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Journal of molecular biology [journal]
- Metal-dependent activity of Fe and Ni acireductone dioxygenases: how two electrons reroute the catalytic pathway. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 13.
Two virtually identical acireductone dioxygenases, ARD and ARD', catalyze completely different oxidation reactions of the same substrate, 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(methylthio)pentene, depending exclusively on the nature of the bound metal. Fe(2+)-dependent ARD' produces the a-keto acid precursor of methionine and formate, and allows for the recycling of methionine in cells. Ni(2+)-dependent ARD instead produces methylthiopropionate, CO, and formate, and exits the methionine salvage cycle. This mechanistic difference has not been understood to date, but has been speculated to be due to the difference in coordination of the substrate to Fe(2+) versus Ni(2+): forming a 5-membered ring versus a 6-membered ring, respectively, thus exposing different carbon atoms for the attack by O2. Here, using mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics simulations followed by the density functional theory mechanistic investigation, we show that, contrary to the old hypothesis, both metals preferentially bind the substrate as a 6-membered ring, exposing the exact same sites to the attack by O2. It is the electronic properties of the metals that are then responsible for the system following different reaction paths, to yield the respective products. We fully explain the puzzling metal-induced difference in functionality between ARD and ARD' and, in particular, propose a new mechanism for ARD'. All results are in agreement with available isotopic substitution and other experimental data.
- Quantitative Analysis of SecYEG-Mediated Insertion of Transmembrane α-Helices into the Bacterial Inner Membrane. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 7.
Most integral membrane proteins, both in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, are co-translationally inserted into the membrane via Sec-type translocons: the SecYEG complex in prokaryotes and the Sec61 complex in eukaryotes. The contributions of individual amino acids to the overall free energy of membrane insertion of single transmembrane α-helices have been measured for Sec61-mediated insertion into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (Nature 450:1026-1030) but have not been systematically determined for SecYEG-mediated insertion into the bacterial inner membrane. We now report such measurements, carried out in Escherichia coli. Overall, there is a good correlation between the results found for the mammalian ER and the E. coli inner membrane, but the hydrophobicity threshold for SecYEG-mediated insertion is distinctly lower than that for Sec61-mediated insertion.
- Selectivity of CDC25 Homology Domain-Containing Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 7.
The Ras family of small G-proteins plays an essential role in the regulation of a variety of signal transduction processes, ranging from cell cycle control to the regulation of exocytosis. Signalling by the Ras G-proteins is initiated by the CDC25 homology domain (CDC25-HD) containing guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs); each GEF, with its specific selectivity profile towards G-proteins, commonly acts on only a small subset of the Ras family members. Thus, GEFs play a pivotal part in establishing the activation of the downstream signalling routes. The structural basis for the establishment of selectivity in the GEF-G-protein interaction is only partially understood, and several controversies on the selectivity of GEFs are discussed in the literature. In the present study, we undertook a systematic approach to determine the selectivity of CDC25-HD for members of the Ras family. We generated a data set of 126 pairs using a standardised in vitro approach encompassing purified recombinant proteins, and a comprehensive mutational study analysed the basis of the selectivity. Together, these data highlight the distinct selectivity of various GEFs and allow for predictions of untested combinations of GEFs and G-proteins.
- A Key Hydrophobic Patch Identified in an AAA(+) Protein Essential for Its In Trans Inhibitory Regulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 7.
Bacterial enhancer binding proteins (bEBPs) are a subclass of the AAA(+) (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) protein family. They are responsible for σ(54)-dependent transcription activation during infection and function under many stressful growth conditions. The majority of bEBPs are regulated in their formation of ring-shaped hexameric self-assemblies via an amino-terminal domain through its phosphorylation or ligand binding. In contrast, the Escherichia coli phage shock protein F (PspF) is negatively regulated in trans by phage shock protein A (PspA). Up to six PspA subunits suppress PspF hexamer action. Here, we present biochemical evidence that PspA engages across the side of a PspF hexameric ring. We identify three key binding determinants located in a surface-exposed 'W56 loop' of PspF, which form a tightly packed hydrophobic cluster, the 'YLW' patch. We demonstrate the profound impact of the PspF W56 loop residues on ATP hydrolysis, the σ(54) binding loop 1, and the self-association interface. We infer from single-chain studies that for complete PspF inhibition to occur, more than three PspA subunits need to bind a PspF hexamer with at least two binding to adjacent PspF subunits. By structural modelling, we propose that PspA binds to PspF via its first two helical domains. After PspF binding-induced conformational changes, PspA may then share structural similarities with a bEBP regulatory domain.
- Structure Analysis of Archaeal AMP Phosphorylase Reveals Two Unique Modes of Dimerization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 7.
AMP phosphorylase (AMPpase) catalyzes the initial reaction in a novel AMP metabolic pathway recently found in archaea, converting AMP and phosphate into adenine and ribose 1,5-bisphosphate. Gel-filtration chromatography revealed that AMPpase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (Tk-AMPpase) forms an exceptionally large macromolecular structure (>40-mers) in solution. To investigate its unique multimerization feature, we determined the first crystal structures of Tk-AMPpase, in the apo-form and in complex with substrates. Structures of two truncated forms of Tk-AMPpase (Tk-AMPpaseΔN84 and Tk-AMPpaseΔC10) clarified that this multimerization is achieved by two dimer interfaces within a single molecule: one by the central domain and the other by the C-terminal domain, which consists of an unexpected domain-swapping interaction. The N-terminal domain, characteristic of archaeal enzymes, is essential for enzymatic activity, also participating in multimerization as well as domain closure of the active site upon substrate binding. Moreover, biochemical analysis demonstrated that the macromolecular assembly of Tk-AMPpase contributes to its high thermostability, essential for an enzyme from a hyperthermophile. Our findings unveil a unique archaeal nucleotide phosphorylase that is distinct in both function and structure from previously known members of the nucleoside phosphorylase II family.
- Crystal Structure of Tannase from Lactobacillusplantarum. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 3.
Tannins are water-soluble polyphenolic compounds in plants. Hydrolyzable tannins are derivatives of gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) or its meta-depsidic forms that are esterified to polyol, catechin, or triterpenoid units. Tannases are a family of esterases that catalyze the hydrolysis of the galloyl ester bond in hydrolyzable tannins to release gallic acid. The enzymes have found wide applications in food, feed, beverage, pharmaceutical, and chemical industries since their discovery more than a century ago, although little is known about them at the molecular level, including the details of the catalytic and substrate binding sites. Here, we report the first three-dimensional structure of a tannase from Lactobacillus plantarum. The enzyme displays an α/β structure, featured by a large cap domain inserted into the classical serine hydrolase fold. A catalytic triad was identified in the structure, which is composed of Ser163, His451, and Asp419. During the binding of gallic acid, the carboxyl group of the molecule forges hydrogen-bonding interactions with the catalytic triad of the enzyme while the three hydroxyl groups make contacts with Asp421, Lys343, and Glu357 to form another hydrogen-bonding network. Mutagenesis studies demonstrated that these residues are indispensable for the activity of the enzyme. Structural studies of the enzyme in complex with a number of substrates indicated that the interactions at the galloyl binding site are the determinant force for the binding of substrates. The single galloyl binding site is responsible for the esterase and depsidase activities of the enzyme.
- Three-Dimensional Structure of CAP-Gly Domain of Mammalian Dynactin Determined by Magic Angle Spinning NMR Spectroscopy: Conformational Plasticity and Interactions with End-Binding Protein EB1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 4.
Microtubules and their associated proteins play important roles in vesicle and organelle transport, cell motility and cell division. Perturbation of these processes by mutation typically gives rise to severe pathological conditions. In our efforts to obtain atomic information on microtubule-associated protein/microtubule interactions with the goal to understand mechanisms that might potentially assist in the development of treatments for these diseases, we have determined the three-dimensional structure of CAP-Gly (cytoskeleton-associated protein, glycine-rich) domain of mammalian dynactin by magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy. We observe two conformations in the β2 strand encompassing residues T43-V44-A45, residues that are adjacent to the disease-associated mutation, G59S. Upon binding of CAP-Gly to microtubule plus-end tracking protein EB1, the CAP-Gly shifts to a single conformer. We find extensive chemical shift perturbations in several stretches of residues of CAP-Gly upon binding to EB1, from which we define accurately the CAP-Gly/EB1 binding interface. We also observe that the loop regions may exhibit unique flexibility, especially in the GKNDG motif, which participates in the microtubule binding. This study in conjunction with our previous reports suggests that conformational plasticity is an intrinsic property of CAP-Gly likely due to its unusually high loop content and may be required for its biological functions.
- Colocalization of Fast and Slow Timescale Dynamics in the Allosteric Signaling Protein CheY. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 3.
It is now widely recognized that dynamics are important to consider for understanding allosteric protein function. However, dynamics occur over a wide range of timescales, and how these different motions relate to one another is not well understood. Here, we report an NMR relaxation study of dynamics over multiple timescales at both backbone and side-chain sites upon an allosteric response to phosphorylation. The response regulator, Escherichia coli CheY, allosterically responds to phosphorylation with a change in dynamics on both the microsecond-to-millisecond timescale and the picosecond-to-nanosecond timescale. We observe an apparent decrease and redistribution of microsecond-to-millisecond dynamics upon phosphorylation (and accompanying Mg(2+) saturation) of CheY. Additionally, methyl groups with the largest changes in picosecond-to-nanosecond dynamics localize to the regions of conformational change measured by microsecond-to-millisecond dynamics. The limited spread of changes in picosecond-to-nanosecond dynamics suggests a distinct relationship between motions on the microsecond-to-millisecond and picosecond-to-nanosecond timescales in CheY. The allosteric mechanism utilized by CheY highlights the diversity of roles dynamics play in protein function.
- pH-Triggered Conformational Switching of the Diphtheria Toxin T-Domain: The Roles of N-Terminal Histidines. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 3.
pH-induced conformational switching is essential for functioning of diphtheria toxin, which undergoes a membrane insertion/translocation transition triggered by endosomal acidification as a key step of cellular entry. In order to establish the sequence of molecular rearrangements and side-chain protonation accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state of the toxin's translocation (T) domain, we have developed and applied an integrated approach that combines multiple techniques of computational chemistry [e.g., long-microsecond-range, all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations; continuum electrostatics calculations; and thermodynamic integration (TI)] with several experimental techniques of fluorescence spectroscopy. TI calculations indicate that protonation of H257 causes the greatest destabilization of the native structure (6.9kcal/mol), which is consistent with our early mutagenesis results. Extensive equilibrium MD simulations with a combined length of over 8μs demonstrate that histidine protonation, while not accompanied by the loss of structural compactness of the T-domain, nevertheless results in substantial molecular rearrangements characterized by the partial loss of secondary structure due to unfolding of helices TH1 and TH2 and the loss of close contact between the C- and N-terminal segments. The structural changes accompanying the formation of the membrane-competent state ensure an easier exposure of the internal hydrophobic hairpin formed by helices TH8 and TH9, in preparation for its subsequent transmembrane insertion.
- Oligomeric States along the Folding Pathways of β2-Microglobulin: Kinetics, Thermodynamics, and Structure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Biol 2013 May 3.
The transition of proteins from their soluble functional state to amyloid fibrils and aggregates is associated with the onset of several human diseases. Protein aggregation often requires some structural reshaping and the subsequent formation of intermolecular contacts. Therefore, the study of the conformation of excited protein states and their ability to form oligomers is of primary importance for understanding the molecular basis of amyloid fibril formation. Here, we investigated the oligomerization processes that occur along the folding of the amyloidogenic human protein β2-microglobulin. The combination of real-time two-dimensional NMR data with real-time small-angle X-ray scattering measurements allowed us to derive thermodynamic and kinetic information on protein oligomerization of different conformational states populated along the folding pathways. In particular, we could demonstrate that a long-lived folding intermediate (I-state) has a higher propensity to oligomerize compared to the native state. Our data agree well with a simple five-state kinetic model that involves only monomeric and dimeric species. The dimers have an elongated shape with the dimerization interface located at the apical side of β2-microglobulin close to Pro32, the residue that has a trans conformation in the I-state and a cis conformation in the native (N) state. Our experimental data suggest that partial unfolding in the apical half of the protein close to Pro32 leads to an excited state conformation with enhanced propensity for oligomerization. This excited state becomes more populated in the transient I-state due to the destabilization of the native conformation by the trans-Pro32 configuration.