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Journal of Vascular Surgery [journal]
- Thoracic endovascular aortic repair with the chimney graft technique. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 19.
OBJECTIVE:This study was conducted to provide insight into the safety, applicability, and outcomes of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with the chimney graft technique.
METHODS:Original data regarding the chimney technique in TEVAR in the emergent and elective setting were collected from MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus databases. All variables were systematically extracted and included in a database. Patient and procedural characteristics, details, and outcomes were analyzed.
RESULTS:In total, 94 patients with 101 chimney-stented aortic arch branches were analyzed, consisting of the brachiocephalic artery in 20, the left common carotid artery in 48, and the left subclavian artery in 33. Balloon-expandable stents were used in 36% and self-expandable stents in 64% for the aortic side branch. The interventions were elective in 72% and emergent in 28%. Technical success was achieved in 98% in elective and emergent settings combined. Endoleaks were described in 18%; with type Ia being most frequently reported in 6.4% overall and in 6.5% in the elective setting. Stroke was reported in 5.3% of the patients, of which 40% were fatal. The overall perioperative mortality was 3.2%. Median follow-up time was 11 months, and chimney stents remained patent in all patients.
CONCLUSIONS:TEVAR with the chimney technique is a viable treatment option and may expand treatment strategies for patients with challenging thoracic aortic pathology and anatomy in the emergent and elective setting. Patency of the thoracic chimney stents appears to be good during short-term follow-up. Other complications, such as endoleak and stroke, deserve attention by future research to further improve treatment strategies and the prognosis of these patients.
- The toe-brachial index in the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) can be diagnosed noninvasively by segmental blood pressure measurement and calculating an ankle-brachial index (ABI) or toe-brachial index (TBI). The ABI is known to be unreliable in patients with vascular stiffness and fails to detect the early phase of arteriosclerotic development. The toe vessels are less susceptible to vessel stiffness, which makes the TBI useful. However, the diagnostic limits used in guidelines, clinical settings, and experimental studies vary substantially. This review provides an overview of the evidence supporting the clinical use of the TBI.
METHODS:A review of the literature identified studies reporting the use of the TBI regarding guideline recommendations, normal populations, correlations to angiographic findings, and prognostic implications.
RESULTS:Eight studies conducted in a normal population were identified, of which only one study used imaging techniques to rule out arterial stenosis. A reference value of 0.71 was estimated as the lowest limit of normal based on the weighted average in studies with preheating of the limbs. A further seven studies showed correlations of the TBI with angiographic findings. The TBI had a sensitivity of 90% to 100% and a specificity of 65% to 100% for the detection of vessel stenosis. Few studies investigated the value of the TBI as a prognostic marker for cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, and no firm conclusions could be made. Studies have, however, shown correlation between the TBI and comorbidities such as kidney disease, diabetes, and microvasculature disease.
CONCLUSIONS:In contrast to the well-defined and evidence-based limits of the ABI, the diagnostic criteria for a pathologic TBI remain ambiguous. Although several guidelines and reviews of PAD diagnostics recommend a TBI <0.70 as cutoff, it is not strictly evidence-based. The current literature is not sufficient to conclude a specific cutoff as diagnostic for PAD. The current studies in normal populations and the correlation with angiography are sparse, and additional trials are needed to further validate the limits. Large-scale trials are needed to establish the risk of morbidity and mortality for the various diagnostic limits of the TBI.
- Plasma metabolomic profiles predict near-term death among individuals with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 17.
BACKGROUND:Individuals with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) have a nearly two-fold increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared to those without PAD. This pilot study determined whether metabolomic profiling can accurately identify patients with PAD who are at increased risk of near-term mortality.
METHOD:We completed a case-control study using (1)H NMR metabolomic profiling of plasma from 20 decedents with PAD, without critical limb ischemia, who had blood drawn within 8 months prior to death (index blood draw) and within 10 to 28 months prior to death (preindex blood draw). Twenty-one PAD participants who survived more than 30 months after their index blood draw served as a control population.
RESULTS:Results showed distinct metabolomic patterns between preindex decedent, index decedent, and survivor samples. The major chemical signals contributing to the differential pattern (between survivors and decedents) arose from the fatty acyl chain protons of lipoproteins and the choline head group protons of phospholipids. Using the top 40 chemical signals for which the intensity was most distinct between survivor and preindex decedent samples, classification models predicted near-term all-cause death with overall accuracy of 78% (32/41), a sensitivity of 85% (17/20), and a specificity of 71% (15/21). When comparing survivor with index decedent samples, the overall classification accuracy was optimal at 83% (34/41) with a sensitivity of 80% (16/20) and a specificity of 86% (18/21), using as few as the top 10 to 20 chemical signals.
CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that metabolomic profiling of plasma may be useful for identifying PAD patients at increased risk for near-term death. Larger studies using more sensitive metabolomic techniques are needed to identify specific metabolic pathways associated with increased risk of near-term all-cause mortality among PAD patients.
- Surgeon education decreases radiation dose in complex endovascular procedures and improves patient safety. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 17.
OBJECTIVE:Complex endovascular procedures such as fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) are associated with higher radiation doses compared with other fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeon education on radiation dose control can lead to lower reference air kerma (RAK) and peak skin dose (PSD) levels in high-dose procedures.
METHODS:Radiation dose and operating factors were recorded for FGI performed in a hybrid room over a 16-month period. Cases exceeding 6 Gy RAK were investigated according to institutional policy. Information obtained from these investigations led to surgeon education focused on reducing patient dose. Points addressed included increasing table height, utilizing collimation and angulation, decreasing magnification modes, and maintaining minimal patient-to-detector distance. Procedural RAK doses and operating factors were compared 8 months pre- (group A) and 8 months post- (group B) educational intervention using analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons and t-tests. PSD distributions were calculated using custom software employing input data from fluoroscopic machine logs.
RESULTS:Of 447 procedures performed, 300 FGIs had sufficient data to be included in the analysis (54% lower extremity, 11% thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, 10% cerebral, 8% FEVAR, 7% endovascular aneurysm repair, 5% visceral, and 5% embolization). Twenty-one cases were investigated for exceeding 6 Gy RAK. FEVAR comprised 70% of the investigated cases and had a significantly higher median RAK dose compared with all other FGIs (P < .0001). There was no difference in body mass index between groups A and B; however, increasing body mass index was an indicator for increased RAK. PSD calculations were performed for the 122 procedures that focused on the thorax and abdomen (group A, 80 patients; group B, 42 patients). Surgeon education most strongly affected table height, with an average table height elevation of 10 cm per case after education (P < .0001). The dose index (PSD/RAK ratio) was used to track changes in operating practices, and it decreased from 1.14 to 0.79 after education (P < .0001). These changes resulted in an estimated 16% reduction in PSD. There was a trend toward a decrease in patient to detector distance, and the use of collimation increased from 25% to 40% (P < .001) for all cases; however, these did not result in a decrease in PSD. The number of cases that exceeded 6 Gy RAK did not change after education; however, the proportion of non-FEVAR cases that exceeded 6 Gy decreased from 40% to 20%.
CONCLUSIONS:Surgeon education on the appropriate use of technical factors during FGIs improved operating practice, reduced patient radiation dose, and decreased the number of non-FEVAR cases that exceeded 6 Gy. It is essential that vascular surgeons be educated in best operating practices to lower PSD; nonetheless, FEVAR remains a high-dose procedure.
- Outcomes of endovascular aneurysm repair on renal function compared with open repair. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 17.
OBJECTIVE:Recent studies have shown that progressive renal dysfunction may develop in patients after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Data are conflicting about the effect of EVAR on renal function compared with open repair (OR). The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of EVAR, both with transrenal fixation (TRF) and infrarenal fixation (IRF), vs OR on renal function detected with renal perfusion scintigraphy (RPS).
METHODS:A prospective study was carried out from January 2003 to December 2007. Exclusion criteria included factors that could influence post-procedural renal function as: preoperative creatinine clearance level <65 mL/min for men and 60 mL/min for women, renal artery stenosis >60%, renal accessory artery planned to be covered by the endograft, single functioning kidney, hemodialysis, and kidney transplant. To evaluate renal function, an RPS was performed preoperatively, at 30 days, at 6 and 12 months, and then yearly. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated with the Gates method.
RESULTS:During the study period, 403 patients were enrolled; 243 (60%) had OR and 160 (40%) EVAR; among these, 83 (51%) had a TRF and 77 (48%) an IRF; 55 patients were excluded from the study. No statistical differences were observed between groups for demographics and risk factors. Statistically significant differences emerged between OR and EVAR for early postoperative death (4% vs 0%; P = .01). Follow-up ranged from 54 to 126 months (mean, 76 months) for OR and from 54 to 124 months (mean, 74 months) for EVAR (P = NS). Kaplan-Meier analysis survival rate at 9 years was 70% for OR and 58% for EVAR with a risk of secondary procedure of 9% and 34%, respectively (P < .0001). A deterioration of the GFR was observed during the follow-up in both groups with a decrease after 9 years of 11% in the EVAR group and 3% in the OR group respective to baseline (P < .001). A remarkable difference emerged on renal function between EVAR patients who required a secondary procedure compared with the other EVAR patients (P < .005). No significant differences emerged between TFR and IRF for GFR decline during the follow-up period.
CONCLUSIONS:After EVAR, there is a continuous decline in renal function with respect to OR, regardless of fixation level and independently of pre-existing renal insufficiency. The risk of GFR impairment after EVAR should be taken into consideration in selecting patients with preoperative renal insufficiency.
- Clinical effectiveness of secondary interventions for restenosis after renal artery stenting. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 17.
OBJECTIVE:Secondary interventions for renal artery restenosis (RAS) after renal artery stenting are common, despite limited data about their effectiveness. This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of endovascular treatment of recurrent RAS.
METHODS:We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent renal artery stenting between 2001 and 2011 at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center. Patients who required secondary interventions were compared with control patients who underwent only primary interventions for RAS. Multivariate regression models were used to identify factors associated with successful outcomes, as measured by changes in blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and number of antihypertensive medications required.
RESULTS:Sixty-five secondary (57 patients) renal interventions were undertaken for recurrent RAS associated with progressive hypertension or renal dysfunction and compared with outcomes after 216 primary (180 patients) renal artery stenting procedures. Patients undergoing primary vs secondary interventions did not differ significantly in the number of preoperative antihypertensive medications used, comorbid conditions, or blood pressure. All primary and secondary interventions were performed with stents and showed no difference in procedural complications. At a mean follow-up of 23 months (range, 1-128 months), similar improvements in renal function and blood pressure were found between patients undergoing primary and secondary interventions, and there was no difference in rates of restenosis or survival between cohorts. Regression models showed that the use of embolic protection devices was associated with improved renal function after primary (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.8; P < .05) and secondary (OR, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.7-12.5; P < .05) interventions, whereas statin therapy was associated with improved renal (OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3.2; P < .05) and blood pressure response (OR, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.1-14.9; P < .05) after secondary interventions.
CONCLUSIONS:Patients undergoing secondary interventions for recurrent RAS have outcomes that are comparable with those for primary interventions. These data suggest that repeated endovascular procedures for RAS can be undertaken with similar expectations for clinical improvement and may be further improved by routine use of embolic protection devices and statin therapy.
- Silver acetate coating promotes early vascularization of Dacron vascular grafts without inducing host tissue inflammation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 15.
BACKGROUND:Silver acetate is frequently used as an antimicrobial coating of prosthetic vascular grafts. However, the effects of this coating on the early inflammatory and angiogenic host tissue response still remain elusive. Therefore, the aim of the present in vivo study was to analyze the biocompatibility and vascularization of silver acetate-coated and uncoated vascular grafts during the initial phase after implantation.
METHODS:Two different prosthetic vascular grafts (ie, uncoated Dacron and silver acetate-coated Dacron Silver) were implanted into the dorsal skinfold chamber of C57BL/6 mice (n = 8 per group) to study angiogenesis and leukocytic inflammation at the implantation site by means of repetitive intravital fluorescence microscopy over a 14-day period. At the end of the in vivo experiments, collagen formation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation were analyzed in the newly developed granulation tissue surrounding the implants by histology and immunohistochemistry.
RESULTS:During the initial 14 days after implantation, Dacron Silver exhibited an improved vascularization, as indicated by a significantly increased functional capillary density compared with Dacron. This was not associated with a stronger leukocytic inflammatory host tissue response to the implants. Moreover, silver acetate coating did not affect collagen formation, apoptosis, and cell proliferation at the implantation site.
CONCLUSIONS:Silver acetate coating of prosthetic vascular grafts improves their early vascularization without inducing severe inflammatory side effects. Accordingly, this material modification crucially contributes to an improved incorporation of the implants into the host tissue, which may decrease the risk of vascular graft infection.
- Vascular remodeling and intimal hyperplasia in a novel murine model of arteriovenous fistula failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:The arteriovenous fistula (AVF) still suffers from a high number of failures caused by insufficient outward remodeling and intimal hyperplasia (IH) formation from which the exact mechanism is largely unknown. A suitable animal model is of vital importance in the unraveling of the underlying pathophysiology. However, current murine models of AVF failure do not incorporate the surgical configuration that is commonly used in humans. Because the hemodynamic profile is one of the key determinants that play a role in vascular remodeling in the AVF, it is preferable to use this same configuration in an animal model. Here we describe a novel murine model of AVF failure in which the configuration (end-to-side) is similar to what is most frequently performed in humans.
METHODS:An AVF was created in 45 C57BL/6 mice by anastomosing the end of a branch of the external jugular vein to the side of the common carotid artery with interrupted sutures. The AVFs were harvested and analyzed histologically at days 7, 14, and 28. Identical veins of unoperated-on mice served as controls. Intravenous near-infrared fluorescent fluorophores were used to assess the patency of the fistula.
RESULTS:The patency rates at days 7, 14, and 28 days were 88%, 90%, and 50%, respectively. The mean circumference increased up to day 14, with a maximum 1.4-fold increase at day 7 compared with the control group (1.82 ± 0.7 vs 1.33 ± 0.3 mm; P = .443). Between days 14 and 28, the circumference remained constant (2.36 ± 0.2 vs 2.45 ± 0.2 mm; P = .996). At 7 days after surgery, the intimal area consisted mainly of an acellular layer that was structurally analogous to a focal adherent thrombus. Starting at 14 days after surgery, venous IH increased significantly compared with the unoperated-on group (14 days: 115,090 ± 22,594 μm(2), 28 days: 234,619 ± 47,828 μm(2), unoperated group: 2368 ± 1056 μm(2); P = .001 and P < .001, respectively) and was mainly composed of cells positive for α-smooth muscle actin. We observed leukocytes in the adventitial side of the vein at all time points.
CONCLUSIONS:Our novel murine AVF model, which incorporates a clinically relevant configuration of the anastomosis, displays similar features that are characteristic of failing human AVFs. Moreover, our findings suggest that coagulation and inflammation could both potentially play an important role in the formation of IH and subsequent AVF failure. Near-infrared fluoroscopy was a suitable alternative for conventional imaging techniques. This murine AVF-model is a valuable addition to the AVF animal model arsenal.
- Impact of hospital market competition on endovascular aneurysm repair adoption and outcomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 15.
OBJECTIVE:The share of total abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repairs performed by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) increased rapidly from 32% in 2001 to 65% in 2006 with considerable variation between states. We hypothesized that hospitals in competitive markets were early EVAR adopters and had improved AAA repair outcomes.
METHODS:Nationwide Inpatient Sample and linked Hospital Market Structure (HMS) data was queried for patients who underwent repair for nonruptured AAA in 2003. In HMS, the Herfindahl Hirschman Index (HHI, range 0-1) is a validated and widely accepted economic measure of competition. Hospital markets were defined using a variable geographic radius that encompassed 90% of discharged patients. We conducted bivariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses for the dependent variable of EVAR use. A propensity score-adjusted multivariable logistic regression model was used to control for treatment bias in the assessment of competition on AAA repair outcomes.
RESULTS:A weighted total of 21,600 patients was included in our analyses. Patients at more competitive hospitals (lower HHI) were at increased odds of undergoing EVAR vs open repair (odds ratio, 1.127 per 0.1 decrease in HHI; P < .0127) after adjusting for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital level factors (bed size, teaching status, AAA repair volume, and ownership). Competition was not associated with differences in in-hospital mortality or vascular, neurologic, or other minor postoperative complications.
CONCLUSIONS:Greater hospital competition is significantly associated with increased EVAR adoption at a time when diffusion of this technology passed its tipping point. Hospital competition does not influence post-AAA repair outcomes. These results suggest that adoption of novel vascular technology is not solely driven by clinical indications but may also be influenced by market forces.
- Association of clinical attributes and treadmill walking performance in patients with claudication due to peripheral artery disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vasc Surg 2013 May 16.