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J Tradit Chin Med [journal]
- Logical thinking in pattern differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):137-40.
To discuss the application of logic to pattern differentiation for treatment in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM).Comparing logic reasoning of syllogism with the logical thinking of TCM pattern differentiation for treatment.TCM logical thinking depends on symbolic and intuitive judgment with abstractive reasoning integrated into the process. Although it lacks quantitative measurement, it pays great attention to the comprehensive analysis of a disease's cause and its development patterns to get insight into the essence of illness.TCM diagnosis reasoning method may lack rigorousness, continuity, systematic induction and deduction, but its logical thinking still can attain its goal following a process with rigorous, regulated and scientific formal logic.
- Understanding association of spleen system with earth on traditional Chinese medicine theory. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):134-6.
The association of spleen system including both spleen and stomach with earth, one of the five elements, is a part of the theory of five elements. Practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) used the theory as a reasoning tool to illustrate the Zang-Fu organs' physiological functions and the interaction among them. The exploration of how the theory of that spleen system is associated with earth was created may provide insights into how five-element theory is applied to TCM practice.Using analogism as a method to explore the relationship between earth and spleen system in TCM.Chinese ancestors experienced and observed the features of earth from agricultural practice and used the knowledge for the explanation of spleen system functions including physiological functions, pathological characteristics and for the treatment of related illnesses.The theory of the five elements in TCM is a kind of metaphor, which depends on observation and exploration of the natural world and experience of human beings.
- Fracture healing with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):130-3.
To explore the concept and norm of fracture healing with osteopathy in traditional Mongolian medicine (TMM).Based on the correspondence between man and the universe (including psychosomatic integration) in fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM, we used modern physio-psychological and biomechanical principles and methods to probe the integrated, dynamic and functional characteristics of fracture healing.Based on the integration of limbs and the body, unification of the body and function and harmony of man and nature (including psychosomatic integration), fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM comprises the concept of natural functional healing of fractures, and follows the norm of considering physiological healing and psychological function as well as limb healing and motor function.Fracture healing with osteopathy in TMM is characterized by a lack of trauma without future complications. This therapy makes the concept of fracture healing develop in the direction of humanity, behaviorism and integration.
- Mathematical knowledge hidden in diagram of Nine-mansions based on Nine-mansions and Eight-winds discourse. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):125-9.
To introduce diagram of Nine-mansions in which another diagram named Xian-Tu is nested together with the mathematical knowledge hidden in them.Exploring with algebraic method the diagram of Nine-mansions and diagram of Xian-Tu nested in it and comparing the diagrams with the eight-pointed-star veins. It widely exists in the Neolithic Age's antiques found in China.The golden rectangle and golden spiral were found hidden in the diagrams and they show close relationship with eight-pointed-star veins.The mathematical knowledge does exists in the diagram of Nine-mansions and Xian-Tu, which may mean something for Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for its discourse on Nine-mansions and Eight-winds obviously employed the diagram of Nine-mansions for its medical purpose.
- Microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed traditional Chinese herbal medicines. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):119-24.
The increasing popularity and widespread use of traditional Chinese herbs as alternative medicine have sparked an interest in understanding their biosafety, especially in decoctions that are consumed. This study aimed to assess the level of microbial and heavy metal contamination in commonly consumed herbal medicine in Malaysia and the effects of boiling on these contamination levels.Four commonly consumed Chinese herbal medicine in Malaysia-"Eight Treasure Herbal Tea", "Herbal Tea", Xiyangshen (Radix Panacis Quinquefolii) and Dangshen (Radix Codonopsis) were evaluated in this study. Herbal medicines were prepared as boiled and non-boiled decoctions, and their microbial enumeration and heavy metal detection were conducted with plate assay and atomic absorption spectroscopy, respectively.Findings revealed that herbal medicines generally had 6 log10cfu/mL microbial cells and that boiling had significantly reduced microbial contaminants, where no Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Clostridium spp. were recovered. Heavy metals such as Mn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Fe and Zn were also detected from all the samples, generally in low concentrations (< 1 mg/L) except for Mn (18.545 mg/L). All decoctions (after boiling) have reduced concentrations of Cu, while others were not significantly different. Comparisons between samples with single and multi-herbs suggest level of microbial and metal contamination is not influenced by number of herbs in sample.Herbal medicines generally have microbial and heavy metal contaminants. However, the boiling process to generate decoctions was able to successfully reduce the number of microbes and Cu, ensuring safety of herbal medicines for consumption.
- Correlation between pathogenesis of dampness syndrome and interleukin-2, interleukin-8 in rats. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):114-8.
To explore the pathogenesis of dampness syndrome by detecting the changes of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels.Female Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into five groups according to the random number table: a normal group (Group I), an external dampness group (Group II), an internal dampness group (Group III), and an external and internal dampness group (Group IV). Twenty days after the model made, IL-2 and IL-8 levels were detected by radioimmunoassay method.The IL-2 and IL-8 levels among groups were significant (F = 3.102, P < 0.05; F = 2.657, P < 0.05, respectively). The level of IL-2 in Group II and Group III were higher than that in Group I (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively), especially higher in the Group III compared with Group II (P < 0.05). The level of IL-8 in Group III were higher than those in Group I, Group II and Group IV (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.05, respectively). In the Group III, the 24-hour water and body weight were higher than that in the Group IV (all P < 0.05), and spontaneous movement frequency was higher than those in Group II and Group IV (P < 0.05).Immune activation and inflammatory reaction might be easily caused by external dampness other than internal dampness.
- Effect of scraping therapy on interleukin-1 in serum of rats with lumbar disc herniation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):109-13.
To explore the effect of scraping therapy on the Interleukin-1 (IL-1) levels of rats with lumbar disc herniation (LDH).Fifty male rats were devided into a blank group (A), a sham operation group (B), a model group (C), a scraping group (D), and a drug group (E). The rats in the group B were treated with sham operation, and groups C, D and E were made into the LDH model by operation. After operation, group C were treated with no interventions, D were given scraping and E were fed with azathioprine. Then the IL-1 levels of different groups were detected by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay method. And the transplanted coccygeal vertebra discs were observed by pathological section.The IL-1 levels in the groups C, D, and E were significantly higher than those in the groups A and B (all P < 0.01), which proved the operation was successful. The IL-1 levels in the groups D and E at different periods had statistical significance (F = 414.158, P < 0.01). The treatment periods and interventions have interation (F = 46.613, P < 0.01). Multiple comparison results showed that the IL-1 levels in the groups D and E was significantly lower than that in the group C (P < 0.01), while the IL-1 levels between the groups D and E had no statistical significance (P > 0.05). Moreover, pathological section indicated that immuno-inflammatory response was hardly found in coccygeal vertebra discs in the groups A and B, while local immuno-inflammatory responses of the groups D and E were much lighter than that of the group C.Scraping therapy could inhibit the immuno-inflammatory responses in the rats with LDH caused by transplantation of autologous nucleus pulposus.
- Effect of acupuncture on rabbit bladder with urodynamic indexes. [Journal Article]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):103-8.
To study the effect of acupuncture on rabbit bladder with urodynamic indexes.New Zealand male rabbits were divided into control group, model group, treatment group 1 treated by acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and treatment group 2 treated by acupuncture at Zhongji (CV 3). The urine dynamic parameters through the urethral catheter were detected in each group in order: fluctuation of pressure at filling phase of urinary bladder and flow rate in urination phase, which were used as quantification indexes of urinary bladder function. The urinary bladder abnormal model was prepared by administration of cholinergic stimulant; Regulatory effects of acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3) on the abnormal state of the urinary bladder were respectively observed.1) In the filling phase of urinary bladder and in the urination phase, the intravesical pressure wave in infilling (IPWI) and intravesical discharge rate (IDR) could be respectively recorded. 2) IPWI and IDR could become abnormality by neostigmine methyl sulfate [stability type IPWI: the control group (n = 20, 80%) vs the model group (n = 15, 14.3%), P < 0.01; IDR and time regression equation: the control group (n = 20, y = 24.3 - 0.878x) vs the model group (n = 15, y = 40.0 - 5.15x), P < 0.01]. 3) Abnormal IPWI's could be normalized respectively by acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3) [the stability type IPWI wave: the model group (n = 2, 14.3%) vs the treatment group 1 (n = 3, 30%), P > 0.05; the instability type IPWI wave: the model group (n = 13, 85.7%) in vs the treatment group 2 (n = 6, 60%), P > 0.05]; 4) Abnormal IDR also could be turned to normality by acupuncture at Shenshu (BL 23) and Zhongji (CV 3), respectively [IDR and the time regression equation: the model group (n = 15, y = 40.0 - 5.15x) vs the treatment group 1 (n = 10, y = 18.9 - 0.499x), P < 0.01; the model group (n = 15, y = 40.0 - 5.15x) vs the treatment group 2 (n = 10, y = 17.5 - 0.251x), P < 0.01].1) Urodynamic indexes can be used for study of mechanism of acupuncture effects; 2) The effect of acupuncture in the bladder filling phase is smaller than that in the urination phase; 3) Acupuncture has a very obvious effect on intravesical discharge rate.
- Mailuoning prevents high-glucose-mediated human umbilical vein endothelial cells apoptosis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):98-102.
To investigated the role of Mailuoning in the prevention of high-glucose-mediated cell apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the mechanisms involved.MTT assay was used to investigate cell viability, western blot was used to investigate protein expression, and flow cytometric detection technology was used to detect cell apoptosis.Exposure of HUVEC to high glucose (50 mM) significantly suppressed cell viability and increased cell apoptosis compared with normal glucose (11 mM) (all P < 0.05). However, Mailuoning prevented high-glucose-induced HUVEC apoptosis in dose-dependent manner. Further studies indicated that Mailuoning suppressed high-glucose-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, but had no effect on extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt phosphorylation.Mailuoning can prevent high-glucose-induced HUVEC apoptosis by suppressing p38 activation.
- Anticancer, antiobesity, and anti-inflammatory activity of Artemisia species in vitro. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Tradit Chin Med 2013 Feb; 33(1):92-7.
To investigate the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiobesity activity of methanol extracts of eight distinct species: Artemisia Stolonifera (AST), Artemisia Selengensis (ASE), Artemisia Japonica, Artemisia Montana, Artemisia Capillaris (ACA), Artemisia Sylvatica (ASY), Artemisia Keiskeana (AKE), and Artemisia Scoparia (ASC) in vitro.Antiproliferative activity was investigated in human breast cancer estrogen receptor-a positive T47D and negative HS578T cell lines exposed to the extracts at various concentrations (5-200 mg/ mL) for 24, 48, and 72 h. For evaluating the anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts, inhibition of nitrite synthesis was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated cultures of macrophages cells exposed to 10, 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL for 24 h. The antiobesity activity of the extracts was determined as triglyceride content and by a lipolysis assay in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells exposed to the extracts for 72 h at the same concentrations described above.All extracts showed similar antiproliferative activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner in HS578T cells. Although extracts at lower concentrations and shorter times stimulated growth of T47D cells, the antiproliferative effects of the extracts on T47D cells at higher concentrations (> 100 mg/ mL) for 72 h were significantly greater than those of HS578T cells. In case of anti-inflammatory activity, some extracts (AST, ASE, ACA, and AKE) significantly reduced nitric oxide production at higher concentrations in the presence of LPS compared with that in control cells. Antiobesity activity was showed with reducing lipid accumulation significantly (> 50%) at concentrations above 100 mg/mL in most extracts (except AST and ACA). Additionally, AKE and ASC increased lipolysis by 11%-24% compared with that in the control.Artemisia spp. demonstrates potential as bioactive food supplements.