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Journal of Clinical Psychiatry [journal]
- A controlled clinical treatment trial of interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed pregnant women at 3 New York City sites. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):393-9.
While treatment decisions for antepartum depression must be personalized to each woman and her illness, guidelines from the American Psychiatric Association and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology include the recommendation of psychotherapy for mild-to-moderate depression in pregnant women. Although we previously demonstrated the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy for antepartum depression in a sample of Hispanic women, this study provides a larger, more diverse sample of African American, Hispanic, and white pregnant women from 3 New York City sites in order to provide greater generalizability.A 12-week bilingual, parallel-design, controlled clinical treatment trial compared interpersonal psychotherapy for antepartum depression to a parenting education program control group. An outpatient sample of 142 women who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder was randomly assigned to interpersonal psychotherapy or the parenting education program from September 2005 to May 2011. The 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) was the primary outcome measure of mood. Other outcome scales included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the Clinical Global Impressions scale (CGI). The Maternal Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS) assessed mother's interaction with the fetus.Although this study replicated previous findings that interpersonal psychotherapy is a beneficial treatment for antepartum depression, the parenting education program control condition showed equal benefit as measured by the HDRS-17, EPDS, CGI, and MFAS.This study supports the recommendation for the use of interpersonal psychotherapy for mild-to-moderate major depressive disorder in pregnancy. The parenting education program may be an alternative treatment that requires further study.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00251043.
- Psychological response and cortisol reactivity to in vitro fertilization treatment in women with a lifetime anxiety or unipolar mood disorder diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):386-92.
Knowledge regarding the emotional and physiologic response of women with psychiatric disorders undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments is rather limited. We evaluated psychological adjustment and cortisol reactivity to IVF treatment in women with a lifetime diagnosis of a unipolar mood or anxiety disorder compared to those without such a diagnosis.Women undergoing IVF treatments (N = 121) were interviewed from January 2006 to December 2007 to assess for the presence of a history of a lifetime DSM-IV-TR unipolar mood or anxiety disorder. They were evaluated prospectively at baseline, at ovulation, and before the pregnancy test. Primary outcome measures included assessments of depressive and anxiety symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively) and plasma cortisol levels.Of 108 participants included in the study, 19.4% (n = 21) were determined to have a lifetime Axis I unipolar mood or anxiety diagnosis. Women with lifetime Axis I psychopathology showed significantly greater symptom elevation for depression (F2,194 = 10.97, P < .001) and for anxiety (F2,194 = 3.4813, P = .033) compared to the group without psychopathology. A different physiologic pattern was observed for cortisol response: whereas the group without psychopathology responded physiologically to the stressful treatment with continuously elevated cortisol levels, a blunted cortisol response was observed for the group with lifetime psychopathology (F2,200 = 2.9, P = .05).Women diagnosed with a lifetime unipolar mood or anxiety disorder developed robust symptom exacerbation during IVF treatment compared to women without an Axis I diagnosis. Conversely, the women with a lifetime diagnosis are characterized by a blunted cortisol response, indicating a pattern of dissociation between the robust increase in anxiety and depression and cortisol response to the acute psychological stress. This study emphasizes the need for a psychiatric screening prior to IVF treatment and for the utilization of preventive psychiatric and psychological interventions.ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01032421.
- Risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder in pregnant and postpartum women: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):377-85.
Although pregnant and postpartum women are presumed to be at greater risk of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) than the general population, the evidence has been inconclusive. This meta-analysis provides an estimate of OCD prevalence in pregnant and postpartum women and synthesizes the evidence that pregnant and postpartum women are at greater risk of OCD compared to the general population.An electronic search of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PsychARTICLES, and PubMed was performed by using the search terms OCD, obsessive-compulsive disorder, pregnancy, postpartum, prevalence, and epidemiology. We supplemented our search with articles referenced in the obtained sources. The search was conducted until August 2012 without date restrictions.We included English-language studies reporting OCD prevalence (diagnosed according to DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, or ICD-10 criteria) in pregnant (12 studies) or postpartum (up to 12 months; 7 studies) women using structured diagnostic interviews. We also included a sample of regionally matched control studies (10 studies) estimating 12-month prevalence in the general female population for comparison. The control studies were limited to those conducted during the same time frame as the pregnant and postpartum studies.We extracted author name, year of publication, diagnostic measure, sample size, diagnostic criteria, country, assessment time, subject population, and the point prevalence of OCD.Mixed- and random-effects models revealed an increase in OCD prevalence across pregnancy and the postpartum period with the lowest prevalence in the general population (mean = 1.08%) followed by pregnant (mean = 2.07%) and postpartum women (mean = 2.43%). An exploratory analysis of regionally matched risk-ratios revealed both pregnant (mean = 1.45) and postpartum (mean = 2.38) women to be at greater risk of experiencing OCD compared to the general female population, with an aggregate risk ratio of 1.79.Pregnant and postpartum women are more likely to experience OCD compared to the general population.
- Achieving the balance: treating depressed pregnant women with antidepressants. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):375-6.
- Pregnancy and psychiatric disorders: inherent risks and treatment decisions. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):373-4.
- A case of atypical antipsychotic-induced somnambulism: a class effect. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):370.
- Efficacy and safety of levomilnacipran sustained release in moderate to severe major depressive disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):363-9.
To investigate the efficacy and safety of levomilnacipran sustained release (SR), an antidepressant candidate in late-stage development, in major depressive disorder (MDD).Between December 2006 and October 2007, a 10-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter, flexible-dose trial assessed once-daily levomilnacipran SR (75 mg or 100 mg) in outpatients (18-70 years) meeting DSM-IV criteria for a major depressive episode (duration ≥ 1 month) with a 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS17) score > 22 and Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) score ≥ 10. Levomilnacipran SR dose was increased to 100 mg/d over 12 days. The primary efficacy measure was Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) score change from baseline to week 10; secondary efficacy measures were the HDRS17, SDS, Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement scale, and MADRS response (≥ 50% decrease from baseline) and remission (score ≤ 10). Safety was evaluated according to adverse events, laboratory investigations, and vital signs/physical findings.Efficacy analyses included 276 levomilnacipran SR-treated patients and 277 placebo-treated patients. Levomilnacipran SR was significantly superior to placebo on MADRS total score change from baseline to week 10 (least squares mean difference [LSMD] = -4.2 [95% CI, -5.7 to -2.6]; P < .0001). Statistical significance in favor of levomilnacipran SR was demonstrated on change from baseline to week 10 in HDRS17 total score (LSMD = -3.4 [95% CI, -4.7 to -2.2]; P < .0001) and SDS total score (LSMD = -3.4 [95% CI, -4.6 to -2.2]; P < .0001) and subscales. Significantly more levomilnacipran SR patients versus placebo patients achieved MADRS response (59.1% vs 42.2%; P < .0001) and remission (46.4% vs 26.0%; P < .0001). Levomilnacipran SR was generally safe and well tolerated; more levomilnacipran SR patients (9.4%) versus placebo patients (6.5%) discontinued due to adverse events, but more placebo patients versus levomilnacipran SR patients discontinued overall (24.9% vs 20.2%).Levomilnacipran SR demonstrated robust efficacy on all measures and was generally well tolerated.EudraCT number: 2006-002404-34.
- The effects of the affordable care act on the practice of psychiatry. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):357-62.
- When smaller is bigger. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Apr; 74(4):348.
- Co-occurrence of major depressive episode and posttraumatic stress disorder among survivors of war: how is it different from either condition alone? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Clin Psychiatry 2013 Mar; 74(3):e212-8.
Major depressive episode (MDE) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been shown to be the most common mental disorders following traumatic war experiences and have been found to frequently co-occur. This study, designed as a randomized cross-sectional interview survey, aimed to identify whether the co-occurence of MDE and PTSD following exposure to war-related experiences is associated with different demographics, exposure to previous traumatic events, and clinical characteristics than either condition alone.After a random-walk technique was used to randomly select participants, face-to-face interviews were conducted among war-affected community samples in 5 Balkan countries (N = 3,313) in the years 2006 and 2007. The mean age of participants was 42.3 years, and all participants had experienced potentially traumatic events during war in the countries of the former Yugoslavia. Current prevalence rates of MDE and PTSD and suicide risk were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Levels of general psychological distress, posttraumatic stress, and quality of life were assessed with self-reports.30.5% of the sample met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for either MDE or PTSD, and 9.1% had both disorders. Participants with concomitant MDE and PTSD reported significantly higher numbers of prewar and postwar traumatic events than participants with PTSD only and higher numbers of war-related events than those with MDE only (all P values < .001). Participants with both MDE and PTSD had significantly higher levels of general psychological and posttraumatic stress symptoms, a higher suicide risk, and lower levels of quality of life than participants with either condition alone (all P values < .001).Concomitant MDE and PTSD are associated with the experience of different traumatic events and are characterized by more general psychological distress than either condition alone. The assessment of concomitant MDE and PTSD can facilitate better identification of individuals with severe psychopathology and poor quality of life. People with co-occurrence of MDE and PTSD may require specific health care programs following war.