Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
J Neurosci [journal]
- Antigen dependently activated cluster of differentiation 8-positive T cells cause perforin-mediated neurotoxicity in experimental stroke. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16784-95.
Neuroinflammation plays a key role in secondary brain damage after stroke. Although deleterious effects of proinflammatory cytokines are well characterized, direct cytotoxic effects of invading immune cells on the ischemic brain and the importance of their antigen-dependent activation are essentially unknown. Here we examined the effects of adaptive and innate immune cells-cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells-that share the direct perforin-mediated cytotoxic pathway on outcome after cerebral ischemia in mice. Although CTLs and NK cells both invaded the ischemic brain, only brain-infiltrating CTLs but not NK cells were more activated than their splenic counterparts. Depletion of CTLs decreased infarct volumes and behavioral deficit in two ischemia models, whereas NK cell depletion had no effect. Correspondingly, adoptive CTL transfer from wild-type into Rag1 knock-out mice increased infarct size. Adoptive CTL transfer from perforin knock-out or interferon-γ knock-out mice into Rag1 knock-out mice revealed that CTL neurotoxicity was mediated by perforin. Accordingly, CTLs isolated from wild-type or interferon-γ knock-out but not from perforin knock-out mice induced neuronal cell death in vitro. CTLs derived from ovalbumin-specific T-cell receptor transgenic mice were not activated and infiltrated less into the ischemic brain compared with wild-type CTLs. Their transfer did not increase the infarct size of Rag1 knock-out mice, indicating antigen-dependent activation as an essential component of CTL neurotoxicity. Our findings underscore the importance of antigen-dependent, direct cytotoxic immune responses in stroke and suggest modulation of CTLs and their effector pathways as a potential new strategy for stroke therapy.
- D1-Dependent 4 Hz Oscillations and Ramping Activity in Rodent Medial Frontal Cortex during Interval Timing. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16774-83.
Organizing behavior in time is a fundamental process that is highly conserved across species. Here we study the neural basis of timing processes. First, we found that rodents had a burst of stimulus-triggered 4 Hz oscillations in the medial frontal cortex (MFC) during interval timing tasks. Second, rodents with focally disrupted MFC D1 dopamine receptor (D1DR) signaling had impaired interval timing performance and weaker stimulus-triggered oscillations. Prior work has demonstrated that MFC neurons ramp during interval timing, suggesting that they underlie temporal integration. We found that MFC D1DR blockade strongly attenuated ramping activity of MFC neurons that correlated with behavior. These macro- and micro-level phenomena were linked, as we observed that MFC neurons with strong ramping activity tended to be coherent with stimulus-triggered 4 Hz oscillations, and this relationship was diminished with MFC D1DR blockade. These data provide evidence demonstrating how D1DR signaling controls the temporal organization of mammalian behavior.
- Hippocampal metaplasticity is required for the formation of temporal associative memories. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16762-73.
Metaplasticity regulates the threshold for modification of synaptic strength and is an important regulator of learning rules; however, it is not known whether these cellular mechanisms for homeostatic regulation of synapses contribute to particular forms of learning. Conditional ablation of mGluR5 in CA1 pyramidal neurons resulted in the inability of low-frequency trains of afferent activation to prime synapses for subsequent theta burst potentiation. Priming-induced metaplasticity requires mGluR5-mediated mobilization of endocannabinoids during the priming train to induce long-term depression of inhibition (I-LTD). Mice lacking priming-induced plasticity had no deficit in spatial reference memory tasks, but were impaired in an associative task with a temporal component. Conversely, enhancing endocannabinoid signaling facilitated temporal associative memory acquisition and, after training animals in these tasks, ex vivo I-LTD was partially occluded and theta burst LTP was enhanced. Together, these results suggest a link between metaplasticity mechanisms in the hippocampus and the formation of temporal associative memories.
- Alternative Splicing Coupled Nonsense-Mediated Decay Generates Neuronal Cell Type-Specific Expression of SLM Proteins. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16755-61.
The unique physiological and morphological properties of neuronal populations are crucial for the appropriate functioning of neuronal circuits. Alternative splicing represents an attractive mechanism for generating cell type-specific molecular repertoires that steer neuronal development and function. However, the mechanisms that link neuronal identity to alternative splicing programs are poorly understood. We report that cell type-specific, mutually exclusive expression of two alternative splicing regulators, SLM1 and SLM2, in the mouse hippocampus is achieved by a cross-repression mechanism. Deletion of SLM2 in vivo modifies alternative splicing of its paralog Slm1 and stabilizes its mRNA, resulting in expression of SLM1 in previously SLM2-expressing cells. Despite this ectopic upregulation of SLM1, loss of SLM2 severely disrupts the alternative splicing regulation of Nrxn1, Nrxn2, and Nrxn3, highlighting that the two SLM paralogs have partially divergent functions. Our study uncovers a hierarchical, SLM2-dependent mechanism for establishing cell type-specific expression of neuronal splicing regulators in vivo.
- Human Subthalamic Nucleus in Movement Error Detection and Its Evaluation during Visuomotor Adaptation. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16744-54.
Monitoring and evaluating movement errors to guide subsequent movements is a critical feature of normal motor control. Previously, we showed that the postmovement increase in electroencephalographic (EEG) beta power over the sensorimotor cortex reflects neural processes that evaluate motor errors consistent with Bayesian inference (Tan et al., 2014). Whether such neural processes are limited to this cortical region or involve the basal ganglia is unclear. Here, we recorded EEG over the cortex and local field potential (LFP) activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) from electrodes implanted in patients with Parkinson's disease, while they moved a joystick-controlled cursor to visual targets displayed on a computer screen. After movement offsets, we found increased beta activity in both local STN LFP and sensorimotor cortical EEG and in the coupling between the two, which was affected by both error magnitude and its contextual saliency. The postmovement increase in the coupling between STN and cortex was dominated by information flow from sensorimotor cortex to STN. However, an information drive appeared from STN to sensorimotor cortex in the first phase of the adaptation, when a constant rotation was applied between joystick inputs and cursor outputs. The strength of the STN to cortex drive correlated with the degree of adaption achieved across subjects. These results suggest that oscillatory activity in the beta band may dynamically couple the sensorimotor cortex and basal ganglia after movements. In particular, beta activity driven from the STN to cortex indicates task-relevant movement errors, information that may be important in modifying subsequent motor responses.
- GABAergic projections from the medial septum selectively inhibit interneurons in the medial entorhinal cortex. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16739-43.
The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25-60 Hz) and high (60-180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits.
- GLOBIN-5-Dependent O2 Responses Are Regulated by PDL-1/PrBP That Targets Prenylated Soluble Guanylate Cyclases to Dendritic Endings. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16726-38.
Aerobic animals constantly monitor and adapt to changes in O2 levels. The molecular mechanisms involved in sensing O2 are, however, incompletely understood. Previous studies showed that a hexacoordinated globin called GLB-5 tunes the dynamic range of O2-sensing neurons in natural C. elegans isolates, but is defective in the N2 lab reference strain (McGrath et al., 2009; Persson et al., 2009). GLB-5 enables a sharp behavioral switch when O2 changes between 21 and 17%. Here, we show that GLB-5 also confers rapid behavioral and cellular recovery from exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxia reconfigures O2-evoked Ca(2+) responses in the URX O2 sensors, and GLB-5 enables rapid recovery of these responses upon re-oxygenation. Forward genetic screens indicate that GLB-5's effects on O2 sensing require PDL-1, the C. elegans ortholog of mammalian PrBP/PDE6δ protein. In mammals, PDE6δ regulates the traffic and activity of prenylated proteins (Zhang et al., 2004; Norton et al., 2005). PDL-1 promotes localization of GCY-33 and GCY-35, atypical soluble guanylate cyclases that act as O2 sensors, to the dendritic endings of URX and BAG neurons, where they colocalize with GLB-5. Both GCY-33 and GCY-35 are predicted to be prenylated. Dendritic localization is not essential for GCY-35 to function as an O2 sensor, but disrupting pdl-1 alters the URX neuron's O2 response properties. Functional GLB-5 can restore dendritic localization of GCY-33 in pdl-1 mutants, suggesting GCY-33 and GLB-5 are in a complex. Our data suggest GLB-5 and the soluble guanylate cyclases operate in close proximity to sculpt O2 responses.
- Utility-based early modulation of processing distracting stimulus information. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16720-5.
Humans are selective information processors who efficiently prevent goal-inappropriate stimulus information to gain control over their actions. Nonetheless, stimuli, which are both unnecessary for solving a current task and liable to cue an incorrect response (i.e., "distractors"), frequently modulate task performance, even when consistently paired with a physical feature that makes them easily discernible from target stimuli. Current models of cognitive control assume adjustment of the processing of distractor information based on the overall distractor utility (e.g., predictive value regarding the appropriate response, likelihood to elicit conflict with target processing). Although studies on distractor interference have supported the notion of utility-based processing adjustment, previous evidence is inconclusive regarding the specificity of this adjustment for distractor information and the stage(s) of processing affected. To assess the processing of distractors during sensory-perceptual phases we applied EEG recording in a stimulus identification task, involving successive distractor-target presentation, and manipulated the overall distractor utility. Behavioral measures replicated previously found utility modulations of distractor interference. Crucially, distractor-evoked visual potentials (i.e., posterior N1) were more pronounced in high-utility than low-utility conditions. This effect generalized to distractors unrelated to the utility manipulation, providing evidence for item-unspecific adjustment of early distractor processing to the experienced utility of distractor information.
- Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) Is Required for Neural Stem Cell Maintenance and Vascular Stability in the Adult Mouse SVZ. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16713-9.
HIF-1α is a hypoxia-inducible protein that regulates many cell and molecular processes, including those involved in angiogenesis and stem cell maintenance. Prior studies demonstrated constitutive HIF-1α stabilization in neural stem cells (NSCs) of the adult mouse SVZ, but its role there has not been elucidated. Here, we tested the hypothesis that HIF-1α plays an essential role in the maintenance of adult NSCs and stabilization of the SVZ vascular niche using conditional, tamoxifen-inducible Hif1a knock-out mice. We generated nestin-CreER(T2)/R26R-YFP/Hif1a(fl/fl) triple transgenic mice, to enable tamoxifen-inducible Hif1a gene inactivation in nestin-expressing NSCs within the adult SVZ. Hif1a gene deletion resulted in a significant loss of YFP(+) NSCs within the SVZ by 45 d post recombination, which was preceded by significant regression of the SVZ vasculature at 14 d, and concomitant decrease of VEGF expression by NSCs. Loss of YFP(+) NSCs following Hif1a gene inactivation in vivo was likely an indirect consequence of vascular regression, since YFP(+) neurosphere formation over serial passage was unaffected. These results identify NSC-encoded HIF-1α as an essential factor in the maintenance of the adult SVZ, and demonstrate that NSCs within the SVZ maintain the integrity of their vascular niche through HIF-1α-mediated signaling mechanisms.
- Live Imaging of Endogenous PSD-95 Using ENABLED: A Conditional Strategy to Fluorescently Label Endogenous Proteins. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Dec 10; 34(50):16698-712.
Stoichiometric labeling of endogenous synaptic proteins for high-contrast live-cell imaging in brain tissue remains challenging. Here, we describe a conditional mouse genetic strategy termed endogenous labeling via exon duplication (ENABLED), which can be used to fluorescently label endogenous proteins with near ideal properties in all neurons, a sparse subset of neurons, or specific neuronal subtypes. We used this method to label the postsynaptic density protein PSD-95 with mVenus without overexpression side effects. We demonstrated that mVenus-tagged PSD-95 is functionally equivalent to wild-type PSD-95 and that PSD-95 is present in nearly all dendritic spines in CA1 neurons. Within spines, while PSD-95 exhibited low mobility under basal conditions, its levels could be regulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Notably, labeled PSD-95 also allowed us to visualize and unambiguously examine otherwise-unidentifiable excitatory shaft synapses in aspiny neurons, such as parvalbumin-positive interneurons and dopaminergic neurons. Our results demonstrate that the ENABLED strategy provides a valuable new approach to study the dynamics of endogenous synaptic proteins in vivo.