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J Food Prot [journal]
- Review of the characteristics of food-derived and endogenous ne-carboxymethyllysine. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):912-8.
Ne-Carboxymethyllysine (CML), a representative of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), is commonly found in food and is considered a potential hazard to human health. Food scientists have begun to investigate the formation of CML in food processes. As the understanding of CML is mainly based on that of endogenous CML from the fields of biology and medicine, this review summarizes the different characteristics of food-derived CML and endogenous CML with respect to food safety, detection methods, formation environment, formation mechanism, and methods for inhibiting the formation of CML. Additionally, future research directions for the study of food-derived CML are proposed, including understanding its digestion, absorption, and metabolism in human health, developing rapid, reliable, and inexpensive detection methods, revealing its relationship with food components and production processes, and controlling the formation of CML through the addition of inhibitors and/or modification of food processing conditions, so as to contribute to the methods for controlling food-derived AGEs.
- Role of slaughtering in salmonella spreading and control in pork production. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):899-911.
Salmonella is one of the major foodborne pathogens worldwide. Pork products are among the main sources of Salmonella infection in humans, and several countries have established Salmonella surveillance and control programs. The role of slaughtering in carcass contamination has been indicated by studies focused on the slaughterhouse environment. In this review, we examine and discuss the information available regarding the influence that farm status, pig transport, and lairage have on the carriage of Salmonella by pigs entering the slaughter line. The evolution of carcass contamination throughout the slaughtering process, the main sources of contamination in the dirty and clean zones of the slaughter line, and previously reported prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses and factors affecting this prevalence also are discussed. The importance of implementing interventions at the slaughter level is discussed briefly. Consistent with the information available, pigs from infected farms and newly acquired or recrudescent infections in pigs at the subsequent stages of transport and lairage are important sources of Salmonella at the slaughtering plant. The continuous introduction of Salmonella into the slaughterhouse and the potential for resident flora constitute a risk for carcass contamination. At the slaughterhouse, some dressing activities can reduce carcass contamination, but others are critical control points that jeopardize carcass hygiene. This information indicates the importance of considering slaughter and previous stages in the pork production chain for controlling Salmonella in swine production.
- Fluorometric detection of active alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase in fluid dairy products from multiple species. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):892-8.
Over the past 80 years, a variety of methods have been developed to detect underpasteurized or improperly pasteurized milks used in dairy products. Existing methods are hampered by duration of analysis, poor reproducibility, and in some cases the use of hazardous chemicals. To overcome these issues, two new methods have been developed using fluorogenic substrates for two marker enzymes, alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. In 30 min, up to 18 samples can be analyzed in triplicate by both methods on two separate 96-well plates. Sample preparation is not necessary for liquid milks when using these methods. The relative standard deviation for each assay is less than 9%, and the correlation coefficient for results of the two methods is greater than 0.98. Using the new methods, milks from four species and nine commercially available liquid milk products were tested. The new methods were also tested directly against an existing phosphatase method (Fluorophos) in spiked whole milk samples.
- Growth Potential of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes in Ready-to-Eat Lettuce and Collard Greens Packaged under Modified Atmosphere and in Perforated Film. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):888-91.
This study was aimed at determining the effects of different storage scenarios on the growth potential of Salmonella strains and Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) mixes of iceberg and crisp lettuces (Lactuca sativa) and collard greens (Brassica oleracea). Vegetables were submitted to minimal processing, experimentally contaminated to achieve 10(1) and 10(2) CFU/g, packed under modified atmosphere and in perforated film, and submitted to the following storage scenarios: I = 100 % of the shelf life (6 days) at 7°C; II = 70 % of shelf life at 7°C and 30 % at 15°C; III = 30 % at 7°C and 70 % at 15°C; IV = 100 % at 15°C. Higher populations of Salmonella were observed in lettuce mixes than in collard greens; the opposite occurred with L. monocytogenes. Keeping the RTE vegetables at 15°C during the whole shelf life (scenario IV) or part of it (scenarios II and III) markedly influenced the growth of both pathogens in most of the scenarios studied (P < 0.05). Growth potentials of strains of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were significantly different depending on the scenarios in samples packed with perforated film in comparison to those stored under modified atmosphere (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that even contamination as low as 10(1) CFU/g can lead to high populations if there is temperature abuse during storage (15°C). This study of the behavior of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes in RTE vegetables provides insights that may be useful in the development of strategies to control pathogen growth in these products.
- Genetic Diversity of Cronobacter sakazakii Isolates Collected from a Swiss Infant Formula Production Facility. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):883-7.
In this study, 141 Cronobacter isolates that were collected based on a hygienic monitoring program performed in a powdered infant formula production facility in Switzerland between September 2011 and October 2012 were further characterized. Isolates were identified to the species level by molecular methods, and strains of Cronobacter sakazakii were further subtyped by applying PCR-based O-antigen serotyping, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). C. sakazakii was the most prevalent species identified (93.6%). Among this collection of isolates, representatives of all but one O-antigen serotype (serotype O5) were recognized. MLST analysis of 19 selected isolates revealed that most of the typeable isolates belonged to sequence type (ST) 4. Correlations between ST4 and serotype O2 and between ST83 and serotype O7 were observed. PFGE analysis revealed clusters with multiple isolates, including strains from samples collected at different time points and sampling sources. Generally, the observed heterogeneity among strains collected over the 13 months of the monitoring program was high, suggesting a constant flux among strains rather than a selection for persisting organisms.
- Isolation and identification of zoonotic species of genus arcobacter from chicken viscera obtained from retail distributors of the metropolitan area of san josé, costa rica. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):879-82.
Arcobacter is a genus of growing importance worldwide; some of its species are considered emerging enteropathogens and potential zoonotic agents. In Costa Rica, as well as in other countries, its isolation has been reported, so the objective of this project was to evaluate and identify the presence of Arcobacter in chicken viscera sold in the metropolitan area of San José, Costa Rica, as well as to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns associated with it. One hundred fifty samples of chicken viscera including heart, liver, and other gastrointestinal organs were purchased from 15 supermarkets and 15 local retailers. De Boer and Houf broths were used as enrichment media; isolation was done with Arcobacter-selective medium and with membrane filtration with blood agar. Typical colonies were identified with genus-specific PCR, and species identification was made with multiplex PCR. Susceptibility to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, and tetracycline was done with the Epsilometer test. The isolation frequency of Arcobacter genus obtained in this study was of 17.3%. A total of 33 isolates were obtained from the poultry samples, and according to the multiplex PCR methodology, 22 (66.7%) isolates were identified as Arcobacter butzleri, 8 (24.2%) as Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and 1 (3.1%) as Arcobacter skirrowii. Two strains were not identified. No statistical significant difference was found when the source of samples was compared. Resistance toward chloramphenicol was 68.75%, followed by ampicillin (43.75%) and ciprofloxacin (18.75%); all strains were susceptible to tetracycline.
- Validation of the 3M Molecular Detection System for the Detection of Listeria in Meat, Seafood, Dairy, and Retail Environments. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):874-8.
There is a continued need to develop improved rapid methods for detection of foodborne pathogens. The aim of this project was to evaluate the 3M Molecular Detection System (3M MDS), which uses isothermal DNA amplification, and the 3M Molecular Detection Assay Listeria using environmental samples obtained from retail delicatessens and meat, seafood, and dairy processing plants. Environmental sponge samples were tested for Listeria with the 3M MDS after 22 and 48 h of enrichment in 3M Modified Listeria Recovery Broth (3M mLRB); enrichments were also used for cultural detection of Listeria spp. Among 391 samples tested for Listeria, 74 were positive by both the 3M MDS and the cultural method, 310 were negative by both methods, 2 were positive by the 3M MDS and negative by the cultural method, and one sample was negative by the 3M MDS and positive by the cultural method. Four samples were removed from the sample set, prior to statistical analyses, due to potential cross-contamination during testing. Listeria isolates from positive samples represented L. monocytogenes, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. seeligeri. Overall, the 3M MDS and culture-based detection after enrichment in 3M mLRB did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) with regard to the number of positive samples, when chi-square analyses were performed for (i) number of positive samples after 22 h, (ii) number of positive samples after 48 h, and (iii) number of positive samples after 22 and/or 48 h of enrichment in 3M mLRB. Among 288 sampling sites that were tested with duplicate sponges, 67 each tested positive with the 3M MDS and the traditional U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual method, further supporting that the 3M MDS performs equivalently to traditional methods when used with environmental sponge samples.
- Evaluation of seven different commercially available real-time PCR assays for detection of shiga toxin 1 and 2 gene subtypes. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):871-3.
Following the recent outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O104:H4 infection in Germany, the demand for fast detection of STEC has again increased. Various real-time PCR-based methods enabling detection of Shiga toxin genes (stx) have been developed and can be used for applications in food microbiology. The present study was conducted to evaluate the reliability of seven commercially available real-time PCR systems for detection of stx1 and stx2 subtypes. For this purpose, pure cultures of 18 STEC strains harboring all known stx1 and/or stx2 subtypes were tested. Only one of the seven real-time PCR systems detected all known stx1 and stx2 subtypes. Six systems failed to detect the stx2f subtype. One system missed stx2 subtypes reported in association with severe human disease. Because the presence of certain stx genes (subtypes) is considered an important indicator of STEC virulence, systems differentiating between the stx1 and stx2 gene groups provide added value. Reliable and fast detection of stx genes is of major importance for both diagnostic laboratories and the food industry.
- Multilaboratory Validation of a Luminex Microbead-Based Suspension Array for the Identification of the 11 Most Clinically Relevant Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O Serogroups. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):867-70.
Rapid and high-throughput identification and serotyping of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O serogroups is important for detecting, investigating, and controlling STEC infection outbreaks and removing hazardous products from commerce. A Luminex microbead-based suspension array has been developed to identify the 11 most clinically relevant STEC serogroups: O26, O45, O91, O103, O104, O111, O113, O121, O128, O145, and O157. Here we present results of a blinded multilaboratory collaborative study involving 10 participants from nine laboratories using 55 unknown strains. From the total 495 analyses, two false-positive and three false-negative results were obtained, indicating the assay to be a rapid, high-throughput, and robust method for identifying clinically relevant STEC serogroups.
- Determination and frying loss of histamine in striped marlin fillets implicated in a foodborne poisoning. [Journal Article]
- J Food Prot 2013 May; 76(5):860-6.
An incident of foodborne poisoning causing illness in 67 victims due to ingestion of fried fish fillets occurred in June 2011, in southern Taiwan. Of the five suspected fish fillets, one fried sample contained 62.0 mg/100 g and one raw sample contained 89.6 mg/100 g histamine, levels which are greater than the potential hazard action level (50 mg/100 g) in most illness cases. Given the allergy-like symptoms of the victims and the high histamine content in the suspected fish samples, this foodborne poisoning was strongly suspected to be caused by histamine intoxication. Five histamine-producing bacterial strains capable of producing 59 to 562 ppm of histamine in Trypticase soy broth supplemented with 1.0% L-histidine were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes (two strains), Raoultella ornithinolytica (two strains), and Morganella morganii (one strain). The degradation loss of histamine in suspected raw fillets was 28% after they were fried at 170°C for 5 min.