Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Journal of biomolecular screening [journal]
- Discovery of Small-Molecule Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Modulators That Restore Glucokinase Activity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Apr 9.
In the nuclei of hepatocytes, glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) modulates the activity of glucokinase (GK), a key regulator of glucose homeostasis. Currently, direct activators of GK (GKAs) are in development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, this approach is generally associated with a risk of hypoglycemia. To mitigate such risk, we target the GKRP regulation, which indirectly restores GK activity. Here we describe a screening strategy to look specifically for GKRP modulators, in addition to traditional GKAs. Two high-throughput screening campaigns were performed with our compound libraries using a luminescence assay format, one with GK alone and the other with a GK/GKRP complex in the presence of sorbitol-6-phosphate (S6P). By a subtraction method in the hit triage process of these campaigns, we discovered two close analogs that bind GKRP specifically with sub-µM potency to a site distinct from where fructose-1-phosphate binds. These small molecules are first-in-class allosteric modulators of the GK/GKRP interaction and are fully active even in the presence of S6P. Activation of GK by this particular mechanism, without altering the enzymatic profile, represents a novel pharmacologic modality of intervention in the GK/GKRP pathway.
- Automated Structure-Activity Relationship Mining: Connecting Chemical Structure to Biological Profiles. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Apr 7.
Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). Although such methods promise to capture SARs with high granularity, few computational methods are available to support SAR analyses of high-dimensional compound activity profiles. Many of these methods are not generally applicable or reduce the activity space to scalar summary statistics before establishing SARs. In this article, we present a versatile computational method that automatically extracts interpretable SAR rules from high-dimensional profiling data. The rules connect chemical structural features of compounds to patterns in their biological activity profiles. We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. Based on the rules identified for this data set, we prioritized groups of compounds for further study, including a novel set of putative histone deacetylase inhibitors.
- Increasing the Content of High-Content Screening: An Overview. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Apr 7.
Target-based high-throughput screening (HTS) has recently been critiqued for its relatively poor yield compared to phenotypic screening approaches. One type of phenotypic screening, image-based high-content screening (HCS), has been seen as particularly promising.In this article, we assess whether HCS is as high content as it can be. We analyze HCS publications and find that although the number of HCS experiments published each year continues to grow steadily, the information content lags behind. We find that a majority of high-content screens published so far (60-80%) made use of only one or two image-based features measured from each sample and disregarded the distribution of those features among each cell population. We discuss several potential explanations, focusing on the hypothesis that data analysis traditions are to blame. This includes practical problems related to managing large and multidimensional HCS data sets as well as the adoption of assay quality statistics from HTS to HCS. Both may have led to the simplification or systematic rejection of assays carrying complex and valuable phenotypic information.We predict that advanced data analysis methods that enable full multiparametric data to be harvested for entire cell populations will enable HCS to finally reach its potential.
- The Use of Antibodies in Small-Molecule Drug Discovery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Apr 2.
Antibodies are powerful research tools that can be used in many areas of biology to probe, measure, and perturb various biological structures. Successful drug discovery is dependent on the correct identification of a target implicated in disease, coupled with the successful selection, optimization, and development of a candidate drug. Because of their specific binding characteristics, with regard to specificity, affinity, and avidity, coupled with their amenability to protein engineering, antibodies have become a key tool in drug discovery, enabling the quantification, localization, and modulation of proteins of interest. This review summarizes the application of antibodies and other protein affinity reagents as specific research tools within the drug discovery process.
- Applications of Biophysics in High-Throughput Screening Hit Validation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Apr 2.
For approximately a decade, biophysical methods have been used to validate positive hits selected from high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns with the goal to verify binding interactions using label-free assays. By applying label-free readouts, screen artifacts created by compound interference and fluorescence are discovered, enabling further characterization of the hits for their target specificity and selectivity. The use of several biophysical methods to extract this type of high-content information is required to prevent the promotion of false positives to the next level of hit validation and to select the best candidates for further chemical optimization. The typical technologies applied in this arena include dynamic light scattering, turbidometry, resonance waveguide, surface plasmon resonance, differential scanning fluorimetry, mass spectrometry, and others. Each technology can provide different types of information to enable the characterization of the binding interaction. Thus, these technologies can be incorporated in a hit-validation strategy not only according to the profile of chemical matter that is desired by the medicinal chemists, but also in a manner that is in agreement with the target protein's amenability to the screening format. Here, we present the results of screening strategies using biophysics with the objective to evaluate the approaches, discuss the advantages and challenges, and summarize the benefits in reference to lead discovery. In summary, the biophysics screens presented here demonstrated various hit rates from a list of ~2000 preselected, IC50-validated hits from HTS (an IC50 is the inhibitor concentration at which 50% inhibition of activity is observed). There are several lessons learned from these biophysical screens, which will be discussed in this article.
- Heterogeneous Antibody-Based Activity Assay for Lysine Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) on a Histone Peptide Substrate. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Mar 31.
Posttranslational modifications of histone tails are very important for epigenetic gene regulation. The lysine-specific demethylase LSD1 (KDM1A/AOF2) demethylates in vitro predominantly mono- and dimethylated lysine 4 on histone 3 (H3K4) and is a promising target for drug discovery. We report a heterogeneous antibody-based assay, using dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescent immunoassay (DELFIA) for the detection of LSD1 activity. We used a biotinylated histone 3 peptide (amino acids 1-21) with monomethylated lysine 4 (H3K4me) as the substrate for the detection of LSD1 activity with antibody-mediated quantitation of the demethylated product. We have successfully used the assay to measure the potency of reference inhibitors. The advantage of the heterogeneous format is shown with cumarin-based LSD1 inhibitor candidates that we have identified using virtual screening. They had shown good potency in an established LSD1 screening assay. The new heterogeneous assay identified them as false positives, which was verified using mass spectrometry.
- A High-Throughput Assay to Identify Inhibitors of the Apicoplast DNA Polymerase from Plasmodium falciparum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Mar 31.
Infection by Plasmodium falciparum is the leading cause of malaria in humans. The parasite contains a unique and essential plastid-like organelle called the apicoplast that, similar to the mitochondria and chloroplast, houses its own genome that must undergo replication and repair. The putative apicoplast replicative DNA polymerase, POM1, has no direct orthologs in mammals, making the P. falciparum POM1 an attractive antimalarial drug target. Here, we report on a fluorescent high-throughput DNA polymerase assay that relies on the ability of POM1 to perform strand-displacement synthesis through the stem of a DNA hairpin substrate, thereby separating a Cy3 dye from a quencher. Assay-validation experiments were performed using 384-well plates and resulted in a signal window of 7.90 and a Z' factor of 0.71. A pilot screen of a 2880-compound library identified 62 possible inhibitors that cause more than 50% inhibition of polymerase activity. The simplicity and statistical robustness of the assay suggest it is well suited for the screening of novel apicoplast polymerase inhibitors that may serve as lead compounds in antimalarial drug-discovery efforts.
- Rapid Assessment and Visualization of Normality in High-Content and Other Cell-Level Data and Its Impact on the Interpretation of Experimental Results. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Mar 20.
When investigators monitor effects on a population of cells following a perturbation, these events rarely occur in a classical normal (or Gaussian) distribution. A normal distribution is, however, explicitly assumed for events within a single well, in which mean values per well are used as an assay metric and, in general, measures of assay robustness, such as the Z' score and the V factor. Such analysis is not possible for many technologies; however, high-content screening (HCS) measures events of individual cells, which are averaged over the well. These individual cell-level measurements may be analyzed separately. This study quantifies the extent of nonnormality in experimental samples and their effects on determining the EC50 of a test compound and the assay robustness statistics. The results, based on five sets of publicly available data, indicate that the Z' or V-factor score can be improved by as much as 0.44 more than standard calculations, and the EC50 of a dose-response curve can be lowered by as much as fivefold when nonparametric methods are used, but not all data sets show a significant improvement. The effect on analysis depends in part on whether the greatest shift from normality occurs in the upper or lower range of the dose-response curve.
- High Specific DNAzyme-Aptamer Sensor for Salmonella paratyphi A Using Single-Walled Nanotubes-Based Dual Fluorescence-Spectrophotometric Methods. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Mar 20.
In this work, single-stranded DNA aptamers that are highly specific to enterotoxigenic Salmonella paratyphi A were obtained from an enriched oligonucleotide pool using Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) to target the flagellin protein. The selected aptamers were confirmed to have high sensitivity and specificity to the flagellin. In addition, a probe (P0) containing the DNAzyme and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled aptamer3 sequences was employed as a dual probe for observing fluorescence and absorbance changes. The flagellin demonstrated low detection limits of 5 ng/mL by fluorescence and 20 ng/mL by spectrophotometry. Moreover, milk samples spiked with Salmonella paratyphi A were also detected, with the low detection limits increasing to 10(5) CFU/mL by fluorescence and 10(6) CFU/mL by spectrophotometry. The combination of fluorescence and spectrophotometry offers a specific, rapid, and sensitive way for detecting Salmonella paratyphi A and has potential for detecting other pathogens in food.
- Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Biomol Screen 2014 Mar 18.
High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.