Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
J Toxicol Pathol [journal]
- Age-related Histological Findings in the Pineal Gland of Crl:CD(SD) Rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):287-91.
To provide background data as the pathologic basis, the pineal glands of 190 male and 193 female Crl:CD(SD) rats at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks were examined histologically in this study. Mineralization and fibrosis were common findings in the aged rats, whereas they were rarely found in the young ones; mineralization was present in 7, 44, 67 and 79% of males and in 0, 32, 67 and 79% in females, and fibrosis was present in 0, 29, 48 and 44% of males and 0, 18, 40 and 35% of females at ages of 0-7, 51-58, 70-85 and 111 weeks, respectively. Striated muscle fiber appeared regularly in the fibrosis region from 51-58 weeks of age when fibrosis increased, while the origin of this fiber remained unclear. Vacuolation of pineal cells also increased with age in both sexes, though the total incidence was low. There was a low incidence of lymphocytic infiltration in both sexes, but this was not related to age.
- Stimulation of adrenal chromaffin cell proliferation by hypercalcemia induced by intravenous infusion of calcium gluconate in rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):281-5.
Increased incidence of adrenal pheochromocytoma is frequently encountered in rat carcinogenicity studies. In some of the studies, the finding is judged to be due to a rat-specific mechanism of carcinogenesis caused by a disturbance of calcium homeostasis. However, direct evidence that the proliferation of chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla is induced solely by hypercalcemia is not available. In this study, calcium gluconate was intravenously infused for 7 days to rat chromaffin cells by a tail cuff method, and cumulative labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was carried out to evaluate the proliferative activity. The serum calcium concentration was dose-dependently increased, and a high calcium concentration was stably sustained from day 2 to 7. In the adrenal medulla, BrdU-positive chromaffin cells increased in the calcium gluconate-treated animals, and the BrdU-labeling index increased in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, an increased BrdU-labeling index of chromaffin cells was shown to correlate with the serum calcium concentration. Our results demonstrate that hypercalcemia directly enhances the proliferative activity of chromaffin cells and that the proliferative activity is correlated with the serum calcium concentration.
- Spontaneous renal tumors suspected of being familial in sprague-dawley rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):277-80.
Spontaneous renal tubule tumors (RTTs), with a distinctive morphological phenotype, were present in three Sprague-Dawley rats, 1 male and 2 females, out a total of 120 animals of each sex from untreated and placebo control groups in a 2-year carcinogenicity study. One female had one carcinoma, adenoma and hyperplasia, and the other female had five adenomas and many hyperplastic lesions; the male case had one carcinoma. From these cases, a biological continuum of hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma could be recognized. The tumors were present in the renal cortex and appeared as solid lobulated growths with occasional central necrosis. The lobules were divided by a small amount of fibrovascular tissue. Occasionally the larger tumors contained a cystic area. Tumor cells appeared distinctive and exhibited variable amounts of eosinophilic/amphophilic and vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclei were round to oval with a prominent nucleolus. Mitotic figures were uncommon, and no distant metastasis was noted. The tumors were seen as multiple and bilateral lesions in two animals and had no apparent relationship to chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN). Foci of tubule hyperplasia were also noted to contain the same type of cellular morphology. The morphological and biological features of these 3 cases resembled the amphophilic-vacuolar (AV) variant of RTT that has been posited to be of familial origin. This is a report of spontaneous familial renal tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats from Japan.
- Splenic hemangiosarcoma in a young sprague-dawley rat. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):273-6.
The present report describes a rare case of spontaneous hemangiosarcoma in a nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rat. At necropsy, multiple white nodules of various sizes were observed on and within the enlarged spleen and liver and were histopathologically determined to be composed of spindle- to oval-shaped cells that showed invasive growth without encapsulation and were arranged solidly but partially in whorls or faint alveolar patterns with vascular-like spaces containing small clefts or erythrocytes in the tumor mass. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that most of the tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin, von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD34 but negative for podoplanin. In addition, electron microscopic examination revealed the presence of Weibel-Palade bodies in the cytoplasm of the tumor cells. Based on these findings, this case was diagnosed as a hemangiosarcoma. The splenic masses were larger than the hepatic ones, with tumor cells mainly observed at periportal regions with tumor embolism in the liver, suggesting that primary hemangiosarcoma initially developed in the spleen before metastasizing.
- Spontaneous Adenosquamous Carcinoma with Rapid Growth and EMT-like Changes in the Mammary Gland of a Young Adult Female BALB/c Mouse. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):265-71.
This study histopathologically and immunohistochemically investigated a spontaneously occurring single mass subcutaneously located in the left lower abdomen of a female BALB/cAJcl-nu/+ mouse at 10 weeks of age. The mass was about 20 × 15 × 10 mm in size after formalin fixation; nevertheless, it was not detected by clinical observations at 9 weeks of age. H&E staining revealed the tumor origin was epithelial and probably arose from the mammary gland, and the tumor cells demonstrated a squamous, acinar or polyhedral/basal pattern. A cell kinetics analysis revealed that many of the tumor cells of the squamous, acinar or polyhedral/basal component were positive for PCNA and cyclin D1, although there were a few of TUNEL-positive tumor cells in all of the components. An epithelial/mesenchymal analysis demonstrated that most of the tumor cells of the squamous and acinar components contained keratin and E-cadherin; however, most of the tumor cells of the polyhedral/basal component were less or very weakly positive for these markers. The tumor cells of the squamous component were negative for vimentin and SMA; however, many of the tumor cells of the polyhedral/basal component exhibited vimentin. In addition, expression of SMA was confirmed in some tumor cells of the acinar and basal components. Based on the microscopic and immunohistochemical characterizations, the tumor was diagnosed to be adenosquamous carcinoma that originated from the mammary gland with rapid growth, and the tumor cells demonstrated epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like changes.
- Toxicity of nicotine by repeated intratracheal instillation to f344 rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):257-63.
In vivo, nicotine in cigarette smoke induces various effects not only on the respiratory system but also the central and peripheral nerve systems, circulatory organs and digestive organs, and there is a possibility of promotion of lung tumorigenesis. The present experiment was conducted to examine histopathological changes caused by nicotine in the lung with repeated intratracheal instillation (i.t.). Six-week-old male F344 rats were administered nicotine by i.t. at doses of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg nicotine/rat every 3 weeks beginning at week 4, for up to a total of 9 times and were then sacrificed at week 30. The total number of administrations, total dose of nicotine and effective number of rats were 9 times, 0.45 mg and 5 rats and 4 times, 0.20 mg and 5 rats for the 0.05 mg nicotine/rat group; 3 times, 0.30 mg and 5 rats and 4 times, 0.40 mg and 3 rats for the 0.1 mg group; and 3 times, 0.60 mg and 3 rats for the 0.2 mg group, respectively. As a control group, 5 rats were administered 0.2 ml saline/rat 9 times. Some rats administered 0.1 and 0.2 mg nicotine suffered convulsions just after administration. Histopathologically, though proliferative changes were not observed, neutrophil infiltration, edema and fibrosis in the lung were induced by nicotine. In conclusion, repeated treatment of nicotine promoted neurologic symptoms in the acute phase, and strong inflammation in the lungs in the chronic phase, even at a low dose. Toxicity of nicotine is suggested to depend not on total dose of nicotine in the experiment but rather on repeated injury with consecutive administration.
- The Incidence of Lymphoplasmacytic Gastritis in the Fundus and Antrum of Cynomolgus Monkey ( Macaca fascicularis ) Stomachs. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):249-56.
Lymphoplasmacytic gastritis is a concern for toxicological pathologists reading preclinical, non-human primate toxicity studies because subtle gastric changes which could be treatment-related may be masked and gastritis lesions may be confused with treatment-related effects and thus a gastric finding may be incorrectly assigned as a treatment-related lesion. This paper discusses the incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys at a contract research organization. The incidence of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in the fundus and antrum of control cynomolgus monkeys on 18 non-gastric compound studies, was scored. The average fundus score ranged from 0.3 to 1.5 and the average antral score ranged from 0.9 to 3.5 in the cynomolgus monkey stomachs examined. The number of affected control animals in a study ranged from 0 to 5 control animals. No correlation between the route of vehicle administration and the severity or incidence of the lesions was noted. The percentage incidence of affected animals ranged from 0 to 100%. An increased incidence lymphoplasmatic gastritis from 2000 to 2004 was noted. The implications of lymphoplasmacytic gastritis in cynomolgus monkeys used for acute toxicity studies are discussed.
- Involvements of Estrogen Receptor, Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen and p53 in Endometrial Adenocarcinoma Development in Donryu Rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):241-7.
Involvements of estrogen receptor (ER)α, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and p53 in the uterine carcinogenesis process in Donryu rats, a high yield strain of the uterine cancer were investigated immunohistochemically. ERα was expressed in atypical endometrial hyperplasia, accepted as a precancerous lesion of the uterine tumors, as well as well- and in moderately-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas, and the intensities of expression were similar to those in the luminal epithelial cells of the atrophic uterus at 15 months of age. The expression, however, was negative in the tumor cells of poorly differentiated type. Good growth of implanted grafts of the poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas in both sexes with or without gonadectomy supported the estrogen independency of tumor progression to malignancy. PCNA labeling indices were increased with tumor development from atypical hyperplasia to adenocarcinoma. The tumor cells in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas were positive for p53 positive but negative for p21 expression, suggesting accumulation of mutated p53. These results indicate that the consistent ERα expression is involved in initiation and promotion steps of uterine carcinogenesis, but not progression. In addition, PCNA is related to tumor development and the expression of mutated p53 might be a late event during endometrial carcinogenesis.
- Acute phase pulmonary responses to a single intratracheal spray instillation of magnetite (fe(3)o(4)) nanoparticles in Fischer 344 rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Dec; 25(4):233-9.
Iron nanomaterials are of considerable interest for application to nanotechnology-related fields including environmental catalysis, biomedical imaging, drug delivery and hyperthermia, because of their superparamagnetic characteristics and high catalytic abilities. However, information about potential risks of iron nanomaterials is limited. The present study assessed pulmonary responses to a single intratracheal spray instillation of triiron tetraoxide nanoparticles (magnetite) in rats. Ten-week-old male and female Fischer 344 rats (n=5/group) were exposed to a single intratracheal spray instillation of 0 (vehicle), 5.0, 15.0 or 45.0 mg/kg body weight (BW) of magnetite. After 14 days, the rats were sacrificed, and biological consequences were investigated. The lung weights of the 15.0 and 45.0 mg/kg BW male and female groups were significantly higher than those of the control groups. The lungs of treated rats showed enlargement and black patches originating from the color of magnetite. The typical histopathological changes in the lungs of the treated rats included infiltration of macrophages phagocytosing magnetite, inflammatory cell infiltration, granuloma formation and an increase of goblet cells in the bronchial epithelium. The results clearly show that instilled magnetite causes foreign body inflammatory and granulating lesions in the lung. These pulmonary responses occur in a dose-dependent manner in association with the increase in lung weight.
- Spontaneous gingivitis related to hair penetration in rats. [Journal Article]
- J Toxicol Pathol 2012 Sep; 25(3):229-32.
Maxillary gingivae from male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats at 12, 16, 21, and 34 weeks of age were examined histologically. The incidence of gingivitis was approximately 40%, with no age or sex predilection, and was most frequent between the first and second molar. Lesions were characterized by acute focal neutrophilic infiltration into the gingival mucosa, occasionally with inflammatory exudate. In severe cases, inflammation extended to the periodontal ligament with abscess formation, and adjacent alveolar bone destruction/resorption. The most characteristic finding was the presence of hair shafts associated with the lesion, which was observed in approximately 80% of the rats with gingivitis. These findings suggest that molar gingivitis occurs in rats from an early age and persists thereafter, and that the main cause of gingivitis in rats is hair penetration into the gingiva. It would be prudent to keep these background lesions in mind as potential modifiers in toxicity studies.