Journal of clinical pathology [journal]
- Traditional serrated adenomas and serrated carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 26.
A recent review of archived sections from early experiments in rats showed neoplasias exhibiting serrated configurations. The aim was to assess the frequency of serrated neoplasias in the colon and small intestine of carcinogen-treated rats.While reviewing archival sections from early experiments in Sprague-Dawley (SD) and Fisher-344 (F-344) rats, we recently detected colonic and intestinal traditional serrated adenomas (displaying serrated or microtubular patterns) and serrated carcinomas. SD rats were injected 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) for 27 weeks whereas F-344 rats were fed with a pyrolysate (GLU-1) for 24 months. Filed sections from 358 colonic and small intestinal neoplasias were re-evaluated.DMH-treated SD rats had 215 colonic neoplasias (1.4% were serrated adenomas, 7.9% microtubular adenomas, 2.8% serrated carcinomas and 2.8% microtubular carcinomas). GLU1-treated F-344 rats had 53 colonic neoplasias (1.9% were serrated adenomas and 20.8% microtubular adenomas), and 89 small intestinal neoplasias (1.1% were serrated adenomas, 42.7% microtubular adenomas and 6.7%, microtubular carcinomas).DMH/SD-rats develop serrated and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the colon, whereas GLU1/F-344 rats develop microtubular adenomas in the colon and microtubular adenomas and carcinomas in the small intestine. The two rat-settings emerge as suitable models to study the molecular attributes of serrated and microtubular neoplasias under the standard conditions of the laboratory. This study is the first showing that a substantial number of serrated and particularly microtubular adenomas and carcinomas develop in the colon and small intestine of experimental rats. Importantly, serrated and microtubular neoplasias in rats recreate the histology of duodenal and colonic traditional serrated neoplasias in human beings.
- Dysfibrinogenemia-associated novel heterozygous mutation, Shanghai (FGA c.169_180+2 del), leads to N-terminal truncation of fibrinogen Aα chain and impairs fibrin polymerization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 23.
A novel heterozygous variant, FGA c.169_180+2 del (designated fibrinogen Shanghai), was identified in a patient with dysfibrinogenemia with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) and recurrent venous thrombosis, and in his asymptomatic father. We aimed to reveal the functional implication of structural change caused by this variant.Transcription analysis was performed with FGA minigene transfection assay to evaluate the impact of nucleosides deletion on mRNA editing. The fibrinogen isolated from propositus' plasma was used to characterise its functional defects. Fibrin polymerization and clot lysis experiments were performed by optical measurement of turbidity. Thrombin-catalysed fibrinopeptide release was analysed by the reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography. The ultrastructures of fibrin clots were visualised by scanning electron microscopy.FGA c.169_180+2 del led to an aberrant mRNA with exon 2 skipping and encoded an shortened Aα chain with 42 amino acids truncation at its N-terminal. The propositus' fibrinogen had an impaired release of fibrinopeptide A and abnormal polymerization with a significantly prolonged lag time, a slower maximum slope and reduced final turbidity. The fibrin clot formed with propositus' fibrinogen showed thicker fibres with looser network structure. Clot lysis was normal using the purified fibrinogen but was significantly impaired using the plasma sample from propositus, compared with that from his father.Fibrinogen Shanghai results in N-terminal truncation of Aα chain, which does not interfere with synthesis, assembly or secretion of fibrinogen, but compromises fibrin polymerization and clot formation. APS at least partially contributes to the development of thrombosis in the propositus.
- Lymph node staging in prostate cancer: perspective for the pathologist. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 23.
Pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) currently represents the gold standard method for nodal staging in the setting of localised prostate cancer and may also have a therapeutic benefit in certain patients. The histopathological evaluation of PLND specimens plays a critical role in accurate lymph node staging, however there is currently a lack of consensus regarding the optimum approach and no quality parameters are in place. In addition, there are no guidelines as to the handling of less commonly encountered nodal specimens such as those identified within the anterior fat pad. This summary provides an overview of pertinent issues regarding lymph node staging in prostate cancer, with a focus on the histopathological evaluation of resected nodal specimens. We hope that this review will further the discussion on how to achieve a more standardised approach to the processing and reporting of PLND specimens in the setting of prostate cancer.
- EGFR mutation detection on lung cancer cytological specimens by the novel fully automated PCR-based Idylla EGFR Mutation Assay. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 19.
In everyday practice, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) testing is centralised in referral laboratories that receive paucicellular cytological specimens. Ideally, EGFR testing should be carried out in the centre where the patient is diagnosed such that the most cellular slide can be selected from in-house collected cytological material. However, available techniques are little standardised and difficult to be implemented in settings with little expertise in molecular testing. The Idylla EGFR prototype assay is a rapid and fully automated test which may easily be adopted by a wider number of pathological centres. This study assessed whether an Idylla EGFR prototype assay can be reliably applied to cytological lung cancer specimens.The limit of detection (LOD) of the Idylla EGFR prototype assay was assessed by cell line dilution studies. A total of 10 ng was directly placed inside an Idylla EGFR prototype assay cartridge. Idylla results were compared with fragment length (exon 19 del) and Taqman assays.The Idylla EGFR prototype assay showed an LOD of 1% mutant allele and yielded valid results in 74/76 (97.3%) samples, detecting all the mutant cases (n=32) identified by standard techniques; in addition, Idylla detected two low abundance EGFR exon 19 deletions and two G719X exon 18 point mutations, not covered by our standard reference method.Idylla EGFR prototype assay is sensitive on extracted DNA and can reliably be applied on cytological samples, enabling implementation of EGFR testing even in less experienced diagnostic units.
- The usefulness of a novel fully automated PCR-based Idylla test for detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in thyroid tissue: comparison with PNA-clamping PCR, real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 19.
The BRAF V600E mutation is the most common genetic event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The BRAF V600E mutational status has a significant diagnostic and prognostic role in PTC since it can be detected in 32%-87% of PTC by various molecular methods.A novel, fully automated real-time PCR-based Idylla test is assessed to detect the BRAF mutation in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) thyroid samples.99 PTC and 11 nodular hyperplasia FFPE thyroid tissues are evaluated for the BRAF V600E mutation by the Idylla tests and compared with peptide nucleic acid-clamping PCR, real-time PCR and pyrosequencing.The sensitivity and specificity of the Idylla test to detect BRAF V600E are 98.8% and 100%, which is superior to real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. The concordance between Idylla and true positive is highest at 0.974.This study validates that the Idylla test is a sensitive and specific method to detect BRAF V600E in FFPE thyroid tissues. A simple, quick and easy to handle Idylla test is a useful and reliable molecular technique to evaluate BRAF mutations.
- Comprehensive profiling of metaplastic breast carcinomas reveals frequent overexpression of programmed death-ligand 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 16.
Metaplastic breast carcinoma (MBC) is a rare subtype of breast carcinoma less responsive to conventional chemotherapy than ductal carcinoma. In molecular terms, MBCs usually cluster with triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), but have a worse prognosis than TNBCs. Studies investigating MBCs for specific biomarkers of therapy response are rare and limited by the methodological approaches. The aim of the present study was to characterise MBCs on a molecular level and test programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) biomarker expression in MBCs for future therapeutic interventions.We profiled 297 samples (MBC (n=75), TNBC (n=106), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancers (n=32) and hormone-positive breast cancers (n=84)) by next-generation sequencing. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1 and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) expression was performed using automated procedures.The most commonly mutated genes in MBCs included TP53 (56%) and PIK3CA (23%). Pathogenic mutations in other genes, including HRAS, FBXW7, PTEN, AKT1 and SMAD4, were rare. PD-L1 expression was detected in a significantly higher proportion of MBCs (46%) than in other subtypes (6% each in hormone-positive and HER2-positive breast cancers, and 9% in TNBC, not otherwise specified, p<0.001). PD-1-positive tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) varied greatly in MBCs.Comprehensive profiling of a large cohort of this rare subtype of breast carcinoma highlighted the predominance of TP53 mutation and increased PD-L1 expression in carcinoma cells. These results can be exploited in clinical trials using immune checkpoint inhibitors.
- Erythrophagocytosis in T-cell type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia with near-tetraploidy. [LETTER]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 12.
- Accuracy of classification of invasive lobular carcinoma on needle core biopsy of the breast. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 10.
Although the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommend that in patients with biopsy-proven invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC), preoperative MRI scan is considered, the accuracy of diagnosis of ILC in core biopsy of the breast has not been previously investigated. Eleven pathology laboratories from the UK and Ireland submitted data on 1112 cases interpreted as showing features of ILC, or mixed ILC and IDC/no special type (NST)/other tumour type, on needle core biopsy through retrieval of histology reports. Of the total 1112 cases, 844 were shown to be pure ILC on surgical excision, 154 were mixed ILC plus another type (invariably ductal/NST) and 113 were shown to be ductal/NST. Of those lesions categorised as pure ILC on core, 93% had an element of ILC correctly identified in the core biopsy sample and could be considered concordant. Of cores diagnosed as mixed ILC plus another type on core, complete agreement between core and excision was 46%, with 27% cases of pure ILC, whilst 26% non-concordant. These data indicate that there is not a large excess of expensive MRIs being performed as a result of miscategorisation histologically.
- DNA hypermethylation analysis in sputum of asymptomatic subjects at risk for lung cancer participating in the NELSON trial: argument for maximum screening interval of 2 years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 5.
Lung cancer is the major contributor to cancer mortality due to metastasised disease at time of presentation. The current study investigated DNA hypermethylation of biomarkers RASSF1A, APC, cytoglobin, 3OST2, FAM19A4, PHACTR3 and PRDM14 in sputum of asymptomatic high-risk individuals from the NELSON lung cancer low-dose spiral CT screening trial to detect lung cancer at preclinical stage.Subjects were selected with (i) lung cancer in follow-up (cases; n=65), (ii) minor cytological aberrations (controls; n=120) and (iii) a random selection of subjects without cytological aberrations (controls; n=99). Median follow-up time for controls was 80 months. Cut-off values were based on high specificity to assess diagnostic value of the biomarkers.RASSF1A may denote presence of invasive cancer because of its high specificity (93% (95% CI 89% to 96%); sensitivity 17% (95% CI 4% to 31%), with best performance in a screening interval of 2 years. The panel of RASSF1A, 3OST2 and PRDM14 detected 28% (95% CI 11% to 44%) of lung cancer cases within 2 years, with specificity of 90% (95% CI 86% to 94%). Sputum cytology did not detect any lung cancers.In a lung cancer screening setting with maximum screening interval of 2 years, DNA hypermethylation analysis in sputum may play a role in the detection of preclinical disease, but complementary diagnostic markers are needed to improve sensitivity.
- Acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndromes with chromosomal rearrangement involving 11q23 locus, but not MLL gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Pathol 2016 Aug 5.
Chromosome 11q23 translocations, resulting in MLL (KMT2A) rearrangement, have been well characterised in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, little is known of haematopoietic neoplasms associated with 11q23 translocation but without MLL rearrangement (11q23+/MLL-). The aim of this study is to characterise such cases with 11q23+/MLL-.We retrospectively searched our database for cases with haematopoietic malignancies with 11q23+/MLL-. We identified nine patients, two with AML, two with B-lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL); two with T-lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL), two with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and one with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML). The translocations included t(X;11)(p11.2;q23), t(2;11)(p21;q23), t(6;11)(q27;q23), t(8;9;11)(q13;q13;q23), t(11;11)(p15;q23), t(11;14)(q23;q24) and t(11;15)(q23;q14). Five of six patients with acute leukaemia had received chemotherapy and detection of 11q23 translocation occurred at time of disease relapse. Both patients with MDS and the patient with CMML had 11q23 translocation detected at time of initial diagnosis, all three patients progressed to AML after >1 year on hypomethylating agent therapy. All patients received risk-adapted therapies, including stem cell transplant in five patients. At the last follow-up, eight patients died with a median overall survival of 14 months.11q23+/MLL- occurs rarely, involving different partner chromosomes and showing clinical and pathological features and disease subtypes different from those cases with MLL rearrangement. 11q23+/MLL- appears to be associated with clonal evolution/disease progression in acute leukaemia, a high risk for AML progression in MDS/CMML and a high incidence of disease relapse.