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J Insect Sci [journal]
- Toxicity and affecting factors of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis on Chironomus kiiensis larvae. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-8.
Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) is a suitable agent for controlling Chironomus kiiensis, a major pest polluting water. In this study, laboratory bioassays were used to study toxicity and affecting factors of Bti on C. kiiensis larvae. Tests were conducted using three commercial Bti formulations (oil miscible suspension, 1,200 ITU/mL; wettable power, 1,200 ITU/mg; technical material, 5,000 ITU/mg) of Bti. The toxicity of Bti formulations to third and fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae was in decreasing order of technical material, oil miscible suspension, and wettable powder, based on the 12 and 24 hour LC50 values. Increasing larval densities (from 10 to 30 per bioassay cup) increased the LC50 values for fourth instar C. kiiensis larvae. The LC50 values for fourth instar larvae reared in sand substrate were higher than those from soil substrate, and autoclaved substrates significantly increased the LC50 values. The technical material of Bti at 12 and 24 hours responded similarly to changes in temperature between 30° C and 15° C, but the LC50 values at a range of tested temperatures showed distinct differences in time points.
- Reproductive biology and functional response of Dineulophus phtorimaeae, a natural enemy of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-14.
The tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest in South America and is at present an important invasive species in the Mediterranean Basin. The larval stadium mines leaves, stems, and fruits, and chemical control is the most used control method in both its original range and the invaded distribution regions. Since current T. absoluta control strategies seem limited, biological control is a prominent tool to be applied abroad. The naturally occurring larval ectoparasitoid in Argentina and Chile Dineulophus phtorimaeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) has been reported to have potential biocontrol efficiency. In this study, the ovigeny strategy of D. phtorimaeae was analyzed throughout the adult female lifetime, and the functional response of females offered a range of 2-15 T. absoluta larvae was measured over a 48-hour period. Mean D. phtorimaeae egg load was 4.15 eggs, and egg production resulted in extremely synovigenic behavior. Meanwhile, a decreasing number of eggs, due to resorption, was found. Proportions of attacked (host-fed and/or parasitized) and only host-fed hosts by the ectoparasitoid were density independent for the tested host range, exhibiting a type I functional response to T. absoluta, with an attack rate of 0.20 host larvae. Meanings of this reproductive strategy in evolutionary time as well as the consequences for augmentative biological control programs are discussed.
- The use of polliniferous resources by Melipona capixaba, an endangered stingless bee species. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-14.
Abstract Pollen types present in samples from corbiculae of Melipona capixaba (Moure and Camargo) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponina) worker bees were analyzed, as well as pollen samples from food pots inside the hives in three sites located at the bees' original habitat. The aim was to find out the sources used as a trophic resource by this species. The dominant pollen grains in the spectrum of the samples belonged to the families Myrtaceae and Melastomataceae. Eucalyptus was the most frequent pollen type in the corbiculae in Conceição do Castelo municipality; Eucalyptus, Myrcia, and Melastomatacea/Combretaceae in the Fazenda do Estado district; and Eucalyptus and Myrcia in the São Paulo de Aracê district, both in the Domingos Martins municipality. Eucalyptus and Melastomataceae/Combretaceae were the predominant pollen types in the food pots. Eucalyptus was the most prevalent type all year round or most of the year. The most common pollen types in the months that Eucalyptus was not present or dominant in the samples were of remaining native forest species, "ruderal" (field) plants, fruit-bearing plants, and introduced ornamental plants.
- Predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae on different stages of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis: a threat to cotton in South Asia. [Journal Article]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-12.
The outbreaks of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), have created problems to cotton crops in South Asia in the recent years. To control this menace, predatory potential of Chrysoperla carnea and Cryptolaemus montrouzieri larvae were investigated under laboratory conditions (27 ± 5° C and 65 ± 5% RH). The experiments were conducted in no choice (only first, second, or third instar larvae of mealybug were offered at a time) and choice (first, second, and third instar larvae were offered simultaneously) feeding tests. Both predators had high consumption rates, with C. montrouzeiri being the most voracious feeder. In the no choice feeding tests, third instar larvae of C. montrouzeiri devoured the highest mean number of first instar P. solenopsis (439.38) In the choice feeding tests, a similar number of first instar nymphs (410) were consumed. In both feeding tests, C. carnea devoured relatively fewer numbers of P. solenopsis than C. montrouzeiri. Manly's preference index suggested that the both predators preferred first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis over second or third instar nymphs. Furthermore, studies on developmental rate and fecundity revealed that first instar nymphs of P. solenopsis significantly reduced development time but increased the fecundity of both predators.
- Morphological features of the ovaries during oogenesis of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis, in relation to the physiological state. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-12.
Determination of physiological state in insects is useful in furthering the understanding of how insect behavior changes with age. Central to this determination is the identification of characters that allow assessment of physiological age. While non-destructive measures produce the most desired outcomes, internal markers may be more diagnostic and reliable. In this study, key morphological characters during previtellogenesis through vitellogenesis and ovulation were assessed as markers to determine physiological states of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Ovary length and width, ovarian index (length × width), and egg load of laboratory-reared B. dorsalis females recorded daily from eclosion up to 80 days old suggested significant differences in the ovarian index and egg load between females from each oogenesis stage. Parity status determined by the presence of follicular relics was found to provide high-accuracy classifications for B. dorsalis females. The presence of follicular relics with distinct morphological features provides a reliable identification tool to determine the physiological state of wild female oriental fruit fly. The potential applications of this technique to identify the physiological age of female fruit flies to study behavioral attributes in their natural habitat, and also the potential applications in relation to field control, are discussed.
- Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of northeastern Iran: aphidiine-aphid-plant associations, key and description of a new species. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-26.
Aphid parasitoids of the subfamily Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of northeastern Iran were studied in this paper. A total of 29 species are keyed and illustrated with line drawings. The aphidiines presented in this work have been reared from 42 aphid host taxa occurring on 49 plant taxa from a total of 33 sampling sites. Sixty-six aphidiine-aphid-plant associations are presented. Trioxys metacarpalis sp. nov. from Chaitaphis tenuicaudata Nevsky (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Kochia scoparia, is described. The species diversity based on the comparative faunistic analysis is discussed.
- Susceptibility of stored-product psocids to aerosol insecticides. [Journal Article]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:1-14.
The efficacies of commercial methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of stored-product psocid pests were evaluated in simulated field studies. The efficacies of methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, the carrier Isopar-M™, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols for control of Liposcelis decolor (Pearman) (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae) and Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) nymphs were assessed, and the effects of direct and indirect exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel, L. decolor, and Liposcelis paeta Pearman adults to esfenvalerate EC aerosol were evaluated. The greatest nymphal mortality attained was 76%, indicating that the four aerosols tested were ineffective against L. decolor and L. entomophila nymphs. In the direct and indirect exposure studies, the greatest adult mortalities attained for the three psocid species were 62 and 32%, respectively. Based on these data, esfenvalerate aerosol is ineffective for control of L. bostrychophila, L. decolor, L. entomophila, and L. paeta psocid species. This study shows that methoprene, esfenvalerate EC, and a combination of methoprene and esfenvalerate aerosols were ineffective against the four psocid species tested when applied at rates that are usually effective against other stored-product insect pests.
- Non-enzymatic hydrolysis of RNA in workers of the ant Nylanderia pubens. [Journal Article]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:146.
During preparation of total RNA from Nylanderia pubens (Forel) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers for use in expression library construction, severe RNA degradation consistently occurred. This degradation was masked by spectrophotometric analysis but clearly evident by microfluidic-based assay. Although not specifically identified, the degrading entity was endogenous and localized to the abdomen (terminal abdominal segments) of adult ants. RNA degradation was not observed in preparations of larvae, non-melanized pupae, or eggs. Various RNase and protease inhibitors had no protective effect. However, the metal chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid prevented RNA degradation and provides insight into the occurrence.
- The spatio-temporal distribution patterns of biting midges of the genus Culicoides in Salta province, Argentina. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:145.
The goal of this survey was to analyze the spatio-temporal distribution patterns of Culicoides Latreille species (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) and their relationship with environmental variables in Salta, northwestern Argentina. Culicoides were collected monthly from January 2003 through December 2005. The influence of the climatic variables on population abundance was analyzed with a multilevel Poisson regression. A total of 918 specimens belonging to five species were collected. The most abundant species was Culicoides paraensis Goeldi (65.5%), followed by Culicoides lahillei Iches (14.6%) and Culicoides debilipalpis Lutz (7.6%). The highest seasonal abundance for C. paraensis, C. debilipalpis and C. lahillei occurred during the spring and summer. A Poisson regression analysis showed that the mean maximum and minimum temperature and the mean maximum and minimum humidity were the variables with the greatest influence on the population abundance of Culicoides species.
- Descriptions of immatures of the South American plant hopper, Taosa (C.) longula. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Insect Sci 2012.:142.
Descriptions of the immature stages of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Dictyopharidae) and a key for their identification is provided for specimens collected on the water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Commelinales: Pontederiaceae), in northeastern Argentina and Peru. Newly emerged nymphs from eggs collected in the field were reared in rearing chambers, and each stage was fixed to microscopic examination and illustration. Fifth nymphal instars can be easily recognized from congeners by the brown marked pattern coloration, shorter vertex, and the distinguishable median carina along the frons. Information on behavior and developmental time is also included.