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J Wildl Dis [journal]
- Towards the Endgame and Beyond: Complexities and Challenges for the Elimination of Infectious Diseases Towards the Endgame and Beyond: Complexities and Challenges for the Elimination of Infectious Diseases . P. Klepac , C.J.E. Metcalf , and K. Hampson . (editors) London, UK . Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B. 2013 , Volume 386 (number 1623) , ISBN 0962-8436 . £35.00 . [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):426.
- Malaria Parasites. Comparative Genomics, Evolution, and Molecular Biology Malaria Parasites. Comparative Genomics, Evolution, and Molecular Biology. Jane M. Carlton , Susan L. Perkins , and Kirk W. Deitsch . (editors) Caister Academic Press , 28 Queens Road, Hethersett, Norfolk NR9 3DB, UK . 2013 . 280 pp. ISBN 978-1-908230-07-2 . US $319 (hardback) . [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):423-5.
- Experimental Oral Immunization of Ferret Badgers (Melogale moschata) with a Recombinant Canine Adenovirus Vaccine CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP and an Attenuated Rabies Virus SRV9. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):374-7.
Abstract Ferret badgers (Melogale moschata) are a major reservoir of rabies virus in southeastern China. Oral immunization has been shown to be a practical method for wildlife rabies management in Europe and North America. Two groups of 20 ferret badgers were given a single oral dose of a recombinant canine adenovirus-rabies vaccine, CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP, or an experimental attenuated rabies virus vaccine, SRV9. At 21 days, all ferret badgers had seroconverted, with serum virus-neutralizing antibodies ranging from 0.1 to 4.5 IU/mL. Titers were >0.50 IU/mL (an acceptable level) in 17/20 and 16/20 animals receiving CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP or SRV9, respectively. The serologic results indicate that the recombinant CAV-2-E3Δ-RGP is at least as effective as the attenuated rabies virus vaccine. Both may be considered for additional research as oral rabies vaccine candidates for ferret badgers.
- Reversible Immobilization of Free-ranging Red Deer (Cervus elaphus) with Xylazine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):359-63.
Abstract Forty-eight free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus) were immobilized with xylazine (X) and tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) by dart injection during winter 2008 in Norway. A follow-up study in five animals during winter 2010 included arterial blood samples analyzed with a portable clinical analyzer in the field. Thirty-five of 48 animals were effectively immobilized and 13 required a second dart. Mean±SD doses were 2.89±0.45 mg X/kg and 2.89±0.45 mg TZ/kg in calves and 2.97±0.66 mg X/kg and 1.91±0.43 mg TZ/kg in adults. Mean induction times for calves and adults were 8.5±5 min and 11.6±5.5 min, respectively. The main physiologic side effect during immobilization was hypoxemia (pulse oximetry, SpO2<85%). All five animals evaluated with arterial blood gas samples were hypoxemic (PaO2<10 kPa). Xylazine was antagonized with 0.43±0.19 mg/kg and 0.27±0.05 mg/kg of atipamezole in calves and adults, respectively. Time to standing/walking in calves and adults was 12±7 min and 12±11 min, respectively. Two capture mortalities occurred.
- Reproductive Implications of Exposure to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in Western Grey Kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus). [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):364-8.
Abstract Australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of Toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by Neospora caninum. Pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. We studied adult female western grey kangaroos (Macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban Perth, Western Australia, between May 2006 and October 2008. We used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to T. gondii and N. caninum in M. fuliginosus ocydromus and tested the association between their reproductive performance and a positive test result. Although 20% of plasma samples collected from 102 female kangaroos were positive for T. gondii and 18% were positive for N. caninum, we found no association between positive results and reproductive performance. Further study will be required to clarify if, and under what circumstances, T. gondii and N. caninum are pathogenic to macropod marsupials.
- Impacts of upper respiratory tract disease on olfactory behavior of the mojave desert tortoise. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):354-8.
Abstract Upper respiratory tract disease (URTD) caused by Mycoplasma agassizii is considered a threat to desert tortoise populations that should be addressed as part of the recovery of the species. Clinical signs can be intermittent and include serous or mucoid nasal discharge and respiratory difficulty when nares are occluded. This nasal congestion may result in a loss of the olfactory sense. Turtles are known to use olfaction to identify food items, predators, and conspecifics; therefore, it is likely that URTD affects not only their physical well-being but also their behavior and ability to perform necessary functions in the wild. To determine more specifically the impact nasal discharge might have on free-ranging tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), we compared the responses of tortoises with and without nasal discharge and both positive and negative for M. agassizii antibodies to a visually hidden olfactory food stimulus and an empty control. We found that nasal discharge did reduce sense of smell and hence the ability to locate food. Our study also showed that moderate chronic nasal discharge in the absence of other clinical signs did not affect appetite in desert tortoises.
- Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Endangered Florida Key Deer and Key Deer Habitat. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):349-53.
Abstract Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was first reported in the endangered Key deer (Odocoileus virginianus clavium) in 1996 on Big Pine Key, Florida, USA. By 2008, eight additional MAP-positive Key deer had been identified on Big Pine Key and the nearby Newfound Harbor Keys. This study was conducted to determine if MAP was still present in Key deer and whether natural or man-made freshwater sources were contaminated with MAP. Between November 2009 and September 2012, MAP was isolated from 36/369 (10%) fecal samples collected from the ground throughout the Key deer range on Big Pine Key and the Newfound Harbor Keys, but all 36 positive samples were from Little Palm Island (36/142 [25%]). Only 1/729 (0.1%) environmental samples was positive; this was from the garden fountain on Little Palm Island (1/81 [1%]). In addition, MAP was detected in 3/43 (7%) necropsied Key deer, all from Little Palm Island (3/3 [100%]). Of these three Key deer, pooled samples from the ileum, cecum, and ileocecal lymph node from two were MAP-culture positive and feces from one of these were culture-positive. The third deer was only PCR-positive. Evidence of MAP was only detected on Little Palm Island during this sampling period and environmental contamination was limited.
- High Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus in Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) in Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):378-83.
Abstract Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes a food- and water-borne disease in humans, and Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax) meat is one of the most important sources of infection in Japan. We tested 113 serum samples from wild boar captured in Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan from 2010 to 2012. Serum samples were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using virus-like particles as antigen and nested reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Anti-HEV IgG antibodies were detected in 47 of the 113 wild boar serum samples (42%), and HEV RNA was detected in five samples (4%). Sequence analysis showed that the five HEV isolates belonged to genotype 4, forming a cluster with a previous isolate from a human hepatitis E case in this region in 2011. These results indicate that wild boar in this region are infected with potentially pathogenic HEV at a high prevalence.
- Spontaneous Cure after Natural Infection with Gnathostoma turgidum (Nematoda) in Virginia Opossums (Didelphis virginiana). [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):344-8.
Abstract Seasonality of the nematode Gnathostoma turgidum in Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) in the wild has been reported; however, the mechanisms involved in deworming are unknown. We monitored the parasitologic and biologic changes in four Virginia opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum by coproparasitologic examination and abdominal ultrasonography. Eggs became detectable in the feces of opossums in May, peaked in July and August, and suddenly decreased in October. Adults of G. turgidum were expelled in the feces mainly in September. Ultrasonography of the liver showed slight damage during May. Lesions in the stomach appeared in April and persisted until September. The abnormalities of the liver and stomach were resolved in November. These data suggest that G. turgidum is likely expelled as a result of host immunologic mechanisms, although termination of a natural life span cannot be definitively excluded.
- Prevalence of Vector-borne Bacterial Pathogens in Riparian Brush Rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) and their Ticks. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2014 Apr; 50(2):369-73.
Abstract From June to October 2010, 48 endangered riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) were trapped at a captive propagation site in central California with the intention of release into re-established habitats. During prerelease examinations, ticks and blood samples were collected for surveillance for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Bartonella spp. Ticks were identified, and DNA was extracted for PCR analysis. Serology was performed to detect exposure to Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi, and A. phagocytophilum. DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for A. phagocytophilum using PCR assays. Rabbit blood samples were also cultured for Bartonella spp. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks were detected on all rabbits except one. A total of 375 ticks were collected, with 48% of the rabbits (23 rabbits) having a burden ranging from 0 to 5 ticks, 15% (seven rabbits) from 6 to 10 ticks, 25% (12 rabbits) from 11 to 15 ticks, and 12% (six rabbits) with >15 ticks. There was no evidence of B. burgdorferi or R. rickettsii in tick or rabbit samples. There was also no evidence of Bartonella spp. in the rabbit samples. Four tick samples and 14 rabbits were weakly PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, and six rabbits were antibody positive for A. phagocytophilum. These results suggest that there may be little risk of these tick-borne diseases in riparian brush rabbits or to the people in contact with them.