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Journal of affective disorders [journal]
- Treatment-resistant depression: Definitions, review of the evidence, and algorithmic approach. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 15.
Most adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) fail to achieve remission with index pharmacological treatment. Moreover, at least half will not achieve and sustain remission following multiple pharmacological approaches. Herein, we succinctly review treatment modalities proven effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD).We conducted a review of computerized databases (PubMed, Google Scholar) from 1980 to April 2013. Articles selected for review were based on author consensus, adequacy of sample size, the use of a standardized experimental procedure, validated assessment measures and overall manuscript quality.The evidence base supporting augmentation of conventional antidepressants with atypical antipsychotics (i.e., aripiprazole, quetiapine, and olanzapine) is the most extensive and rigorous of all pharmacological approaches in TRD. Emerging evidence supports the use of some psychostimulants (i.e., lisdexamfetamine) as well as aerobic exercise. In addition, treatments informed by pathogenetic disease models provide preliminary evidence for the efficacy of immune-inflammatory based therapies and metabolic interventions. Manual based psychotherapies remain a treatment option, with the most compelling evidence for cognitive behavioral therapy. Disparate neurostimulation strategies are also available for individuals insufficiently responsive to pharmacotherapy and/or psychosocial interventions.Compared to non-treatment-resistant depression, TRD has been less studied. Most clinical studies on TRD have focused on pharmacotherapy-resistant depression, with relatively fewer studies evaluating "next choice" treatments in individuals who do not initially respond to psychosocial and/or neurostimulatory treatments.The pathoetiological heterogeneity of MDD/TRD invites the need for mechanistically dissimilar, and empirically validated, treatment approaches for TRD.
- Trends in pharmacotherapy in patients referred to a bipolar specialty clinic, 2000-2011. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 21.
To assess mood stabilizer (MS) and second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) prescribing trends in bipolar disorder (BD) outpatients referred to a bipolar disorder specialty clinic over the past 12 years.BD outpatients referred to the Stanford University Bipolar Disorder Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prescription rates for MSs and SGAs were compared during the first (2000-2005) and second (2006-2011) six years.Among 597 BD patients (mean±SD age 35.4±8.6 years; 58.1% female; 40.7% Type I, 43.6% Type II, and 15.7% Type Not Otherwise Specified; taking 2.6±1.7 prescription psychotropic medications), lamotrigine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole usage more than doubled, from 14.7% to 37.2% (p<0.0001), 7.2% to 19.7% (p<0.0001), and 3.1% to 10.9% (p=0.0003), respectively, while olanzapine and risperidone use decreased by more than half from 15.0% to 6.6% (p=0.0043), and from 8.7% to 3.8% (p=0.039), respectively. SGA use increased from 34.1% to 44.8% (p=0.013), although MS use continued to be more common (in 65.2% for 2006-2011). Use of other individual MSs and SGAs and MSs as a class did not change significantly.Over 12 years, in patients referred to a BD specialty clinic, lamotrigine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole use more than doubled, and olanzapine and risperidone use decreased by more than half. Tolerability (for lamotrigine, aripiprazole, olanzapine, and risperidone) more than efficacy (for quetiapine) differences may have driven these findings. Additional studies are needed to explore the relative influences of enhanced tolerability versus efficacy upon prescribing practices in BD patients.
- Atopic disorders and depression: Findings from a large, population-based study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 19.
Atopy, a common disorder characterized by a sensitivity to allergic reactions, affects a large proportion of the adult population and, as with depression, is associated with immune-inflammatory pathway changes. We sought to determine the role of atopic disorders in depression using data from a randomly-selected, population-based study of men and women.Cross-sectional data derived from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study for 942 males and 1085 females were analyzed. Depression [major depressive disorder (MDD), minor depression and dysthymia] was assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Research Version, Non-patient edition. Data on medical conditions, including atopic disorders (asthma, hay fever and eczema), smoking status, alcohol consumption, socioeconomic status, and physical activity were documented by self-report. Logistic regression modeling was used to explore the associations between atopic disorders and depression.Atopic disorders were associated with a 59% increased likelihood of depression [gender and smoking-adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1:50, 95% CI 1.20-1.97]. Sub-group analyses revealed a similar pattern for those with MDD [gender and smoking-adjusted OR 1:54, 95% CI 1.22-1.94]. These associations were independent of socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and lifestyle factors.Reliance on self-report for allergic symptoms and cross-sectional nature of study.This population-based study provides evidence of the potential contribution of allergic disorders to depression. Further research is required to elucidate the direction of this association and to further explicate its underlying physiology, including immune-inflammation markers.
- Parental factors associated with depression and anxiety in young people: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 18.
There is a burgeoning and varied literature examining the associations between parental factors and depression or anxiety disorders in young people. However, there is hitherto no systematic review of this complex literature with a focus on the 12-18 years age range, when the first onset for these disorders peaks. Furthermore, to facilitate the application of the evidence in prevention, a focus on modifiable factors is required.Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review of parental factors associated with depression and anxiety disorders in young people which parents can potentially modify.We identified 181 articles altogether, with 140 examining depression, 17 examining anxiety problems, and 24 examining both outcomes. Stouffer's method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations between each parental factor and outcome.Limitations include sacrificing micro-level detail for a macro-level synthesis of the literature, not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalizability across cultures and to younger or adult children, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies.Parental factors with a sound evidence base indicating increased risk for both depression and anxiety include less warmth, more inter-parental conflict, over-involvement, and aversiveness; and for depression additionally, they include less autonomy granting and monitoring.
- Genetic and familial environmental effects on suicide attempts: A study of Danish adoptees and their biological and adoptive siblings. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 26.
Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts.We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions.The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6).Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation.Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts.
- Frontal white matter alterations are associated with executive cognitive function in euthymic bipolar patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 16.
Bipolar affective disorder (BD) is often associated with cognitive dysfunction in executive domains. However the biological underpinnings of cognitive deficits in BD are not sufficiently understood. A growing body of evidence indicates a loss of microstructural integrity in various white matter (WM) fiber tracts in BD. The aim of the current study was to assess potential links between WM structural abnormalities and cognitive performance in euthymic middle-aged BD patients (n=30) and matched healthy controls (n=32).Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data was carried out with both voxelwise (tract based spatial statistics, TBSS) and region-of-interest (ROI) based analysis. We compared multiple indices of diffusion including fractional anisotropy (FA), radial (DR), axial (DA) and mean diffusivities (MD).Increased mean diffusivity was found in the fornix, anterior thalamic radiation, splenium and the truncus of the corpus callosum in BD patients compared with controls. These diffusion changes were significantly associated with poorer performance in executive tasks in BD patients.Our results indicate a direct link between executive cognitive functioning and abnormal WM microstructural integrity of fronto-limbic tracts in remitted BD patients, and add evidence to the neuronal disruption that underlies the residual symptomatology of BD.
- The risk of Bipolar Disorders in Multiple Sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 19.
The aim was to determine the risk of Mood Disorders (MD), particularly Bipolar Disorders (BD), in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) using standardized psychiatric diagnostic tools.Case-control study. Cases: 201 consecutive-patients with MS. Controls: 804 sex- and age-matched subjects without MS, randomly selected from a database concurrently used for an epidemiological study on the MD prevalence in the community. Psychiatric diagnoses according to DSM-IV were determined by physicians using structured interview tools (ANTAS-SCID).Compared to controls, MS patients had a higher lifetime prevalence of DSM-IV Major Depressive Disorders (MDD; P<0.0001), BD I (P=0.05), BD II (P<0.0001) and Cyclothymia (P=0.0001). As people with MS had a higher risk of depressive and bipolar spectrum disorders, ratio MDD/bipolar spectrum disorders was lower among cases (P<0.005) indicating a higher association with Bipolar Spectrum Disorders and MS.MS diagnosis was differently collected in cases and controls. Even if this might have produced false negatives in controls, it would have reinforced the null hypothesis of no increased risk for MD in MS; therefore, it does not invalidate the results of the study.This study was the first to show an association between BD and MS using standardized diagnostic tools and a case-control design. The results suggest a risk of under-diagnosis of BD (particularly type II) in MS and caution in prescribing ADs to people with depressive episodes in MS without prior excluding BD. The association between auto-immune degenerative diseases (like MS) and BD may be an interesting field for the study of the pathogenic hypothesis.
- A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial comparing the efficacy and safety of Crocus sativus L. with fluoxetine for improving mild to moderate depression in post percutaneous coronary intervention patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 16.
A significant correlation exists between coronary artery diseases and depression. The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of saffron versus fluoxetine in improving depressive symptoms of patients who were suffering from depression after performing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).In this randomized double-blind parallel-group study, 40 patients with a diagnosis of mild to moderate depression who had undergone PCI in the last six months were randomized to receive either fluoexetine (40mg/day) or saffron (30mg/day) capsule for six weeks. Participants were evaluated by Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) at weeks 3 and 6 and the adverse events were systemically recorded.By the study endpoint, no significant difference was detected between two groups in reduction of HDRS scores (P=0.62). Remission and response rates were not significantly different as well (P=1.00 and P=0.67; respectively). There was no significant difference between two groups in the frequency of adverse events during this trial.Relatively small sample size and short observational period were the major limitations of this study.Short-term therapy with saffron capsules showed the same antidepressant efficacy compared with fluoxetine in patients with a prior history of PCI who were suffering from depression.
- Comfort from suicidal cognition in recurrently depressed patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 18.
Previous research has suggested that some individuals may obtain comfort from their suicidal cognitions.This study explored clinical variables associated with comfort from suicidal cognition using a newly developed 5 item measure in 217 patients with a history of recurrent depression and suicidality, of whom 98 were followed up to at least one relapse to depression and reported data on suicidal ideation during the follow-up phase.Results indicated that a minority of patients, around 15%, reported experiencing comfort from suicidal cognitions and that comfort was associated with several markers of a more severe clinical profile including both worst ever prior suicidal ideation and worst suicidal ideation over a 12 month follow-up period.Few patients self-harmed during the follow-up period preventing an examination of associations between comfort and repetition of self-harm.These results, although preliminary, suggest that future theoretical and clinical research would benefit from further consideration of the concept of comfort from suicidal thinking.
- Mental health literacy and the experience of depression in a community sample of gay men. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2013 Nov 9.
Gay men are at higher risk of suffering from a variety of psychiatric disorders, yet the mental health literacy of this population has remained largely unknown.In 2007 and 2011, surveys were conducted among gay men in Geneva, Switzerland, recruited by probability-based time-space sampling. Based on a case vignette of a man with major depression, respondents were asked a series of questions about labelling, perceived risk, and help-seeking beliefs. Men meeting caseness for major depression were asked open questions about perceived causes and additional help-seeking/self-help.Among the 762 respondents, 14.7% met diagnostic criteria for major depression (MDD) in the past 12 months. The vignette was labelled depression by 44.1% of the entire sample, and 61.9% of the men with MDD. Discrimination (33.2%), acceptance or rejection by others (21.4%), and loneliness (24.9%) were the most common reasons given for greater susceptibility among gay men, yet men with MDD reported problems with love/relationship (32.5%) and work (28.9%) as the most common perceived causes of recent depression, and problems with love/relationship (21.9%), accepting one's homosexuality (21.1%), and family (20.2%) at initial outset. The highest proportions of gay men rated non-medical options such as a close friend (91.6%), relaxation exercises or meditation (84.4%), and physical activity (83.5%) as being helpful for the depression vignette.No probes used for open questions, and findings generalizable only to gay men in the sampling scheme.There are many commonalities in labelling, perceived causes, and help-seeking with general populations, but also numerous specificities in mental health literacy and experience among gay men.