Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
J Proteomics [journal]
- Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that FlbA down-regulates gliT expression and SOD activity in Aspergillus fumigatus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 17.
FlbA is a Regulator of G-protein signaling protein that plays a central role in attenuating heterotrimeric G-protein mediated vegetative growth signaling in Aspergillus. The deletion of flbA (∆flbA) in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in accelerated cell death and autolysis in submerged culture. To further investigate the effects of ∆flbA on intracellular protein levels we carried out 2-D proteome analyses of 2-day old submerged cultures of ∆flbA and wild type (WT) strains and observed 160 differentially expressed proteins. Via nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, we revealed the identity of 10 and 2 proteins exhibiting high and low level accumulation, respectively, in ∆flbA strain. Notably, the GliT protein is accumulated at about 1,800 fold higher levels in ∆flbA than WT. Moreover, GliT is secreted at high levels from ∆flbA strain, whereas Sod1 (superoxide dismutase) is secreted at a higher level in WT. Northern blot analyses reveal that ∆flbA results in elevated accumulation of gliT mRNA. Consequently, ∆flbA strain exhibits enhanced tolerance to gliotoxin toxicity. Finally, ∆flbA strain displayed enhanced SOD activity and elevated resistance to menadione and paraquat. In summary, FlbA-mediated signaling control negatively affects cellular responses associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species and of exogenous gliotoxin in A. fumigatus.
SIGNIFICANCE:Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins play crucial roles in fundamental biological processes in filamentous fungi. FlbA is the first studied filamentous fungal RGS protein, yet much remains to be understood about its roles in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In the present study, we examined the effects of the deletion of flbA using comprehensive analyses of the intra- and extracellular proteomes of A. fumigatus wild type and the flbA deletion mutant. Via MS analyses, we identified 10 proteins exhibiting high level accumulation in the flbA deletion mutant and 8 proteins of differentially secreted in wild type and the flbA mutant. Based on proteomic analyses, we further examined the role of FlbA and found that FlbA down-regulates gliT expression and SOD activity. Our results proposed that FlbA-mediated signaling control negatively affects cellular responses associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species and exogenous gliotoxin in A. fumigatus.
- Proteomic quantification and identification of carbonylated proteins upon oxidative stress and during cellular aging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 17.
Increased protein carbonyl content is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Protein damage leading to the formation of carbonyl groups derives from direct oxidation of several amino acids side chains but can also derive through protein adducts formation with lipid peroxidation products and dicarbonyl glycating compounds. All these modifications have been implicated during oxidative stress, aging and age-related diseases. However, in most cases, the proteins targeted by these deleterious modifications as well as their consequences have not yet been clearly identified. Indeed, this is essential to determine whether and how these modified proteins are impacting on cellular function, on the development of the senescent phenotype and the pathogenesis of age-related diseases. In this context, protein modifications occurring during aging and upon oxidative stress as well as main proteomic methods for detecting, quantifying and identifying oxidized proteins are described. Relevant proteomics studies aimed at monitoring the extent of protein carbonylation and identifying the targeted proteins in the context of aging and oxidative stress are also presented. Proteomics approaches, i.e. fluorescent based 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry methods, represent powerful tools for monitoring at the proteome level the extent of protein oxidative and related modifications and for identifying the targeted proteins. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:Accumulation of damaged macromolecules, including oxidatively damaged (carbonylated) proteins, is a hallmark of cellular and organismal aging. Since protein carbonyls are the most commonly used marker of protein oxidation, different methods have been developed for the detection and quantification of carbonylated proteins. The identification of these protein targets is of valuable interest in order to understand the mechanisms by which damaged proteins accumulate and potentially affect cellular functions during oxidative stress, cellular senescence and/or aging in vivo. The specificity of hydrazide derivatives to carbonyl groups and the presence of a wide range of functional groups coupled to the hydrazide, allowed the design of novel strategies for the detection and quantification of carbonylated proteins. Of note is the importance of fluorescent probes for monitoring carbonylated proteins. Proteomics approaches, i.e. fluorescent based 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry methods, represent powerful tools for monitoring at the proteome level the extent of protein oxidative and related modifications and for identifying the targeted proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Modifications.
- Actin carbonylation: From cell dysfunction to organism disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 14.
Protein carbonylation is an important event in the context of proteostasis because of its frequency, non-enzymatic nature and irreversible effects. The carbonylation of proteins disturbs their function and leads to protein aggregates, which may precede cellular senescence and cell death. Actin, an evolutionarily conserved cytoskeletal protein that is involved in important cellular processes, is one of the proteins most susceptible to carbonylation. Conditions resulting in oxidative stress are likely to lead to its carbonylation, loss of function and aggregate formation. In this review, we summarise actin susceptibility to carbonylation, as verified in cell free extracts, cell lines and animal models, and review its fate through the activation of cell mechanisms aimed at removing damaged proteins. Their insufficient activity may underlie age-related diseases and the ageing process. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Modifications.
- Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals evolutionary divergence and species-specific peptides in the Alexandrium tamarense complex (Dinophyceae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 15.
The Alexandrium tamarense/catenella/fundyense complex is the major causative agent responsible for harmful algal blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning around the world. However, taxonomy of the A. tamarense complex is contentious and the evolutionary relationships within the complex are unclear. This study compared protein profiles of the A. tamarense complex collected from different geographic regions using the two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE) approach, and identified species-specific peptides using MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. The results showed that three Alexandrium morphotypes presented significantly different protein expression patterns with about 30-40% shared proteins. However, ecotypes from different geographic regions within a species exhibited the same expression patterns, although a few proteins were altered in abundance. Several proteins, i.e. ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase form II, plastid protein NAP50, methionine S-adenosyltransferase, and peridinin- chlorophyll a-binding protein, were identified and presented different shift patterns in isoelectric point and/or molecular weight in the 2-D DIGE gels, indicating that amino acid mutation and/or posttranslational modification of these proteins had occurred. The species-specific peptide mass fingerprint and amino acid sequence of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase were characterized in the A. tamarense complex, and amino acid substitution occurred among them. This study indicated that evolutionary divergence had occurred at the proteomic level in the A. tamarense complex, and that the species-specific peptides could be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish the three morphotypes. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:Scientific question: The Alexandrium tamarense/catenella/fundyense complex is the major causative agent responsible for harmful algal blooms and paralytic shellfish poisoning around the world. However, taxonomy of the A. tamarense complex is contentious and the evolutionary relationships within the complex are unclear, which has seriously impeded our understanding of Alexandrium-causing HABs and, consequently, the monitoring, mitigation and prevention. Technical significance: This study, for the first time, compared the global protein expression patterns of eight ecotypes from the A. tamarense complex and identified species-specific peptides using a quantitative proteomic approach combining 2D-DIGE and MALDI-TOF/TOF MS Scientific significance: This study demonstrated that the evolutionary divergence had occurred in the A. tamarense complex at the proteomic level, and the complex should be classified into three species, i. e. A. tamarense, A. catenella, and A. fundyense. Moreover, the species-specific peptide mass fingerprints could be used as potential biomarkers to distinguish the three morphotypes.
- Identification of proteins inducing short-lived antibody responses from excreted/secretory products of Schistosoma japonicum adult worms by immunoproteomic analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 15.
The excretory/secretory antigens of Schistosoma japonicum (Sj ESAgs) play important roles in host-parasite immune interactions. In this study, the antibody response patterns to Sj ESAgs in sera of individual rabbits at the healthy stage, 2-6 weeks post-infection and 4-16 weeks after treatment were examined. Antigens inducing short-lived antibody responses were selected by comparing differences in immune recognition of proteins in sera across the different stages by Western blotting and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS). The diagnostic value of these short-lived antibody responses for schistosomiasis was investigated. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was identified as a major antigen inducing a short-lived antibody response in Sj ESAgs. The antibody response against Sj GAPDH decreased at week 4 and disappeared between weeks 8-12 after effective chemical treatment of rabbits, and this response declined to negative levels in schistosomiasis patients one year after treatment. The intensity of the antibody response against Sj GAPDH was dependent on parasite load in mice. The sensitivity and specificity of IgG antibodies against recombinant Sj GAPDH for schistosomiasis diagnosis were 82.5% and 91.3%. Our findings suggest that Sj GAPDH induces short-lived antibody responses in the host, and detecting IgG against this antigen provides the basis for developing a potential method for diagnosis and evaluating treatment effects for schistosomiasis japonicum. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:Schistosomiasis is one of the world's major public health problems. Developing effective diagnostic methods for detecting schistosome-specific antibodies to effectively identify active infections is part of a critical strategy for blocking transmission of the parasite and eradicating schistosomiasis. The excretory/secretory antigens of S. japonicum (Sj ESAgs) play important roles in host-parasite immune interactions. In our study, we examine the antibody response patterns to Sj ESAgs within individual rabbits at the healthy, schistosome infection and post-treatment stages by Western blotting. Proteins among the Sj ESAgs inducing short-lived antibody responses were identified by Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS), and their potential as immune markers for diagnosis and evaluating therapeutic effects in schistosomiasis was evaluated. Our findings suggest that S. japonicum glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) induces short-lived antibody responses in the host, and detecting IgG against this antigen provides the basis for developing a potential method for diagnosis and evaluating treatment effects for schistosomiasis japonicum.
- Enrichment of Leishmania donovani ATP-binding proteins using a staurosporine Capture Compound. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 15.
Trypanosomatid parasites of the genus Leishmania cause severe human diseases collectively termed leishmaniasis. Parasite ATP-binding proteins have emerged as potent targets for chemotherapeutic intervention. However, many parasite-specific ATP-binding proteins may escape current efforts in drug target identification, validation and deconvolution due to the lack of sequence conservation and functional annotation of these proteins in early branching eukaryotic trypanosomatids. Here, we selectively enriched for ATP-binding proteins from L. donovani axenic promastigote and amastigote total protein extracts utilizing a Capture Compound™ (CC) linked to the ATP-competitive inhibitor staurosporine. As judged by in-gel kinase activity assay and competitive inhibition with free staurosporine, the CC specifically enriched for parasite phosphotransferases. Comparative nanoLC-MS(n) analysis identified 70 captured proteins, including 24 conserved protein kinases, and 32 hypothetical proteins with potential ATP-binding function. We identified conserved signature sequence motifs characteristic for staurosporine-binding protein kinases, and identified the hypothetical proteins LinJ.20.0280 and LinJ.09.1630 as novel ATP-binding proteins. Thus, functional enrichment procedures such as described here, combined with bio-informatics analyses and activity assays, provide powerful tools for the discovery of parasite-specific ATP-binding proteins that escape homology-based identification, which can be subsequently targeted for pharmacological intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Functional enrichment using a Capture Compound™ linked to the ATP-competitive inhibitor staurosporine provides a powerful new tool for the discovery of parasite-specific ATP-binding proteins that escape homology-based identification, which can be subsequently targeted for pharmacological intervention.
- Texas 3-Step decellularization protocol: Looking at the cardiac extracellular matrix. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 14.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical tissue component, providing structural support as well as important regulatory signaling cues to govern cellular growth, metabolism, and differentiation. The study of ECM proteins, however, is hampered by the low solubility of ECM components in common solubilizing reagents. ECM proteins are often not detected during proteomics analyses using unbiased approaches due to solubility issues and relatively low abundance compared to highly abundant cytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins. Decellularization has become a common technique for ECM protein-enrichment and is frequently used in engineering studies. Solubilizing the ECM after decellularization for further proteomic examination has not been previously explored in depth. In this study, we describe testing of a series of protocols that enabled us to develop a novel optimized strategy for the enrichment and solubilization of ECM components. Following tissue decellularization, we use acid extraction and enzymatic deglycosylation to facilitate re-solubilization. The end result is the generation of three fractions for each sample: soluble components, cellular components, and an insoluble ECM fraction. These fractions, developed in mass spectrometry-compatible buffers, are amenable to proteomics analysis. The developed protocol allows identification (by mass spectrometry) and quantification (by mass spectrometry or immunoblotting) of ECM components in tissue samples. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:The study of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins in pathological and non-pathological conditions is often hampered by the low solubility of ECM components in common solubilizing reagents. Additionally, ECM proteins are often not detected during global proteomic analyses due to their relatively low abundance compared to highly abundant cytoplasmic and mitochondrial proteins. In this manuscript we describe testing of a series of protocols that enabled us to develop a final novel optimized strategy for the enrichment and solubilization of ECM components. The end result is the generation of three fractions for each sample: soluble components, cellular components, and an insoluble ECM fraction. By analysis of each independent fraction, differences in protein levels can be detected that in normal conditions would be masked. These fractions are amenable to mass spectrometry analysis to identify and quantify ECM components in tissue samples. The manuscript places a strong emphasis on the immediate practical relevance of the method, particularly when using mass spectrometry approaches; additionally, the optimized method was validated and compared to other methodologies described in the literature.
- Functional studies and proteomics in platelets and fibroblasts reveal a lysosomal defect with increased cathepsin-dependent apoptosis in ATP1A3 defective Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 13.
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare syndrome with repeated hemiplegic episodes, paroxysmal events and global neurological impairment. Recently, heterozygous de novo ATP1A3 missense mutations have been identified in AHC patients, but the underlying pathogenesis mechanism remains unknown. Mutation analysis of ATP1A3 in 9 unrelated AHC cases revealed mostly D801N or E815K variants. As platelets represent a good cellular model to study defects in neuropathologies, morphological and functional experiments were performed in these subjects. Platelets from the AHC patients presented with structural and functional abnormalities of granules positive for the lysosomal marker CD63. Similar structural granule abnormalities were detected in patients' fibroblasts. Proteomic analysis of platelets and fibroblasts showed a total of 93 differentially expressed proteins in AHC mainly involved in metabolism. Interestingly, 7 of these proteins were detected in both cell types, including the lysosomal protein cathepsin. AHC fibroblasts revealed significantly increased levels of activated cathepsin B, which induces a stronger activation of apoptosis. Our study is the first to link ATP1A3 defects in AHC to a platelet and fibroblast lysosomal defect with evidence of increased apoptosis. Further studies are needed to define how this lysosomal defect is related to decreased ATPase activity. Significance Only recently, the genetic cause of AHC was identified as heterozygous ATP1A3 mutations, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanism still remains unknown. By performing functional, morphological and proteomic studies in AHC patients we found a structural and functional granule defect in AHC platelets and fibroblasts that was specifically found in granules positive for the lysosomal marker CD63. In particular, proteomics identified several differentially expressed proteins in fibroblasts and platelets from AHC cases that are predicted to have an important role in cell function and maintenance, a pathway typically attributed to lysosomes. The lysosomal protein cathepsin was found to be differentially expressed in both platelets and fibroblasts of AHC patients, inducing a stronger activation of mainly the intrinsic apoptosis. Despite the precise mechanism for the increased lysosomal cathepsin B-dependent apoptosis detected in AHC in relation to impaired ATP1A3 deserves further studies, we could here show some evidence for a defective regulation of apoptosis in AHC, a disease that still has no biochemical or neuroradiological parameters for diagnosis.
- Identification of new protein coding sequences and signal peptidase cleavage sites of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 by proteogenomics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 9.
Correct annotation of protein coding genes is the basis of conventional data analysis in proteomic studies. Nevertheless, most protein sequence databases almost exclusively rely on gene finding software and inevitably also miss protein annotations or possess errors. Proteogenomics tries to overcome these issues by matching MS data directly against a genome sequence database. Here we report an in-depth proteogenomics study of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695. MS data was searched against a combined database of the NCBI annotations and a six-frame translation of the genome. Database searches with Mascot and X! Tandem revealed 1115 proteins identified by at least two peptides with a peptide false discovery rate below 1%. This represents 71% of the predicted proteome. So far this is the most extensive proteome study of H. pylori. Our proteogenomic approach unambiguously identified four previously missed annotations and furthermore allowed us to correct sequences of six annotated proteins. Since secreted proteins are often involved in pathogenic processes we further investigated signal peptidase cleavage sites. By applying a database search that accommodates the identification of semi-specific cleaved peptides, 63 previously unknown signal peptides were detected. The motif LXA showed to be the predominant recognition sequence for signal peptidases. BIOLOGICAL
SIGNIFICANCE:Even so de novo sequencing algorithms were significantly optimized within the last years the method still has its limitations in terms of speed, quality and completeness. Hence, the result of each standard proteomic study highly relies on correct annotation of protein coding genes which is the basis of conventional data analysis. Due to the amazing technical improvements genome sequencing is well established and easily accessible for the science community and is no longer a bottleneck in research. However, the annotation of protein coding sequences in genomic data is usually based on gene finding software. These tools are limited in their prediction accuracy. It is typically problematic to determine exact gene boundaries. Furthermore it is even harder to additionally correctly predict signal peptides. In conclusion this can result in protein databases with erroneous, incomplete and even missing entries. Nevertheless proteogenomic evaluations are still rare. In this study we investigated the proteome of the human pathogen H. pylori (HP)-a human pathogen which infected about 50% of the world's population and is responsible for many gastric diseases like gastric and duodenal ulcers as well as gastric cancer. Using GeLC-MS and 2D-LC-MS and applied multiple proteases thus we were able to highly reliably identify 1115 proteins (FDR <0.01%) by at least two peptides with a peptide false discovery rate below 1%. This represents 71% of the predicted proteome listed in the NCBI database and so far this is the most extensive proteome study of H. pylori. Based on this data we reanalyzed the data Thus our proteogenomic approach resulted in the unambiguously identification of four previously missed annotations the correction of six annotated proteins as well as the detection of 63 previously unknown signal peptides. Furthermore with a motif analysis "LXA" could be determined to be the predominant recognition sequence for signal peptidase I in H. pylori. The results were validated by MS spectrum comparison between detected and synthesized peptides. Furthermore, transcripts for all newly annotated proteins were detected in a whole transcriptome analysis. We have annotated proteins of particular biological interest like the ferrous iron transport protein A, the coiled-coil-rich protein HP0058 and the lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis protein HP0619. Database entries for these proteins might be important to study biological pathways involved in pathogenesis or drug response of H. pylori. For instance, the protein HP0619 could be a drug target for the inhibition of the LPS synthesis pathway. Additionally, we investigated the specificity of the signal peptidases of H. pylori. We could determine certain differences to the proposed signal peptide structure of other Gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli. Signal peptidases are essential enzymes for the viability of bacterial cells and are involved in pathogenesis Therefore signal peptidases could be novel targets for antibiotics. Additionally, inclusion of signal peptides into the database could increase peptide and protein identifications of future proteome studies.
- The effect of peptide adsorption on signal linearity and a simple approach to improve reliability of quantification. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Proteomics 2013 May 9.
Peptide quantification using MS often relies on the comparison of peptide signal intensities between different samples, which is based on the assumption that observed signal intensity has a linear relationship to peptide abundance. A typical proteomics experiment is subject to multiple sources of variance, so we focussed here on properties affecting peptide linearity under simple, well-defined conditions. Peptides from a standard protein digest were analysed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS to determine peptide linearity over a range of concentrations. We show that many peptides do not display a linear relationship between signal intensity and amount under standard conditions. Increasing the organic content of the sample solvent increased peptide linearity by increasing the accuracy and precision of quantification, which suggests that peptide non-linearity is due to concentration-dependent surface adsorption. Using multiple peptides at various dilutions, we show that peptide non-linearity is related to observed retention time and predicted hydrophobicity. Whereas the effect of adsorption on peptide storage has been investigated previously, here we demonstrate the deleterious effect of peptide adsorption on the quantification of fresh samples, highlight aspects of sample preparation that can minimise the effect, and suggest bioinformatic approaches to enhance the selection of peptides for quantification. BIOLOGICAL