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Journal of Laryngology and Otology [journal]
- Total thyroidectomy for safe and definitive management of Graves' disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 13.:1-4.
Background:The role of total thyroidectomy in the management of patients with Graves' disease remains controversial. However, there is increasing evidence to support the role of the procedure as a safe and definitive treatment for Graves' disease. Method: Patients were identified from a prospective thyroid database of the multidisciplinary thyroid clinic at Hull Royal Infirmary. All case notes were independently reviewed to confirm the data held on the database.
Results:Over a 7-year period, the senior author has performed 206 total thyroidectomies for Graves' disease. The incidence of temporary recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and hypoparathyroidism was 3.4 per cent and 24 per cent respectively. There was one case of permanent unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy, and 3.9 per cent of patients developed permanent hypoparathyroidism. There has been no relapse of thyrotoxicosis.
Conclusion:In the context of a multidisciplinary thyroid clinic, total thyroidectomy should be offered as a safe and effective first-line treatment option for Graves' disease.
- Uncommon and rare causes of vocal fold paralysis detected via imaging. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 13.:1-8.
Background:Cross-sectional imaging can be used to trace the course of the vagus nerve and its laryngeal branches to detect many of the causes of vocal fold paralysis. The most frequent aetiologies are surgical injury and tumoural involvement of the recurrent laryngeal nerve anywhere along its course. Method: This review article focuses on the uncommon and rare causes of vocal fold paralysis that have been detected or diagnosed on cross-sectional imaging. Results and conclusion: Uncommon causes included a tortuous oesophagus, tracheal diverticulum, cervical osteophytes and cardiovocal syndrome. These examples are presented with clinical case histories and radiological appearances, and are discussed in the context of the current literature.
- Actinomycosis of the middle ear. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 13.:1-4.
Objective:To present the first case of middle-ear actinomycosis in the UK in the last 60 years. The diagnosis and management of actinomycosis of the middle ear is also presented, as well as a review of the recent literature. Case report: This paper reports the case of a nine-year-old girl who presented with recurrent otorrhoea caused by actinomycosis. Mastoid exploration with clearance of the infected tissue, in conjunction with six months amoxicillin, resulted in long-term disease remission. Histology revealed Gram-positive, silver avid (on Grocott staining) and diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff negative staining of colonies; this profile was in keeping with the characteristic 'sulphur granules' of actinomycosis.
Conclusion:Actinomycosis of the middle ear and mastoid is rare, with less than 45 cases presented in the worldwide literature. This case confirms that the disease should be treated with full surgical clearance and long-term antibiotics.
- Nasolacrimal duct tumours in the era of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy: literature review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 12.:1-6.
Background:Nasolacrimal duct tumours are rare and are often found inadvertently during dacryocystorhinostomy. Anecdotal case reports have been published, mostly in ophthalmology journals. Since the era of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, such cases are more frequently encountered by ENT surgeons. Method: This paper reports a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy over the last 10 years in our dedicated epiphora clinic. It also provides a systematic literature review of nasolacrimal duct tumour cases published in English over the last 16 years.
Results:Four of 525 endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy procedures exposed a tumour (inverted papilloma, oncocytoma, lymphoma and solitary fibrous tumour). The literature review revealed 118 published case reports. Papilloma was the most frequently reported benign tumour and lymphoma was the most common malignant tumour.
Conclusion:Since the advent of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy, tumours are being diagnosed relatively early when smaller in size. Because of the rarity of this condition, it is advisable that such cases are managed through a dedicated epiphora service framework.
- Modified Lothrop procedure in cystic fibrosis patients: does it have a role? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 11.:1-4.
Background:The management of frontal sinus disease in cystic fibrosis patients represents a challenge for many surgeons. Procedures can vary from the minimally invasive to those involving extensive open surgery.
Objective:This study describes the outcomes of the endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure, in terms of safety and morbidity, for cystic fibrosis patients with frontal sinus disease who did not improve following traditional functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Method and results: The study setting was a tertiary referral unit in a London teaching hospital, the largest national base for adult cystic fibrosis patients. Two patients diagnosed in childhood with cystic fibrosis presented with histories of recurrent, severe frontal sinusitis; both had previously undergone multiple endoscopic sinus surgical procedures. The modified Lothrop procedure was performed on both patients. The outcome measures were symptom resolution and post-operative complications.
Conclusion:The endoscopic modified Lothrop procedure was beneficial in the cystic fibrosis patients with frontal sinus disease who failed to respond to standard functional endoscopic sinus surgery procedures.
- Physical characteristics of commercial and home-made nasal lavage solutions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 11.:1-4.
Introduction: Nasal saline lavage forms a cornerstone of chronic rhinosinusitis management. A number of saline lavage recipes and products are currently available but little is known of their relative physical characteristics.
Aims:To determine the osmolarity and pH of nasal lavage solutions, both commercial preparations and home-made recipes, and to determine the reproducibility of saline solution preparation.
Methods:Five home-made recipes and two commercial products were prepared in triplicate and analysed. Eight consecutive clinic patients prepared a commercial product and 11 prepared a home-made recipe, and the osmolarity and pH were measured.
Results:The osmolarity of the solutions varied widely, from 140 to 788 mmol/l and the pH varied from 7.88 to 8.50. The commercial and home-made solutions had similar reproducibility when prepared by patients.
Conclusion:Some recipes were markedly hypo-osmolar and some were hyper-osmolar. All were slightly alkaline. The home-made recipes had similar physical characteristics and reproducibility to commercial preparations.
- Giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone successfully resected with preservation of hearing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 11.:1-5.
Objective:To describe a case of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone which extended into the middle-ear cavity, and which was successfully treated surgically via a transmastoid approach, with hearing preservation. Case: A 37-year-old man presented with a one-year history of right-sided hearing loss, complicated by a three-month history of otalgia and a sensation of aural fullness. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an osteolytic tumour lesion in the right temporal bone. The diagnosis was confirmed by biopsy from the mastoid lesion. Investigation and intervention: Pure-tone audiometry, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted, followed by total resection. Result: The giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone was completely resected, with preservation of hearing.
Conclusion:Although this patient's giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone extended into the middle-ear cavity, total resection was achieved, with preservation of hearing. To the best of our knowledge, hearing preservation following resection of giant cell reparative granuloma of the temporal bone has not previously been reported.
- Papillary thyroid carcinoma in a lateral neck cyst: primary of ectopic thyroid tissue versus cystic metastasis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 6.:1-4.
Objective:To review the diagnosis of primary papillary carcinoma of ectopic thyroid tissue within branchial cleft cysts, and to discuss the diagnostic challenge of differentiating this condition from metastatic disease when an occult microcarcinoma is found in the thyroid gland.
Methods:These comprise a case report and a literature review. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman with papillary thyroid carcinoma within the wall of a recurrent, 15 cm, lateral neck cyst.
Results:Histological examination of the patient's thyroid gland found a 0.5 mm papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
Conclusion:Our differential diagnosis was primary papillary carcinoma arising from ectopic thyroid tissue, or metastatic cystic degeneration of a lateral lymph node. We make an argument for the former.
- Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 6.:1-5.
Introduction: We report the first use in Australia of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for sudden hearing loss following head trauma in a child with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. Case report: A 12-year-old boy with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome presented with significant hearing loss following head trauma. He was treated with steroids and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, with good improvement of hearing thresholds on audiography. This case represents the first reported use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy for this indication in Australia, following a few previous reports of patients in Japan. We review the literature on management of acute sensorineural hearing loss in large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. The reported case demonstrates a potentially beneficial therapy for a rare condition that usually results in an inevitable decline in hearing.
Conclusion:Hyperbaric oxygen therapy can be tolerated well by children, and may represent a potential treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
- Characteristics and prognostic factors for head and neck non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in Chinese patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Laryngol Otol 2013 Jun 6.:1-6.
Background and objectives: The head and neck region is the second most frequent anatomical site of extranodal lymphomas. These tumours affect many individuals worldwide, justifying epidemiological studies in different countries. This study evaluated the characteristics, treatments and prognostic factors for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck in Chinese patients. Method: The clinical manifestations, clinicopathological characteristics, multidisciplinary treatment and prognostic factors for 102 patients with extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the head and neck were analysed retrospectively. Result: The tonsil was the most commonly involved primary site, followed by the nasal cavity. The most common histological subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, followed by natural killer T-cell lymphoma. Patients receiving a combination of rituximab and chemotherapy did better than those receiving chemotherapy alone. Prognosis was significantly associated with both International Prognostic Index and histological subtype; the former was especially strongly associated with poor survival.