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J Neurosci [journal]
- Beta-coupled high-frequency activity and Beta-locked neuronal spiking in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12816-27.
Beta frequency (13-30 Hz) oscillatory activity in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been shown to influence the temporal dynamics of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs; 200-500 Hz) and single neurons, potentially compromising the functional flexibility of the motor circuit. We examined these interactions by simultaneously recording both local field potential and single-unit activity from the basal ganglia of 15 patients with PD during deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery of the bilateral STN. Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) in the STN was specific to beta phase and HFO amplitude, and this coupling was strongest at the dorsal STN border. We found higher beta-HFO PAC near DBS lead contacts that were clinically effective compared with the remaining non-effective contacts, indicating that PAC may be predictive of response to STN DBS. Neuronal spiking was locked to the phase of 8-30 Hz oscillations, and the spatial topography of spike-phase locking (SPL) was similar to that of PAC. Comparisons of PAC and SPL showed a lack of spatiotemporal correlations. Beta-coupled HFOs and field-locked neurons had different preferred phase angles and did not co-occur within the same cycle of the modulating oscillation. Our findings provide additional support that beta-HFO PAC may be central to the pathophysiology of PD and suggest that field-locked neurons alone are not sufficient for the emergence of beta-coupled HFOs.
- Neurons in macaque inferior temporal cortex show no surprise response to deviants in visual oddball sequences. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12801-15.
Many studies measured neural responses in oddball paradigms, showing a different response to the same stimulus when presented with a low (deviant) compared with a high probability (standard) in a sequence. Such a differential response is manifested in event-related potential studies as the mismatch negativity (MMN) and has been observed in several sensory modalities, including vision. Other studies showed that stimulus repetition suppresses the neural response. It has been suggested that this adaptation effect underlies the smaller responses to the standard compared with the deviant stimulus in oddball sequences. However, the MMN may also reflect the violation of a prediction based on the sequence of standards, i.e., a surprise response. We examined the presence of a surprise response to deviants in visual oddball sequences in macaque (Macaca mulatta) inferior temporal (IT) cortex, a higher-order cortical area. In agreement with visual MMN studies, single-unit IT responses were greater for the deviant than for the standard stimuli. However, single IT neurons showed no greater response to the deviant stimulus in the oddball sequence than to the same stimulus presented with the same probability in a sequence that consisted of many stimuli. LFPs also showed no evidence of a surprise response. These data suggest that stimulus-specific adaptation, without a surprise-related boost of activity to the deviant, underlies the responses in visual oddball sequences even in higher visual cortex. Furthermore, we show that for IT neurons such adaptive mechanisms take into account a relatively short stimulus history, with weaker effects at longer time scales.
- Survival of Neural Stem Cell Grafts in the Lesioned Spinal Cord Is Enhanced by a Combination of Treadmill Locomotor Training via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Signaling. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12788-800.
Combining cell transplantation with activity-based rehabilitation is a promising therapeutic approach for spinal cord repair. The present study was designed to investigate potential interactions between the transplantation (TP) of neural stem cells (NSCs) obtained at embryonic day 14 and treadmill training (TMT) in promoting locomotor recovery and structural repair in rat contusive injury model. Combination of TMT with NSC TP at 1 week after injury synergistically improved locomotor function. We report here that combining TMT increased the survival of grafted NSCs by >3-fold and >5-fold at 3 and 9 weeks after injury, respectively. The number of surviving NSCs was significantly correlated with the extent of locomotor recovery. NSCs grafted into the injured spinal cord were under cellular stresses induced by reactive nitrogen or oxygen species, which were markedly attenuated by TMT. TMT increased the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the CSF. Intrathecal infusion of neutralizing IGF-1 antibodies, but not antibodies against either BDNF or Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), abolished the enhanced survival of NSC grafts by TMT. The combination of TP and TMT also resulted in tissue sparing, increased myelination, and restoration of serotonergic fiber innervation to the lumbar spinal cord to a larger extent than that induced by either TP or TMT alone. Therefore, we have discovered unanticipated beneficial effects of TMT in modulating the survival of grafted NSCs via IGF-1. Our study identifies a novel neurobiological basis for complementing NSC-based spinal cord repair with activity-based neurorehabilitative approaches.
- LTP and LTD in the Visual Cortex Require the Activation of NOX2. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12778-87.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are signaling factors involved in many intracellular transduction pathways. In the nervous system, ROS are thought to modulate various mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. One important source of ROS production in the brain is the NADPH oxidase complex. Stimulation of NMDA receptors activates NADPH oxidase, which provides selective oxidative responses accompanying the induction of synaptic changes. The activity of NADPH oxidase is known to be crucial for the induction of LTP in the hippocampus. However, the involvement of this complex in cortical synaptic plasticity is still unclear. Here we provide evidence that genetic ablation of NOX2 (the prototypical member of NADPH oxidase family of proteins) suppresses LTP and LTD in the primary visual cortex of the mouse. We also found that the involvement of NOX2 on LTP is partially age-dependent, as the activity of this complex is not critical for mechanisms of synaptic potentiation occurring in immature animals. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of NOX2 reduces the NMDA receptor function, suggesting a possible mechanism that could be the basis of the effects on synaptic plasticity.
- Perineurial Glia Are Essential for Motor Axon Regrowth following Nerve Injury. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12762-77.
Development and maintenance of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for an organism to survive and reproduce, and damage to the PNS by disease or injury is often debilitating. Remarkably, the nerves of the PNS are capable of regenerating after trauma. However, full functional recovery after nerve injuries remains poor. Peripheral nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, with particular emphasis on elucidating the roles of Schwann cells and macrophages during degeneration and subsequent regeneration. In contrast, the roles of other essential nerve components, including perineurial glia, are poorly understood. Here, we use laser nerve transection and in vivo, time-lapse imaging in zebrafish to investigate the role and requirement of perineurial glia after nerve injury. We show that perineurial glia respond rapidly and dynamically to nerve transections by extending processes into injury sites and phagocytizing debris. Perineurial glia also bridge injury gaps before Schwann cells and axons, and we demonstrate that these bridges are essential for axon regrowth. Additionally, we show that perineurial glia and macrophages spatially coordinate early debris clearance and that perineurial glia require Schwann cells for their attraction to injury sites. This work highlights the complex nature of cell-cell interactions after injury and introduces perineurial glia as integral players in the regenerative process.
- Dlg5 regulates dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis by controlling subcellular N-cadherin localization. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12745-61.
Most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain are formed on dendritic spines, and spine density has a profound impact on synaptic transmission, integration, and plasticity. Membrane-associated guanylate kinase (MAGUK) proteins are intracellular scaffolding proteins with well established roles in synapse function. However, whether MAGUK proteins are required for the formation of dendritic spines in vivo is unclear. We isolated a novel disc large-5 (Dlg5) allele in mice, Dlg5(LP), which harbors a missense mutation in the DLG5 SH3 domain, greatly attenuating its ability to interact with the DLG5 GUK domain. We show here that DLG5 is a MAGUK protein that regulates spine formation, synaptogenesis, and synaptic transmission in cortical neurons. DLG5 regulates synaptogenesis by enhancing the cell surface localization of N-cadherin, revealing a key molecular mechanism for regulating the subcellular localization of this cell adhesion molecule during synaptogenesis.
- Structural and functional plasticity of astrocyte processes and dendritic spine interactions. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12738-44.
Experience-dependent plasticity of synaptic transmission, which represents the cellular basis of learning, is accompanied by morphological changes in dendritic spines. Astrocytic processes are intimately associated with synapses, structurally enwrapping and functionally interacting with dendritic spines and synaptic terminals by responding to neurotransmitters and by releasing gliotransmitters that regulate synaptic function. While studies on structural synaptic plasticity have focused on neuronal elements, the structural-functional plasticity of astrocyte-neuron relationships remains poorly known. Here we show that stimuli inducing hippocampal synaptic LTP enhance the motility of synapse-associated astrocytic processes. This motility increase is relatively rapid, starting <5 min after the stimulus, and reaching a maximum in 20-30 min (t(1/2) = 10.7 min). It depends on presynaptic activity and requires G-protein-mediated Ca(2+) elevations in astrocytes. The structural remodeling is accompanied by changes in the ability of astrocytes to regulate synaptic transmission. Sensory stimuli that increase astrocyte Ca(2+) also induce similar plasticity in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo. Therefore, structural relationships between astrocytic processes and dendritic spines undergo activity-dependent changes with metaplasticity consequences on synaptic regulation. These results reveal novel forms of synaptic plasticity based on structural-functional changes of astrocyte-neuron interactions.
- MicroRNA-7 Protects against 1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Cell Death by Targeting RelA. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12725-37.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial complex I impairment in PD is modeled in vitro by the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to the complex I inhibitor 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+). In the present study, we demonstrate that microRNA-7 (miR-7), which is expressed in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive nigral neurons in mice and humans, protects cells from MPP+-induced toxicity in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells, differentiated human neural progenitor ReNcell VM cells, and primary mouse neurons. RelA, a component of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), was identified to be downregulated by miR-7 using quantitative proteomic analysis. Through a series of validation experiments, it was confirmed that RelA mRNA is a target of miR-7 and is required for cell death following MPP+ exposure. Further, RelA mediates MPP+-induced suppression of NF-κB activity, which is essential for MPP+-induced cell death. Accordingly, the protective effect of miR-7 is exerted through relieving NF-κB suppression by reducing RelA expression. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which NF-κB suppression, rather than activation, underlies the cell death mechanism following MPP+ toxicity, have implications for the pathogenesis of PD, and suggest miR-7 as a therapeutic target for this disease.
- Enhanced Endocannabinoid-Mediated Modulation of Rostromedial Tegmental Nucleus Drive onto Dopamine Neurons in Sardinian Alcohol-Preferring Rats. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12716-24.
The progressive predominance of rewarding effects of addictive drugs over their aversive properties likely contributes to the transition from drug use to drug dependence. By inhibiting the activity of DA neurons in the VTA, GABA projections from the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) are well suited to shift the balance between drug-induced reward and aversion. Since cannabinoids suppress RMTg inputs to DA cells and CB1 receptors affect alcohol intake in rodents, we hypothesized that the endocannabinoid system, by modulating this pathway, might contribute to alcohol preference. Here we found that RMTg afferents onto VTA DA neurons express CB1 receptors and display a 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG)-dependent form of short-term plasticity, that is, depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI). Next, we compared rodents with innate opposite alcohol preference, the Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and alcohol-nonpreferring (sNP) rats. We found that DA cells from alcohol-naive sP rats displayed a decreased probability of GABA release and a larger DSI. This difference was due to the rate of 2-AG degradation. In vivo, we found a reduced RMTg-induced inhibition of putative DA neurons in sP rats that negatively correlated with an increased firing. Finally, alcohol failed to enhance RMTg spontaneous activity and to prolong RMTg-induced silencing of putative DA neurons in sP rats. Our results indicate functional modifications of RMTg projections to DA neurons that might impact the reward/aversion balance of alcohol attributes, which may contribute to the innate preference observed in sP rats and to their elevated alcohol intake.
- The Visual Input to the Retina during Natural Head-Free Fixation. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12701-15.
Head and eye movements incessantly modulate the luminance signals impinging onto the retina during natural intersaccadic fixation. Yet, little is known about how these fixational movements influence the statistics of retinal stimulation. Here, we provide the first detailed characterization of the visual input to the human retina during normal head-free fixation. We used high-resolution recordings of head and eye movements in a natural viewing task to examine how they jointly transform spatial information into temporal modulations. In agreement with previous studies, we report that both the head and the eyes move considerably during fixation. However, we show that fixational head and eye movements mostly compensate for each other, yielding a spatiotemporal redistribution of the input power to the retina similar to that previously observed under head immobilization. The resulting retinal image motion counterbalances the spectral distribution of natural scenes, giving temporal modulations that are equalized in power over a broad range of spatial frequencies. These findings support the proposal that "ocular drift," the smooth fixational motion of the eye, is under motor control, and indicate that the spatiotemporal reformatting caused by fixational behavior is an important computational element in the encoding of visual information.