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Journal of affective disorders [journal]
- Thalamocortical abnormalities in auditory brainstem response patterns distinguish DSM-IV bipolar disorder type I from schizophrenia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 13.:105-111.
Bipolar disorder type I (BP-I) belongs to a spectrum of affective disorders that are expressed in many different ways and therefore can be difficult to distinguish from other conditions, especially unipolar depression, schizoaffective disorder, schizophrenia (SZ), but also anxiety and personality disorders. Since early diagnosis and treatment have shown to improve the long-term prognosis, complementary specific biomarkers are of great value. The auditory brainstem response (ABR) has previously been applied successfully to identify specific abnormal ABR patterns in SZ and Asperger syndrome.The current study investigated the early auditory processing of complex sound stimuli e.g. forward masking, in BP-I compared to SZ patients. The ABR curves of BP-I patients (n=23) and SZ patients (n=20) were analyzed in terms of peak amplitudes and correlation with an ABR norm curve based on a non-psychiatric control group (n=20).BP-I patients had significantly higher wave III (p=0.0062) and wave VII (p=0.0472) amplitudes compared with SZ patients. Furthermore, BP-I patients, and to a lesser extent SZ patients, showed low correlation with the norm ABR curve in the part of the curve comprising waves VI-VII.Sample size was relatively small and study groups were not matched for age and gender.BP-I patients showed specific aberrances, specifically in the latter part of the ABR curve, implicating abnormalities in thalamocortical circuitry. The abnormal ABR wave patterns significantly separated BP-I patients from SZ patients suggesting that ABR might serve as a biomarker for BP-I.
- Temperamental differences between bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Some implications for their diagnostic validity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 May 29.:101-104.
The relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD), bipolar disorder (BD), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) requires further elucidation.Seventy-four adult psychiatric in- and out-patients, each of them having received one of these diagnoses on clinical assessment, were interviewed and compared in terms of diagnostic overlap, age and sex distribution, comorbid substance, anxiety and eating disorders, and affective temperament.Diagnostic overlap within the three disorders was 54%. Comorbidity patterns and gender ratio did not differ. The disorders showed very similar levels of cyclothymia.Sample size was small and only a limited number of validators were tested.The similar extent of cyclothymic temperament suggests mood lability as a common denominator of BPD, BD, and ADHD.
- Dissociation of glutamate and cortical thickness is restricted to regions subserving trait but not state markers in major depressive disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 14.:91-100.
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). So far, the effect of local cortical alteration on metabolites in multiple subdivisions of ACC has not been studied. We aimed to investigate structural and biochemical changes and their relationship in the pregenual ACC (pgACC), dorsal ACC (dACC) in MDD.We obtained magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in two investigated regions for 24 depressed patients and matched controls. In each region, cortical thickness (CTh) was calculated within a template mask based on its MRS voxel. We investigated neurotransmitter concentrations of Glx, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and myo-inositol (m-Ins) in two investigated regions, as well as their relationships with CTh in depressed individuals and healthy controls.Patients showed significantly lower cortical thickness in dACC compared to controls. Glx in dACC significantly correlated with CTh in healthy controls but not MDD patients, while NAA and CTh in dACC significantly correlated in both groups. A marginal decrease of Glx in pgACC was found in the subgroup of more severely depressive patients, compared to the mildly depressed patients.Modest sample size and lack of episodes of depression may limit the generalizability of our findings.Our results indicate an abolished CTh-MRS relation in dACC-associated with structural decline-but not in pgACC, where acute MRS alterations prevailed. Our study provides the first evidence of a neurochemical basis explaining some of the inter-individual variability in CTh in MDD.
- Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 5.:86-90.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. Adverse childhood experiences are also associated with shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in adults, suggesting accelerated cell aging. No studies have yet assessed the relationship of ACEs to LTL in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD), despite the high incidence of antecedent ACEs in individuals with MDD. Further, no studies in any population have assessed the relationship of ACEs to the activity of telomerase, the major enzyme responsible for maintaining LTL, or the relationship between telomerase and LTL in individuals with ACEs.Twenty healthy, unmedicated adults with MDD and 20 healthy age-, sex- and ethnicity-matched controls had ACEs assessed and had blood drawn for LTL and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) resting telomerase activity.In healthy controls, greater ACE exposure was associated with shorter LTL (p<.05) but was unassociated with telomerase activity. In MDD, however, the opposite pattern was seen: greater ACE exposure was unrelated to LTL but was associated with increased telomerase activity (p<.05) and with a higher telomerase:LTL ratio (p=.022).Study limitations include the small sample size, a single timepoint assessment of telomerase activity, and the use of retrospective self-report to assess ACEs.These results replicate prior findings of shortened LTL in healthy adults with histories of multiple ACEs. However, in MDD, this relationship was substantially altered, raising the possibility that activation of telomerase in ACE-exposed individuals with MDD could represent a compensatory response to endangered telomeres.
- Cognitive-behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder is associated with attenuation of limbic activation to threat-related facial emotions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 7.:76-85.
The neural processes underlying the benefits of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are not well understood.Twenty-one (n=21) adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD and eleven (n=11) non-anxious healthy controls (HC) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a facial emotion processing task. Responses to threat-related emotionality (i.e., the contrast of fear and angry vs. happy faces) were assessed at pretreatment and again following 10 sessions of CBT in the GAD group and a comparable waiting period in the HC group.At pretreatment, GAD participants displayed blunted responses in the amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate to the happy face-processing comparison condition, and greater amygdalo-insular connectivity. CBT was associated with amygdalar and subgenual anterior cingulate activation to fear/angry faces and heightened insular responses to the happy face comparison condition, but had no apparent effects on connectivity. Pre-treatment abnormalities and treatment-related changes were not associated with symptoms of worry.There was no active control condition (e.g., treatment waitlist) for comparison of treatment effects.Taken together, these results provide evidence for a dual-process psychotherapeutic model of neural systems changes in GAD in which cingulo-amygdalar reactivity to threat-cues is attenuated while insular responses to positive facial emotions are potentiated. Future work is needed to determine the clinical implications of these changes and their specificity to CBT.
- Risk and protective factors for depression that adolescents can modify: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. [REVIEW]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 12.:61-75.
Adolescence is a peak time for the onset of depression, but little is known about what adolescents can do to reduce their own level of risk. To fill this gap, a review was carried out to identify risk and protective factors for depression during adolescence that are modifiable by the young person.Employing the PRISMA method, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies to identify risk and protective factors during the adolescent period (aged 12-18 years) that are potentially modifiable by the young person without professional intervention or assistance. Stouffer׳s method of combining p values was used to determine whether associations between variables were reliable, and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the mean effect sizes of associations.We identified 113 publications which met the inclusion criteria. Putative risk factors implicated in the development of depression for which there is a sound evidence base, and which are potentially modifiable during adolescence without professional intervention, are: substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and polydrug use); dieting; negative coping strategies; and weight. Modifiable protective factors with a sound evidence base are healthy diet and sleep.Limitations include not systematically reviewing moderators and mediators, the lack of generalisability across cultures or to younger children or young adults, and the inability to conduct a meta-analysis on all included studies.Findings from this review suggest that future health education campaigns or self-help prevention interventions targeting adolescent depression should aim to reduce substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, other illicit drugs, and polydrug use); dieting; and negative coping strategies; and promote healthy weight; diet; and sleep patterns.
- Does the installation of blue Lights on train platforms shift suicide to another station?: Evidence from Japan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 7.:57-60.
Installing physical barriers at suicide hotspots is known as an effective strategy for suicide prevention. However, the effectiveness of physical barriers may be nullified by the substitution phenomenon, i.e., that restricting access to a particular place induces people at risk to look for a nearby place for suicide.This study tests whether the substitution phenomenon exists in the case of railway and metro suicides. We focused on the prevention effort by a Japanese railway company that installed blue light-emitting-diode (LED) lamps on railway platforms to prevent people from diving to a running train. Using panel data of 71 train stations between 2000 and 2013, we compared the number of suicides before and after the installation of the blue lights at 14 stations where the lights were installed and at neighboring five stations on the same railway line, using the number of suicides at all other stations without the intervention as a control group.Our regression analysis shows that the introduction of blue lights decreased the number suicides by 74% (CI: 48-87%) at stations where the blue lights were installed, while it did not result in a systematic increase in the number of suicides at the neighboring stations.The installation of blue lights generated no systematic substitution phenomenon at nearby stations.
- Affective temperaments and neurocognitive functioning in bipolar disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 5.:51-56.
There is evidence that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) score higher on affective temperament ratings compared to healthy controls (HCs). Moreover, unaffected relatives demonstrate similar patterns as BD patients suggesting that such temperaments are related to the genetic risk for BD and may serve as endophenotypes for the disorder. It is unknown whether affective temperaments are associated with other core features of BD, such as impairments in neurocognition. This study examined the relationship between affective temperaments and neurocognition in patients with BD and in HCs.Temperaments were evaluated using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego, Auto-questionnaire version (TEMPS-A) in 64 patients with BD and 109 HCs. Neurocognitive functioning was evaluated using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB). Correlational analyses between temperaments and cognition were conducted in BD and HC subjects.Data suggest that affective temperaments and neurocognition are correlated. In BD higher ratings of cyclothymia and irritability were associated with better processing speed, working memory, reasoning and problem-solving. In the HC group, increased irritability was related to worse performance on measures of attention and social cognition.Lack of functional outcome measures to evaluate the impact of temperaments and cognition on psychosocial functioning. It would be useful to test these findings on unaffected relatives of BD patients.Cyclothymic and irritable temperaments are correlated with specific aspects of neurocognition in BD. This study is among the few exploring the dimensional relationship between temperaments and cognition in BD, and provides preliminary evidence for future studies investigating the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the association between these variables.
- Identification of the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament using an esthetic judgment for paintings task in fMRI. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 5.:47-50.
There is a well-known association between artistic creativity and cyclothymic temperament but the neural correlates of cyclothymic temperament have not yet been fully identified. Recently, we showed that the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus may be associated with esthetic judgment of representational paintings, we therefore sought to investigate brain activity during esthetic judgment of paintings in relation to measures of cyclothymic temperament.Regions of interest (ROI) were set at the left lingual gyrus and bilateral cuneus using automated anatomical labeling, and percent signal changes of the ROIs were measured by marsbar toolbox. The associations between percent signal changes of the ROIs during esthetic judgments of paintings and cyclothymic temperament scores were investigated by Pearson׳s coefficient. Moreover, the associations were further analyzed using multiple regression analysis whereby cyclothymic temperament scores were a dependent factor and percent signal changes of the 3 ROIs and the other 4 temperament scores were independent factors.There was a significantly negative association of cyclothymic temperament scores with the percent signal changes of the left lingual gyrus during esthetic judgments of paintings, but not with those of bilateral cuneus. Even after adjustment using multiple regression analysis, this finding remained unchanged.The number of subjects was relatively small and the task was limited to appreciation of paintings.The present findings suggest that cyclothymic temperament may be associated with the left lingual gyrus.
- PTSD prevalence and symptom structure of DSM-5 criteria in adolescents and young adults surviving the 2011 shooting in Norway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Jul 22.:40-46.
Diagnostic criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) have been revised for DSM-5. Two key changes include alteration of the clustering of PTSD symptoms and new PTSD symptom criteria related to negative alterations in cognition and mood. In this study, we empirically investigated these changes.We interviewed 325 adolescents and young adults who survived the 2011 youth camp shooting at Utøya Island, Norway. The UCLA PTSD Reaction Index for DSM-IV was used to assess symptoms of PTSD. In addition, 11 questions were added to assess the four new symptom criteria within the new DSM-5 symptom categories.PTSD prevalence did not differ significantly whether DSM-IV (11.1%) or DSM-5 (11.7%) criteria were used and the Cohen׳s Kappa for consistency between the diagnoses was 0.061. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the four-factor structure of the DSM-5 fit the data adequately according to the conceptual model outlined.The homogeneity of this sample of highly exposed subjects may preclude generalization to less severely exposed groups. Also, we did not assess criterion G in regard to symptoms causing clinically significant distress and functional impairment.The prevalence of PTSD was quite similar regardless of diagnostic system. The relatively low concordance between the diagnoses has implications for eligibility for a diagnosis of PTSD.