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J Pediatr Orthop B [journal]
- Limb salvage treatment for Gollop-Wolfgang complex (femoral bifurcation, complete tibial hemimelia, and hand ectrodactyly). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 May 8.
We reported the findings from three patients with Gollop-Wolfgang complex and demonstrated the results of five limb salvage treatments for this condition. All three femoral bifurcations were accompanied by ipsilateral complete tibial hemimelia. Two patients showed contralateral complete or partial tibial hemimelia, and one patient had hand ectrodactyly. The five limb salvage treatments included resection of the anteromedial bifurcated femur in three limbs, foot centralization in five limbs, tibiofibular fusion in one limb with partial tibial hemimelia, fibular transfer (Brown's procedure) in three limbs with complete tibial hemimelia, and callus distraction lengthening in one limb. The duration from the first operation to the final follow-up ranged from 3.5 to 5.4 years. None of the three knees treated by fibular transfer achieved a successful functional result, but all of the knees were ultimately able to withstand weight bearing. Early knee disarticulation and resection of the protruded bifurcated femur, followed by fitting of a modern prosthesis is likely to be the best treatment for patients with Gollop-Wolfgang syndrome. We note that limb salvage treatment is an alternative in patients who opt to retain their feet and refuse amputation.
- Pediatric Maisonneuve: case report of a rare pattern of injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 May 4.
A 12-year-old boy presented to our emergency department complaining of pain and functional limitation on his right ankle after an indirect trauma. Plain radiographs were taken identifying a type II epiphysiolysis of the distal tibia and a proximal fibula fracture. An open reduction and internal fixation was performed without transyndesmal fixation. Maisonneuve fractures are an uncommon injury in the pediatric population. This fracture pattern has not been described by the Dias-Tachdjian classification. It is important to bear in mind that, based on the need for osteosynthesis for the epiphysiolysis, the treatment of these fractures in children usually differs from that in the adults as no transyndesmal screw fixation is required.
- The successful treatment of genu recurvatum as a complication following eight-Plate epiphysiodesis in a 10-year-old girl: a case report with a 3.5-year follow-up. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 May 4.
We report a case of genu recurvatum following eight-Plate epiphysiodesis and the successful treatment of this complication. A 10-year-old patient underwent epiphysiodesis of the knee with eight-Plates. She was followed up and genu recurvatum developed as a complication. At the 12-month follow-up after epiphysiodesis, the treated knee showed a flexion of 135° and an extension of 35°. Lateral radiograph evaluation showed an extension change of the femur. During reoperation, the eight-Plates were repositioned more posterior, which resulted in successful treatment of the hyperextension. Eight-Plates can lead to (treatable) articular surface angle changes in the sagittal plane.
- Three-dimensional imaging of the spine using the EOS system: is it reliable? A comparative study using computed tomography imaging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 May 4.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of three-dimensional geometry compared with computed tomography (CT) images. This retrospective study included patients who had undergone both imaging of the spine using the EOS imaging system and CT scanning of the spine. The apical vertebral orientation was also measured using the EOS imaging system and by CT. Other measures such as the Cobb angle and apical vertebral rotation and translation were used as the control variables to evaluate the potential discrepancy between the standing position in EOS imaging and the supine position in CT scanning. The apical vertebral orientations were 8.7° for the first measurement and 8.4° for the second measurement made by the first author, and 10.3° for the measurement made by the second author. The average of these measurements was 9.3° compared with 6.6° (P=0.65) obtained on CT scanning. The precision of EOS-based measurements of vertebral rotation has never been tested in clinical practice. Although it has limitations, this study suggests that the results obtained using EOS are comparable to those obtained on CT.
- Retrospective radiographic evaluation of treatment results of developmental dysplasia of the hip in walking-age children. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 30.
We evaluated treatment results of 22 children (32 hips) with idiopathic hip dislocation after walking age in two Dutch academic hospitals. The Tönnis classification was used preoperatively. Outcome was measured using the Severin and Kalamchi classification. The mean age at treatment was 24 months and the mean follow-up was 6.8 years. In 24 hips (73%), a perfect outcome was found (Kalamchi score≤1 and Severin score of 1). A fair or a poor outcome according to Severin (≥3) was found in five hips (15%). Treatment of a hip dislocation beyond 18 months of age usually results in adequate hip development with limited avascular necrosis.Level of evidence: Level III.
- Delayed union in internal fixation of pediatric both-bone forearm fractures. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 30.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively determine the risk factors for delayed union in 117 consecutive pediatric both-bone forearm fractures treated with internal fixation. Eight patients (7%, 8/117) had delayed unions, all were boys treated with intramedullary fixation for a fracture in the middle-third of the bone; and in seven patients, the ulna was the site of the delayed union. Older age, double-bone fixation, increased initial fracture displacement, and opening a closed ulna fracture were associated with longer time to union (P<0.05). Identification of risk factors will aid in the selection and duration of internal fixation and duration of immobilization.
- An olecranon chondral flap and osteochondral coronoid fracture in a spontaneously reduced elbow dislocation in a child. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 26.
Elbow injuries in children are very common and radiographs are often difficult to interpret because of the radiolucency of the cartilaginous anlage and the progressive appearance of multiple secondary ossification centres. Elbow dislocations are rare injuries in children. Coronoid fractures can occur during dislocation or relocation of the elbow and can be the only hallmark of a severe injury. The understanding of the mechanics of these injuries has undergone considerable evolution over the past decade. Intra-articular chondral flap fractures are a traumatic elevation of the hyaline cartilage from the subchondral bone. They are also rare injuries in children but should be included in the differential when examining an injured joint. The infrequency of these injuries provides little opportunity to become accustomed to the radiographic signs. We present a case report of a 4-year-old boy with both an olecranon chondral flap and coronoid cartilaginous fracture after a joint dislocation. We present his plain radiography and MRI with illustrated photographic records of the operative findings. This injury has been little described in the literature and never with such imaging to aid understanding of both the pathology and the injury mechanism.
- Candida albicans osteomyelitis in an infant: a case report and literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 17.
Skeletal infections secondary to Candida albicans are uncommon and described primarily in adults. Nearly all 22 pediatric cases of C. albicans osteomyelitis described to date have occurred in neonates with specific risk factors or in children with a severe immunodeficiency. We report an unusual presentation of C. albicans osteomyelitis and arthritis in a 1-year-old boy without an immunodeficiency, which led to a delayed diagnosis. He most likely developed C. albicans arthritis and osteomyelitis during the neonatal period with a subsequent indolent and subacute presentation. Our literature search found no prior or recent reviews of C. albicans osteomyelitis in pediatric patients. On the basis of this patient and the case reports previously published, we discuss an approach to the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with Candida osteomyelitis.
- Guided growth for the treatment of limb length discrepancy: a comparative study of the three most commonly used surgical techniques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 11.
The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of three mechanical devices (percutaneous transphyseal screws, tension band plates, and staples) for the correction of limb length discrepancies in growing children and adolescents. Thirty-nine consecutive patients treated with epiphysiodesis for limb length discrepancy were retrospectively reviewed. No significant difference was recorded between the three devices in postoperative limb length discrepancy or the rate of correction between the plating and stapling groups and between plating and percutaneous transphyseal screws groups. Epiphysiodesis for length discrepancies can be performed effectively using staples, tension band plates, or percutaneous transphyseal screws.
- Range of variation of genu valgum and association with anthropometric characteristics and physical activity: comparison between children aged 3-9 years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Orthop B 2013 Apr 3.
The lower limbs of children aged 3-9 years present varying knock-knee deformities that have a direct impact on the diversification of the load-bearing axis of the valgus limb and on the modification of gait kinematics. The purpose of our study was to establish the reference values of knee alignment in a Greek population and whether this is linked to a change in the physical activity of children depending on the severity of the genu valgum. Using a clinical method, we measured both the tibiofemoral (TF) angle and the intermalleolar (IM) distance of the lower extremities of normal children. Subsequently, forms of the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) for young children and the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity, modified especially for children, were completed by the parents. We examined both the development of the TF angle and the IM distance in relation to age and the degree of restriction of physical activity in relation to the severity of the genu valgum. We analysed 316 unaffected lower extremities in children aged 3-9 years. The average value of the TF angle starts around 7° at the age of 3 years and gradually decreases to 4° at the age of 7-8 years. The average value of the IM distance ranges over 3.5 cm at the age of 3 years and progressively decreases to 2 cm at the age of 7-8 years. Physical activity appears to be influenced by sex and the severity of the genu valgum. We provide age-specific values for limb alignment and joint orientation of the lower extremity in children aged 3-9 years. A statistical correlation between all indexes (sport, leisure time and total) of the Baecke and the NPAQs and measurements of genu valgum was noted depending on the severity of the valgus deformity. The level of evidence is the level II Prognostic Study.