medicinal plant knowledge: A case study in four Basque regions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 9.
Previous research suggests that the use of medicinal plants by a given group is mainly driven by biological variables such as the chemical composition or the ecological distribution of plants. However, other studies highlight the importance of cultural aspects such as the curative meaning given to a plant, beliefs, religion or the historical context. Such aspects could play an important role in the use, diffusion or even in the effectiveness of a plant remedy.Fieldwork consisted of 233 orally consented semi-structured interviews with 178 informants about medicinal uses of plants. Interviews were conducted in four historically and geographycally delimited regions of Alava and Biscay with similar environmental conditions but different sociolinguistic backgrounds: two regions were Basque- and two Spanish-speaking. Data were structured in use-reports. A Between Class Analysis was conducted to assess the intercultural and intracultural variability of medicinal plants knowledge.The results show the existence of four clearly different medicinal ethnofloras. While the four ethnofloras share remedies widely distributed through the territory, each of them also includes remedies that are only shared among closely related communities. The ecological availability and chemical composition of the plants may explain why there are widely used plant remedies. On the contrary, the distribution of the locally shared remedies matches up with the cultural heterogeneity of the territory, so cultural factors, such as, language, social networks or the meaning response of the plants seem to explain the use of many traditional plant remedies. In Addition, we also found that Basque speaking territories show higher knowledge levels than Spanish speaking territories. In this sense, the development and reinforcement of Basque identity by Basque nationalism seems to have contributed to maintain the traditional knowledge in the Basque speaking regions.Despite the fact that pharmacological effectiveness and ecological availability are usually considered as the main variables that shape the traditional use of medicinal plants, our results suggest that cultural factors can be at least as important as ecological and chemical factors. In fact, differences in language, in the cultural meaning of the plants, in the context related to cultural identities, and in social networks seem to play a fundamental role in the use and diffusion and maintenance or erosion of traditional knowledge about medicinal plants in the study area.
- Assessment of anti-diabetic activity of an ethnopharmacological plant Nerium oleander through alloxan induced diabetes in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 11.
Nerium oleander L. (syn. Nerium indicum Mill. and Nerium odorum Aiton.) is used for its anti-diabetic properties in Pakistan, Algeria, Morocco and is also recognized in Ayurveda. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-diabetic capacity of a standardised hydromethanolic extract of N. oleander in alloxan induced diabetes in mice.N. oleander leaf extract (NOLE) was orally administered at 50 and 200mg/kg body weight (BW) dose to alloxanized mice (blood glucose >200mg/dl). After 20 consecutive days of treatment, various diabetic parameters were studied and compared with untreated mice. Furthermore, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was employed to reveal the phytochemical composition of the plant extract.NOLE demonstrated potent antihyperglycaemic activity by reducing 73.79% blood glucose level after 20 days of treatment. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed increase in glucose tolerance as evident by 65.72% decrease in blood glucose in 3h post treatment. Percentage decrease in different liver marker enzymes were significant along with decrease in triglyceride and cholesterol levels, displaying potent antihyperlipidemic activity. Peroxidase and catalase activity in liver, kidney and skeletal muscle were significantly restored besides marked reduction in lipid peroxidation and normalization of hepatic glycogen level in the NOLE treated alloxanized mice. Different bioactive phytocompounds with potent anti-diabetic activity were identified by GC-MS and HPLC analysis.The present investigation revealed that N. oleander possess potent anti-diabetic activity as claimed in different ethnopharmacological practices.
- Meta-analysis of the effect and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia and hypertension. [REVIEW]
- J Ethnopharmacol 2014 Dec 10.
Berberine, extracted from Coptis Root and Phellodendron Chinese, has been frequently used for the adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension in China. Safety and efficacy studies in terms of evidence-based medical practice have become more prevalent in application to Chinese Herbal Medicine. It is necessary to assess the efficacy and safety of berberine in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia and hypertension by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of available clinical data.We searched the English databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane library, EMbase, etc., and Chinese databases including China biomedical literature database (CBM), Chinese Technology Journal Full-text Database, Chinese journal full text database (CNKI), and Wanfang digital periodical full text database. Relevant studies were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Meta-analysis was performed with RevMan5.0 software after data extraction and the quality of studies assessment.Twenty-seven randomized controlled clinical trials were included with 2569 patients. There are seven subgroups in our meta-analysis: berberine versus placebo or berberine with intensive lifestyle intervention versus intensive lifestyle intervention alone; berberine combined with oral hypoglycemic versus hypoglycemic alone; berberine versus oral hypoglycemic; berberine combined with oral lipid lowering drugs versus lipid lowering drugs alone; berberine versus oral lipid lowering drugs; berberine combined with oral hypotensor versus hypotensive medications; berberine versus oral hypotensive medications. In the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, we found that berberine with lifestyle intervention tended to lower the level of FPG, PPG and HbA1c than lifestyle intervention alone or placebo; the same as berberine combined with oral hypoglycaemics to the same hypoglycaemics; but there was no statistical significance between berberine and oral hypoglycaemics. As for the treatment of hyperlipidemia, berberine with lifestyle intervention was better than lifestyle intervention, berberine with oral lipid lowering drugs was better than lipid lowering drugs alone in reducing the level of TC and LDL-C, and raising the level of HDL-C. In the comparative study between berberine and oral lipid lowering drugs, there was no statistical significance in reducing the level of TC and LDL-C, but berberine shows better effect in lowering the level of TG and raising the level of HDL-C. In the treatment of hypertension, berberine with lifestyle intervention tended to lower the level of blood pressure more than the lifestyle intervention alone or placebo did; The same occurred when berberine combined with oral hypotensor was compared to the same hypotensor. Notably, no serious adverse reaction was reported in the 27 experiments.This study indicates that berberine has comparable therapeutic effect on type 2 DM, hyperlipidemia and hypertension with no serious side effect. Considering the relatively low cost compared with other first-line medicine and treatment, berberine might be a good alternative for low socioeconomic status patients to treat type 2 DM, hyperlipidemia, hypertension over long time period. Due to overall limited quality of the included studies, the therapeutic benefit of berberine can be substantiated to a limited degree. Better methodological quality, large controlled trials using standardized preparation are expected to further quantify the therapeutic effect of berberine.