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Journal of biomolecular screening [journal]
- Discovery of New Uncompetitive Inhibitors of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 13.
The enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first step of the oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway, which provides cells with NADPH, an essential cofactor for many biosynthetic pathways and antioxidizing enzymes. In Trypanosoma cruzi, the G6PDH has being pursued as a relevant target for the development of new drugs against Chagas disease. At present, the best characterized inhibitors of T. cruzi G6PDH are steroidal halogenated compounds derivatives from the mammalian hormone precursor dehydroepiandrosterone, which indeed are also good inhibitors of the human homologue enzyme. The lack of target selectivity might result in hemolytic side effects due to partial inhibition of human G6PDH in red blood cells. Moreover, the treatment of Chagas patients with steroidal drugs might also cause undesired androgenic side effects. Aiming to identify of new chemical classes of T. cruzi G6PDH inhibitors, we performed a target-based high-throughput screen campaign against a commercial library of diverse compounds. Novel TcG6PDH inhibitors were identified among thienopyrimidine and quinazolinone derivatives. Preliminary structure activity relationships for the identified hits are presented, including structural features that contribute for selectivity toward the parasite enzyme. Our results indicate that quinazolinones are promising hits that should be considered for further optimization.
- Yeast as a Potential Vehicle for Neglected Tropical Disease Drug Discovery. [REVIEW]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 13.
High-throughput screening (HTS) efforts for neglected tropical disease (NTD) drug discovery have recently received increased attention because several initiatives have begun to attempt to reduce the deficit in new and clinically acceptable therapies for this spectrum of infectious diseases. HTS primarily uses two basic approaches, cell-based and in vitro target-directed screening. Both of these approaches have problems; for example, cell-based screening does not reveal the target or targets that are hit, whereas in vitro methodologies lack a cellular context. Furthermore, both can be technically challenging, expensive, and difficult to miniaturize for ultra-HTS [(u)HTS]. The application of yeast-based systems may overcome some of these problems and offer a cost-effective platform for target-directed screening within a eukaryotic cell context. Here, we review the advantages and limitations of the technologies that may be used in yeast cell-based, target-directed screening protocols, and we discuss how these are beginning to be used in NTD drug discovery.
- Identification of a Putative Tdp1 Inhibitor (CD00509) by in Vitro and Cell-Based Assays. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 12.
Mutations of DNA repair pathways contribute to tumorigenesis and provide a therapeutic target for synthetic lethal interactions in tumor cells. Given that tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (Tdp1) repairs stalled topoisomerase-I DNA complexes, we hypothesized that inhibition of Tdp1 has synthetic lethal effects in some cancers. To test this, we screened tumor arrays for Tdp1 expression and observed that Tdp1 is expressed in many tumors, including more than 90% of human breast tumors. Subsequent chemical screening identified putative Tdp1 inhibitors. Treatment of control human mammary epithelial cells and the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 with compound CD00509 preferentially sensitized MCF-7 cells to camptothecin and decreased cell proliferation 25% more than camptothecin treatment alone. This suggests that CD00509 specifically targeted Tdp1 in vitro, and CD00509 increased the sensitivity of wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) to camptothecin to a degree comparable to that of Tdp1(-/-) MEFs. In addition, consistent with poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1) collaborating with Tdp1 in DNA repair, combined Tdp1 and PARP-1 inhibition was more detrimental to MCF-7 cells than either treatment alone, whereas the combination was not additively harmful to control mammary cells. We conclude that targeting Tdp1 in anticancer therapy preferentially enhances the sensitivity of some breast cancer cells to camptothecin and may be an effective adjuvant for breast cancer therapy.
- High-Throughput Screening of Human Leukemia Xenografts to Identify Dexamethasone Sensitizers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 7.
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common pediatric malignancy. Glucocorticoids (e.g., dexamethasone) form a critical component of chemotherapy regimens for pediatric ALL, and the initial response to glucocorticoid therapy is a major prognostic factor, where resistance is predictive of poor outcome. We have previously established a clinically relevant ALL xenograft model, consisting of primary pediatric ALL biopsies engrafted into immune-deficient mice, in which in vitro and in vivo dexamethasone sensitivity significantly correlated with patient outcome. In this study, we used high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify novel compounds that reverse dexamethasone resistance in a xenograft (ALL-19) derived from a chemoresistant pediatric ALL patient that is representative of the most common pediatric ALL subtype (B-cell precursor [BCP-ALL]). The compound 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methyl-N-(2-(piperidin-1-yl)phenyl)propanamide showed little cytotoxic activity alone (IC50 = 31 µM), but when combined with dexamethasone, it caused a marked decrease in cell viability. Fixed-ratio combination assays were performed against a broad panel of dexamethasone-resistant and -sensitive xenografts representative of BCP-ALL, T-cell ALL, and Mixed Lineage Leukemia-rearranged ALL, and synergy was observed in six of seven xenografts. We describe here the development of a novel 384-well cell-based high-throughput screening assay for identifying potential dexamethasone sensitizers using a clinically relevant ALL xenograft model.
- Corrigendum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 5; 19(8):1231.
Ouimet, T;, Duquesnoy, S.; Poras, H.; Fournié-Zaluski, M.-C.; et al. Comparison of Fluorigenic Peptide Substrates PL50, SNAPtide, and BoTest A/E for BoNT/A Detection and Quantification: Exosite Binding Confers High-Assay Sensitivity. J. Biomol. Screen. 2013: , 18(6), 726-735. (Original doi: 10.1177/1087057113476089).
- Microplates, Assay Reagents, Screening Consumables, and Kits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 5; 19(8):1227-1230.
- Detection of PI3K Inhibition in Human Neuroblastoma Using Multiplex Luminex Bead Immunoassay: A Targeted Approach for Pathway Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 4.
Neuroblastoma (NB) is a common solid tumor in children. Outcomes for advanced stage NB have not improved, at least in part because of multimodality therapy resistance. Better comprehension of novel molecular targets will likely lead to improved therapies with specific cytotoxic agents. For instance, the role of deregulated IGF-1R/AKT/PI3K/mTOR (PI3K) pathway activity has attracted much attention across several tumors, including NB. Thus, modulating this pathway via anti-PI3K drugs has taken center stage in many cancer clinical trials. However, varied clinical effects have hampered the precise application of these agents. Tumor PI3K pathway profiling may reveal a method to enhance the efficacy of these inhibitors. To this end, solid-phase antibody-based array platforms have emerged as a direct, rapid means of profiling intracellular signaling pathways. We tested the efficacy of four PI3K inhibitors against a panel of human NB cell lines using Luminex xMAP bead array technology to establish PI3K phosphoprotein profiles. We demonstrate the utility of the xMAP approach in following intracellular signaling signatures specific for PI3K targeted therapy. Further validation is required before xMAP is used routinely for clinical PI3K pathway evaluation, but this method may eventually be personalized by taking into account each child's basal NB pathway status.
- Software, Database, and Information Services. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 4.
- Echinomycin, a Potential Binder of FKBP12, Shows Minor Effect on Calcineurin Activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Aug 1.
Echinomycin, a member of the quinoxaline family of antibiotics, is known to be a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) DNA binding activity. Recently, it has been shown to suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and growth in leukemia cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether echinomycin interacts with the FKBP12 protein. Molecular docking was used, and the predicted binding energy was -10.61 kcal/mol. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance imaging and fluorescence quenching techniques were used to validate this interaction. Echinomycin binds to FKBP12 with a strong binding affinity comparable with rapamycin. Furthermore, the echinomycin-FKBP12 complex has been shown to affect calcineurin activity when tested in a calcineurin phosphatase inhibition assay. All of these studies have shown that echinomycin may have a double impact on HIF signaling by direct inhibition and through mTOR.
- Identification of Selective Agonists and Positive Allosteric Modulators for µ- and δ-Opioid Receptors from a Single High-Throughput Screen. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Jul 21.
Hetero-oligomeric complexes of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) may represent novel therapeutic targets exhibiting different pharmacology and tissue- or cell-specific site of action compared with receptor monomers or homo-oligomers. An ideal tool for validating this concept pharmacologically would be a hetero-oligomer selective ligand. We set out to develop and execute a 1536-well high-throughput screen of over 1 million compounds to detect potential hetero-oligomer selective ligands using a β-arrestin recruitment assay in U2OS cells coexpressing recombinant µ- and δ-opioid receptors. Hetero-oligomer selective ligands may bind to orthosteric or allosteric sites, and we might anticipate that the formation of hetero-oligomers may provide novel allosteric binding pockets for ligand binding. Therefore, our goal was to execute the screen in such a way as to identify positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) as well as agonists for µ, δ, and hetero-oligomeric receptors. While no hetero-oligomer selective ligands were identified (based on our selection criteria), this single screen did identify numerous µ- and δ-selective agonists and PAMs as well as nonselective agonists and PAMs. To our knowledge, these are the first µ- and δ-opioid receptor PAMs described in the literature.