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J Wildl Dis [journal]
- Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):468-70.
Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii has not been detected previously in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). We tested whole blood from 60 white-tailed deer for Bartonella spp. DNA; three (5%) were positive for Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii. This is the first detection of Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in white-tailed deer.
- Phylogenetic analysis of a frog virus 3-like ranavirus found at a site with recurrent mortality and morbidity events in southeastern Ontario, Canada: partial major capsid protein sequence alone is not sufficient for fine-scale differentiation. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):464-7.
Ranaviruses are emerging pathogens of amphibians. We examined the phylogenetic relationship of ranaviruses from infected Lithobates sylvaticus tadpoles 2001-2004 from Oliver Pond, Ontario, Canada. The isolates sequenced are primarily frog virus 3-like, but because of sequence convergence, finer-scale analysis based on the major capsid protein was uninformative.
- Leptospira spp. in commensal rodents, Beijing, China. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):461-3.
Leptospirosis is a widely distributed zoonosis, and rats (Rattus spp.) are its most common source. We found antibodies to leptospires in 115 (30.2%) of 381 commensal rodents from Beijing, China. Commensal rodents might represent a potential source for human and pet leptospirosis in urban environments.
- First report of Thelazia callipaeda in wildlife from Spain. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):458-60.
We describe the first cases of infection by the nematode, Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) haplotype 1 in two red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Spain and discuss the potential role of red foxes as a reservoir for T. callipaeda.
- Sublingual fistula in a masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and possible role of ectoparasites in its etiology. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):455-7.
A sublingual fistula is an opening through the ventral skin of the buccal cavity through which the tongue can protrude. The cause is unknown. Masked Boobies (Sula dactylatra) are the third avian species to be reported with this condition. We argue that ectoparasite infestation of hatchlings may be an initial cause.
- Epidemiologic relatedness between Brucella abortus isolates from livestock and wildlife in South Korea. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):451-4.
To investigate the epidemiologic relatedness of Brucella abortus isolates from Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis) and goral (Naemorhedus goral raddeanus) in 2010-2011, 22l isolates from livestock (including domestic elk, Cervus canadensis) were analyzed using the multilocus variable-number tandem repeats analysis. In the clustering analysis, Korean B. abortus isolates were divided into 40 genotypes by 18 markers, and 2 B. abortus isolates from wildlife were clustered with those of domestic cattle. Based on the minimum spanning tree, B. abortus isolates from wildlife were closely related to or had originated from livestock. Control measures are necessary to be able to block the transmission of Brucella between domestic and wild animals, and continuous monitoring of wildlife will be necessary to eradicate brucellosis in South Korea.
- Malignant catarrhal fever virus identified in free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) in Norway. [Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):447-50.
To study the epizootiology of malignant catarrhal fever viruses (MCFV), serum and spleen samples collected in 2004-2011 from a free-ranging musk ox (Ovibos moschatus) population in Dovrefjell, Norway, were examined. Sera were tested for antibodies against MCFV by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spleen samples were examined by a consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for herpesviral DNA and sequencing identification. The study included 101 musk oxen, of which 61 were examined with both tests. Antibodies against MCFV were found in 65 of 72 musk oxen (90%). Antibody prevalence increased with age from 67% in calves to 96% in adults. We detected MCFV DNA by consensus PCR in 67 of 90 spleen samples tested (74%). The prevalence of PCR-positive musk oxen increased with age from 60% in calves to 81% in adults. Fifty (82%) of the 61 animals subjected to both PCR and serology were positive in both tests. Sequencing analysis showed that all PCR-positive animals were infected with a MCFV previously identified in musk oxen in North America. The results suggest that MCFV-Muskox is enzootic in the Dovrefjell musk ox population and that many calves seem to be infected early in life. This is the first report of MCFV-Muskox infection in free-ranging musk ox outside North America.
- Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seals and Steller sea lions of Alaska. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S., Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):441-6.
Coxiella burnetii, a zoonotic bacterium, has recently been identified in several marine mammal species on the Pacific Coast of North America, but little is known about the epidemiology, transmission, and pathogenesis in these species. We tested sera archived from northern fur seals (NFS, Callorhinus ursinus; n=236) and Steller sea lions (SSL, Eumetopias jubatus; n=72) sampled in Alaska for C. burnetii antibodies, and vaginal swabs from NFS (n=40) for C. burnetii by qPCR. The antibody prevalence in NFS samples from 2009 and 2011 (69%) was significantly higher than in 1994 (49%). The antibody prevalence of SSL samples from 2007 to 2011 was 59%. All NFS vaginal swabs were negative for C. burnetii, despite an 80% antibody prevalence in the matched sera. The significant increase in antibody prevalence in NFS from 1994 to 2011 suggests that the pathogen may be increasingly common or that there is marked temporal variation within the vulnerable NFS population. The high antibody prevalence in SSL suggests that this pathogen may also be significant in the endangered SSL population. These results confirm that C. burnetii is more prevalent within these populations than previously known. More research is needed to determine how this bacterium may affect individual, population, and reproductive health of marine mammals.
- Experimental infection of European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with pandemic 2009 H1N1 and swine H1N1 and H3N2 triple reassortant influenza viruses. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):437-40.
European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) and House Sparrows (Passer domesticus) are common peridomestic passerine birds that are often associated with domestic animal production facilities. This association provides a potential means for pathogen transmission between facilities. We inoculated European Starlings and House Sparrows with three non-avian influenza virus strains: two swine isolates (H1N1 and H3N2) and one human isolate representing the H1N1 pandemic strain that originated from swine. No viral shedding was observed in House Sparrows, and shedding was minimal and transient in two of 12 (17%) European Starlings. One of these two infected Starlings seroconverted 14 days after inoculation. These results suggest that these two passerine species are minimally susceptible to current influenza viruses in domestic pigs and therefore pose a negligible risk for transmission between or within swine production facilities.
- Comparison of Escherichia coli recovery and antimicrobial resistance in cecal, colon, and fecal samples collected from wild house mice (Mus musculus). [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- J Wildl Dis 2013 Apr; 49(2):432-6.
Escherichia coli isolated from colon, cecal, and fecal samples are commonly used as indicator organisms to monitor antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in wild animals. The effect of sample type on E. coli recovery and AMR detection is unknown. We compared the prevalence of E. coli, the frequency of AMR, and the level of agreement between cecal, colon, and fecal samples collected from individual wild house mice (Mus musculus). Samples were collected from 49 mice trapped at swine farms, May-October 2008. We found no difference in the proportion of E. coli-positive samples (82%) among sample types and the agreement among sample types for E. coli recovery ranged from moderate to almost perfect. The percentage of E. coli positive samples resistant to one or more antimicrobial varied from 53% for colon samples to 71% for cecum samples; however, there was no significant difference in the proportion of resistant samples among sample types. The agreement among sample types for resistance to one or more antimicrobial ranged from fair to substantial. These findings indicate that there is no definitive sample type for studies of AMR in house mice. However, we suggest that fecal samples, which have direct contact with the environment, are likely the best sample to use in studies assessing the potential impact of AMR in wildlife on environmental and public health.