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Journal of hazardous materials [journal]
- Intense generation of respirable metal nanoparticles from a low-power soldering unit. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 21.:84-89.
Evidence of intense nanoparticle generation from a low power (45W) flux soldering unit is presented. This is a familiar device often used in daily life, including home repairs and school electronic laboratories. We demonstrate that metal-containing nanoparticles may reach high concentrations (ca. 10(6) particles/cm(3)) within the breathing range of the operator, with initial size distributions centered at 35-60nm The morphological and chemical analysis of nanoparticle agglomerates collected on TEM grids and filters confirms their multiparticle structure and the presence of metals.
- Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 22.:76-83.
Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds-environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)-in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0m s(-1) (3200Lmin(-1)), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10Lmin(-1). Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10Hz or 50Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative "degradation" efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.
- A strategy for in vitro safety testing of nanotitania-modified textile products. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 20.:67-75.
Titanium dioxide nanomaterials are extensively used in many applications, also for modification of textile materials. Toxicological assessment of such textile materials is currently seldom performed, mainly because of lack of appropriate guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of commercially available TiO2 and TiO2/Ag NMs in pristine form as well as polypropylene fibers modified with the NMs. Both titania NMs showed a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 clone A31 and V79 fibroblasts after 72-h exposure. Both NMs induced a weak genotoxic effect in comet assay, with TiO2/Ag being more active. In vitro micronucleus test on human lymphocytes revealed a weak mutagenic effect of both materials after 24h of exposure. In contrast, no significant increase in micronuclei frequency was observed in the in vitro micronucleus test on V79 fibroblasts. The 24-h extracts prepared from polypropylene fibers modified with TiO2/Ag induced a cytotoxic effect on BALB/3T3 cells which strongly depended on the mode of the fibers manufacturing. The study presents a comprehensive approach to toxicity assessment of textile fibers modified with NMs. Proposed approach may form a good "starting point" for improved future testing strategies.
- The fate of heavy metals during combustion and gasification of contaminated biomass-A brief review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Mar 5.:56-66.
The literature on the presence of heavy metals in contaminated wastes is reviewed. Various categories of materials produced from domestic and industrial activities are included, but municipal solid waste, which is a more complex material, is excluded. This review considers among the most abundant the following materials - wood waste including demolition wood, phytoremediation scavengers and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) timber, sludges including de-inking sludge and sewage sludge, chicken litter and spent pot liner. The partitioning of the metals in the ashes after combustion or gasification follows conventional behaviour, with most metals retained, and higher concentrations in the finer sizes due to vaporisation and recondensation. The alkali metals have been shown to catalyse the biomass conversion, particularly lithium and potassium, although other metals are active to a lesser extent. The most prevalent in biomass is potassium, which is not only inherently active, but volatilises to become finely distributed throughout the char mass. Because the metals are predominantly found in the ash, the effectiveness of their removal depends on the efficiency of the collection of particulates. The potential for disposal into soil depends on the initial concentration in the feed material.
- Activated carbon fibers impregnated with Pd and Pt catalysts for toluene removal. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 21.:49-55.
Few studies have investigated the use of activated carbon fibers (ACFs) impregnated with noble metals for the catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study determined the removal efficiency of toluene as a function of time over ACF-supported metal catalysts. Two catalysts (Pt and Pd), five reaction temperatures (120, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C), and three oxygen contents (6%, 10%, and 21%) were investigated to determine the removal of toluene. To study the effects of the characteristics of the catalysts on toluene removal, the composition and morphology of the ACFs were analyzed using the BET, XPS, ICP, and FE-SEM. The results showed that the 0.42%Pd/ACFs showed greater activity for toluene removal than did 2.68%Pt/ACFs at a reaction temperature of 200°C and an oxygen content of 10%. The main removal mechanism of toluene over the 2.68%Pt/ACFs at reaction temperatures less than 200°C was adsorption. The long-term catalytic activity of the 2.68%Pt/ACFs for toluene removal at a reaction temperature of 250°C and an oxygen content of 10% could be obtained. Furthermore, toluene removal over the 2.68%Pt/ACFs at 200°C could be enhanced with increasing oxygen content.
- Experimental and numerical study of the dispersion of carbon dioxide plume. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 17.:40-48.
Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) technologies have been widely applied in the environmental protection and petroleum production fields. However, accidental release of carbon dioxide may cause damage and losses during oil and gas production. This paper presents a reduced-scale field experiment designed to imitate a CO2 blowout for the purpose of acquiring concentration the distribution in the flow field. Additionally, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code was used to perform numerical simulations of the field experiment using the k-ε, RNG k-ε and SST k-ω models. The results of these models were compared with the experimental data for validation, and statistical performance indicators were introduced to verify the simulated values. According to experimental and numerical results, the interior flow structure of a CO2 plume was analyzed together with consideration of negative buoyancy effects. The concentration as a function of time was studied by comparing the observed values and simulation results. We conclude that the CFD simulation results from the k-ε and SST k-ω models are in acceptable agreement with the experimental data according to the Chang's criteria, and predicted values from the RNG k-ε model are unsatisfactory. Therefore, the CFD techniques can be satisfactorily applied in industrial risk analysis procedures with acceptable accuracy according to the Chang's criteria.
- Investigation of acute effects of graphene oxide on wastewater microbial community: A case study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 6.:33-39.
The market for graphene-based products, such as graphene oxide (GO), is projected to reach nearly $675 million by 2020, hence it is expected that large quantities of graphene-based wastes will be generated by then. Wastewater treatment plants will be one of the ultimate repositories for these wastes. Efficient waste treatment relies heavily on the functions of diverse microbial communities. Therefore, systematic investigation of any potential toxic effects of GO in wastewater microbial communities is essential to determine the potential adverse effects and the fate of these nanomaterials in the environment. In the present study, we investigate the acute toxicity, i.e. short-term and high load, effect of GO on the microbial functions related to the biological wastewater treatment process. The results showed that toxic effects of GO on microbial communities were dose dependent, especially in concentrations between 50 and 300mg/L. Bacterial metabolic activity, bacterial viability, and biological removal of nutrients, such as organics, nitrogen and phosphorus, were significantly impacted by the presence of GO in the activated sludge. Furthermore, the presence of GO deteriorated the final effluent quality by increasing the water turbidity and reducing the sludge dewaterability. Microscopic techniques confirmed penetration and accumulation of GO inside the activated sludge floc matrix. Results demonstrated that the interaction of GO with wastewater produced significant amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which could be one of the responsible mechanisms for the toxic effect of GO.
- Cr(VI) reduction by a potent novel alkaliphilic halotolerant strain Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum LY10. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 20.:24-32.
A novel Cr(VI)-reducing strain, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum LY10, was isolated and characterized for its high Cr(VI)-reducing ability. Strain LY10 had typical characteristics of alkali-tolerance and halotolerance. Kinetic analysis indicated that the maximum reduction rate was achieved under optimum conditions with initial pH 8.3, 20gL(-1) NaCl, 55mgL(-1) Cr(VI), and 1.47×10(9)cellsmL(-1) of cell concentration. Further mechanism studies verified that the removal of Cr(VI) was mainly achieved by a metabolism-dependent bioreduction process. Strain LY10 accumulated chromium both in and around the cells, with cell walls acting as the major binding sites for chromium. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis further confirmed that the chromium immobilized by the cells was in the Cr(III) state. In the present study, Pseudochrobactrum saccharolyticum was, for the first time, reported to be a Cr(VI)-reducing bacteria. Results from this research would provide a potential candidate for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated environments, especially alkaline and saline milieus with Cr(VI) at low-to-mid concentrations.
- Visible light photodegradation of phenanthrene catalyzed by Fe(III)-smectite: Role of soil organic matter. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 16.:16-23.
In the present study, phenanthrene is employed as a model to explore the roles played by three soil organic matter (SOM) fractions, i.e., dissolved organic matter (DOM), humic acid (HA), and fulvic acid (FA), in its photodegradation with assistance of Fe(III)-smectite under visible-light. Slight decrease in phenanthrene photodegradation rate was observed in the presence of DOM, which is explained in terms of oxidative-radical competition between DOM and target phenanthrene molecules due to the high electron-donor capacity of phenolic moieties in DOM. On the other hand, a critic content is observed with FA (0.70mg/g) and HA (0.65mg/g). Before reaching the critic content, the removal of phenanthrene is accelerated; while after that, the photodegradation rate is suppressed. The acceleration of phenanthrene degradation can be attributed to the photosensitization of FA and HA. Due to the strong interaction between phenanthrene and the phenyl rings, however, the retention of phenanthrene on SOM-Fe(III)-smectite in the presence of high content of HA or FA is enhanced, thus slowing down its photodegradation. Those observations provide valuable insights into the transformation and fate of PAHs in the natural soil environment and open a window for using clay-humic substances complexes for remediation of contaminated soil.
- Effects of water vapor on flue gas conditioning in the electric fields with corona discharge. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 18.:10-15.
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal via pulsed discharge nonthermal plasma in the absence of ammonia was investigated to determine how electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) can effectively collect particulate matter less than 2.5μm in diameter from flue gas. SO2 removal increased as water vapor concentration increased. In a wet-type plasma reactor, directing a gas-phase discharge plasma toward the water film surface significantly enhanced the liquid-phase oxidation of HSO3(-) to SO4(2-). Comparisons of various absorbents revealed that the hydroxyl radical is a key factor in plasma-induced liquid-phase reactions. The resistivity, size distribution, and cohesive force of fly ash at different water vapor contents were measured using a Bahco centrifuge, which is a dust electrical resistivity test instrument, as well as a cohesive force test apparatus developed by the researchers. When water vapor content increased by 5%, fly ash resistivity in flue gas decreased by approximately two orders of magnitude, adhesive force and size increased, and specific surface area decreased. Therefore, ESP efficiency increased.