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Journal of affective disorders [journal]
- Long-term trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and their antenatal predictors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 30.:30-38.
Depressive symptoms, often long-term or recurrent, are common among mothers of young children and a well-known risk for child well-being. We aimed to explore the antecedents of the long-term trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms and to define the antenatal factors predicting the high-symptom trajectories.The sample comprised 329 mothers from maternity centers. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) antenatally and at two months, six months, 4-5 years, 8-9 years and 16-17 years after delivery. Maternal expectations concerning the baby were assessed with the Neonatal Perception Inventory (NPI). Background information was gathered with questionnaires.A model including four symptom trajectories (very low, low-stable, high-stable and intermittent) was selected to describe the symptom patterns over time. The high-stable and the intermittent trajectory were both predicted pairwise by a high antenatal EPDS sum score as well as high EPDS anxiety and depression subscores but the other predictors were specific for each trajectory. In multivariate analyses, the high-stable trajectory was predicted by a high antenatal EPDS sum score, a high EPDS anxiety subscore, diminished life satisfaction, loneliness and more negative expectations of babies on average. The intermittent trajectory was predicted by a high antenatal EPDS sum score, a poor relationship with own mother and urgent desire to conceive.Only self-report questionnaires were used. The sample size was rather small.The results suggest a heterogeneous course and background of maternal depressive symptoms. This should be considered in intervention planning.
- Psychometric properties of the Hong Kong Chinese (Cantonese) TEMPS-A in medical students. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 27.:23-29.
The self-rated auto-questionnaire, the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego (TEMPS-A) is the latest development in the study of temperamental attributes. It has been used and validated in different cultures and countries. The current study aims at validating the Chinese (Cantonese) version of the TEMPS-A and comparing the psychometric properties of the long and short forms of the translated scale.The Chinese (Cantonese) version of TEMPS-A was prepared with the standard translation and back-translation method, and approved by the original authors (HSA & KKA). It was administered to medical students of the two local universities, and results were analyzed.613 valid questionnaires were returned. The Cronbach-Alpha coefficients for the depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious temperament subscales were 0.63, 0.82, 0.78, 0.80, and 0.84, respectively. The strongest correlation was observed between the cyclothymic and irritable temperaments (R=0.600). Factor analysis yielded one large composite (depressive and anxious) and four homogenous factors, cyclothymic, anxious, hyperthymic and irritable. A newly reconstituted 43-item short form, based on methods suggested by the original authors yielded similar factor structure.The narrow age range of subjects somewhat limits generalization of the results. However, external and concurrent validations against other validated scales have been demonstrated for the original English versions as well as against the most commonly used languages of the world; furthermore, such validation has also been demonstrated for Chinese (Mandarin).The Chinese (Cantonese) version of TEMPS-A and the reconstituted 43-item short form were found to have good internal consistency and factor structures comparable to those of other languages from diverse cultures across the planet. We propose that the Cantonese TEMPS-A is a useful tool for local use.
- Corrigendum to "Treatment adherence towards prescribed medications in bipolar-II acute depressed patients: Relationship with cyclothymic temperament and "therapeutic sensation seeking" in response towards subjective intolerance to pain" [J. Affect. Disord. 151 (2) (November 2013), 596-604]. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Sep 10.:22.
- The impact of losing a child on the clinical presentation of complicated grief. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 21.:15-21.
It is unclear whether bereaved parents with Complicated Grief (CG) struggle with their grief differently than others with CG. This study addressed this question by comparing CG severity, CG-related symptoms, thoughts and behaviors, and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses of bereaved parents with CG to the diagnoses and symptoms of others with CG.Baseline data from 345 participants enrolled in the Healing Emotions After Loss (HEAL) study, a multi-site CG treatment study, were used to compare parents with CG (n=75) to others with CG (n=275). Data from the parent group was then used to compare parents with CG who had lost a younger child (n=24) to parents with CG who had lost an older child (n=34). Demographic and loss-related data were also gathered and used to control for confounders between groups.Parents with CG demonstrated slightly higher levels of CG (p=0.025), caregiver self-blame (p=0.007), and suicidality (p=0.025) than non-parents with CG. Parents who had lost younger children were more likely to have had a wish to be dead since the loss than parents who had lost older children (p=0.041).All data were gathered from a treatment research study, limiting the generalizability of these results. No corrections were made for multiple comparisons. The comparison of parents who lost younger children to parents who lost older children was limited by a small sample size.Even in the context of CG, the relationship to the deceased may have a bearing on the degree and severity of grief symptoms and associated features. Bereaved parents with CG reported more intense CG, self-blame, and suicidality than other bereaved groups with CG, though this finding requires confirmation. The heightened levels of suicidal ideation experienced by parents with CG, especially after losing a younger child, suggest the value of routinely screening for suicidal thoughts and behaviors in this group.
- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder following childhood abuse increases the severity of suicide attempts. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 15.:7-14.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and childhood abuse are both consistently associated with a higher risk for suicide attempts. We hypothesize that among patients reporting childhood abuse, PTSD diagnoses are correlated with an increased severity of suicidal features.We investigated 726 adult patients who had attempted suicide. These participants were assessed on lifetime clinical diagnoses and childhood abuse. The association of PTSD and childhood abuse dimensions with age at first suicide attempt, number of suicide attempts, violent attempts, serious attempts and suicide intent was studied. An adjusted multinomial logistic regression was performed to ascertain if childhood abuse and PTSD increased the severity of the suicidal behavior when combined.Several types of childhood abuse (emotional, physical and sexual abuse) when combined with a lifetime diagnosis of PTSD showed an increased risk for more suicide attempts, serious attempts, and a higher level of suicidal intent compared with the absence of any or both risk factors.The combination of PTSD and childhood abuse should be investigated in clinical settings due to an augmented risk for more severe suicidal behavior.
- Future disposition and suicidal ideation: Mediation by depressive symptom clusters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 27.:1-6.
In line with hopelessness theory, both increased negative expectancies and reduced positive expectancies for the future have been associated with suicidal ideation. This study evaluated two depression symptom clusters as mediators of the relationship between future disposition and suicide: subjective feelings of depression and self-blame.Data from 140 undergraduate students with moderate to severe depression symptoms are presented who completed the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Future Disposition Inventory.On mediation analysis, subjective depression mediated the relationship between positive disposition and suicidal ideation. In contrast, the relationship between negative disposition and suicidal ideation was mediated by self-blame. The reverse of these relationships was not significant.This is a cross-sectional study of an undergraduate sample and results warrant replication in clinical samples with clinician-administered assessments.Findings suggest two potential pathways to suicidal thoughts with implications for assessment and treatment. Depressed individuals with few positive expectations of the future may benefit from interventions focusing on subjective depression symptoms, such as sadness or anhedonia. For depressed individuals with negative expectations for the future, a clinical focus on negative attributions or self-blame may be warranted.
- Does help-seeking alter the risk for incident psychopathology in adolescents and young adults with and without fearful spells or panic attacks? Findings from a 10-year prospective-longitudinal community study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 15.:221-227.
Although fearful spells (FS) and panic attacks (PA) increase the risk for various mental disorders, few studies have examined whether help-seeking in those with FS/PA attenuates the risk for incident psychopathology.A community sample of adolescents and young adults (N=2978, aged 14-24 at baseline) was followed up in up to 3 assessment waves over 10 years. FS, PA, psychopathology, and help-seeking were assessed using the DSM-IV/M-CIDI. Logistic regressions with interaction terms (adjusted for sex and age) were used to test interactions between FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline on predicting incident psychopathology at follow-up. Cases with panic disorder (PD) at baseline were excluded from all analyses.FS/PA at baseline predicted the onset of any disorder, any anxiety disorder, PD, agoraphobia, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and depression at follow-up (Odds Ratios, OR 1.62-5.80). FS/PA and help-seeking at baseline interacted on predicting incident PD (OR=0.09) and depression (OR=0.22) at follow-up in a way that FS/PA only predicted the respective disorders in individuals not seeking help at baseline. In those with FS/PA, a higher number of panic symptoms interacted with help-seeking on predicting incident PD (OR=0.63) in a way that a higher number of panic symptoms only increased the risk for PD in those without help-seeking at baseline.Help-seeking at baseline was not restricted to panic-specific interventions, but included treatment due to other psychological problems as well.Findings suggest that early help-seeking might modify psychopathology trajectories and prevent incident disorders in high-risk individuals with FS/PA.
- Prevention of anxiety and depression in Chinese: A randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program in primary care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 19.:212-220.
Despite empirical evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of collaborative stepped care program (SCP) in Western countries, such programs have not been evaluated in the east, which has a different services system structure and cultural nuances in seeking help for mental illness. Furthermore, only a few studies have used SCP for depression and anxiety prevention. We conducted a trial to test its effectiveness in preventing major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder among primary care patients with subthreshold depression and/or anxiety in Hong Kong.Subthreshold depression and/or anxiety patients were randomized into the SCP group (n=121) or care as usual (CAU) group (n=119). The SCP included watchful waiting, telephone counseling, problem solving therapy, and family doctor treatment within one year. The primary outcome was the onset of major depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder in 15 months. The secondary outcomes were depressive and anxiety symptoms, quality of life and time absent from work due to any illness.Survival analysis showed no differences between the SCP and CAU groups (the cumulative probability of onset at 15 month was 23.1% in the SCP group and 20.5% in the CAU group; Hazard Ratio=1.62; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.82-3.18; p=0.16). No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes.Sample size might not have been large enough.SCP did not show beneficial effect on depression/anxiety prevention compared with CAU in Hong Kong primary care. As a large majority of patients improved overtime without any intervention, we are not able to exclude the possibility that the intervention might be effective. Future studies would need to have a larger sample size and conduct on patients with more severe symptoms or perform a second screening.
- Psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale in antepartum women from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 11.:203-211.
To explore the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in West African pregnant women.In a cross-sectional study, the GAD-7, the PHQ-9 (depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire) and the WHO-DAS II (12-item World Health Organization Disability Scale) were administered to n=647 Ivorian and n=395 Ghanaian antepartum women with low-risk pregnancies (third trimester; gestational age range: 28-40 weeks) in 2010-2011. Statistical analyses combined classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT).Cronbach׳s α was close to acceptable (α=.69 in Côte d'Ivoire; α=.67 in Ghana). Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between the GAD-7 and both the PHQ-9 and the WHO-DAS II. Results regarding factorial validity were ambiguous: confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicated that the data fit the unidimensionality assumption; however, the explained variance was low. IRT methods suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. Yet, residual principal component analyses showed a lack of unidimensionality. Rasch analyses revealed that the response options were not used as intended. Item-person-fit was not optimal since the items did not discriminate well on the range of the latent construct where most of the women drawn from the general population were located.Both samples were somewhat homogenous regarding gestational age and urban residence; test-retest reliability was not investigated.The GAD-7 met the requirements of CTT. However, applying the stricter criteria of IRT suggested areas for potential improvements. Cross-cultural adaption and a dichotomized response format might ameliorate the GAD-7 for the use in sub-Saharan countries.
- Pituitary gland volumes in bipolar disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Affect Disord 2014 Aug 23.:197-202.
Bipolar disorder has been associated with increased Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis function. The mechanism is not well understood, but there may be associated increases in pituitary gland volume (PGV) and these small increases may be functionally significant. However, research investigating PGV in bipolar disorder reports mixed results. The aim of the current study was twofold. First, to assess PGV in two novel samples of patients with bipolar disorder and matched healthy controls. Second, to perform a meta-analysis comparing PGV across a larger sample of patients and matched controls.Sample 1 consisted of 23 established patients and 32 matched controls. Sample 2 consisted of 39 medication-naïve patients and 42 matched controls. PGV was measured on structural MRI scans. Seven further studies were identified comparing PGV between patients and matched controls (total n; 244 patients, 308 controls).Both novel samples showed a small (approximately 20mm(3) or 4%), but non-significant, increase in PGV in patients. Combining the two novel samples showed a significant association of age and PGV. Meta-analysis showed a trend towards a larger pituitary gland in patients (effect size: .23, CI: -.14, .59).While results suggest a possible small difference in pituitary gland volume between patients and matched controls, larger mega-analyses with sample sizes greater even than those used in the current meta-analysis are still required.There is a small but potentially functionally significant increase in PGV in patients with bipolar disorder compared to controls. Results demonstrate the difficulty of finding potentially important but small effects in functional brain disorders.