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Journal of molecular histology [journal]
- Up-regulated expression of Bnip3L after intracerebral hemorrhage in adult rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 Jun 15.
Bnip3L, also known as NIX, is a homolog of the E1B 19K/Bcl-2 binding and pro-apoptotic protein Bnip3 which can bind to Bcl-2 to elaborate that effect. In tumor cells, Bnip3L played a role in tumor growth inhibition, but some studies argued hypoxia-induced autophagy via Bnip3L was a survival mechanism that promoted tumor progression. In heart muscle, it related to decreased myocardial function. However, its function in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is still not clear. In this frame, we found the Bnip3L expression increased in the perihematomal region in adult rats after performed ICH. Double immunofluorenscence staining manifested that Bnip3L co-located with neurons, not astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we detected that neuronal apoptosis marker active caspase-3 had colocalizations with Bnip3L. In addition, colocalizations and co-immunoprecipitation between Bnip3L and Bcl-2, consistent with previous study, were also found. All our findings suggested that Bnip3L might be involved in the pathophysiology of ICH.
- RNA interference-mediated silencing of laminin receptor 1 (LR1) suppresses migration and invasion and down-regulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 in trophoblast cells: implication in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 Jun 2.
Shallow trophoblast invasion is a common pathological feature of preeclampsia. The 67 kDa laminin receptor 1 (LR1) is a laminin-binding protein that has been reported to be down-regulated in preeclamptic placentas. The aim of the present study was to determine the functional role of LR1 in the migration and invasion of the trophoblast cell line, JEG3 cells. RNA interference mediated by plasmid expressing LR1 short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was utilized to knockdown LR1 expression in JEG3 cells. We found that the mRNA and protein expression levels of LR1 were significantly reduced in LR1-specific shRNA transfected cells compared with the untransfected and control shRNA transfected cells. The wound healing and Transwell invasion assays demonstrated that LR1 knockdown remarkably suppressed the migration and invasion potential of JEG3 cells. The gelatin zymography assay showed that LR1 knockdown greatly reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 activities in the culture supernatants. Western blot analysis showed that LR1 shRNA significantly decreased expression levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase, but increased expression levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in comparison to the control vector-transfected cells. In conclusion, our data support an important role for LR1 in regulating trophoblast invasion and migration, and suggest a possible pathological mechanism of preeclampsia.
- Hesperetin protects against cardiac remodelling induced by pressure overload in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 30.
Cardiac remodelling is a major determinant of heart failure (HF) and is characterised by cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, oxidative stress and myocytes apoptosis. Hesperetin, which belongs to the flavonoid subgroup of citrus flavonoids, is the main flavonoid in oranges and possesses multiple pharmacological properties. However, its role in cardiac remodelling remains unknown. We determined the effect of hesperetin on cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and heart function using an aortic banding (AB) mouse. Male, 8-10-week-old, wild-type C57 mice with or without oral hesperetin administration were subjected to AB or a sham operation. Our data demonstrated that hesperetin protected against cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and dysfunction induced by AB, as assessed by heart weigh/body weight, lung weight/body weight, heart weight/tibia length, echocardiographic and haemodynamic parameters, histological analysis, and gene expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers. Also, hesperetin attenuated oxidative stress and myocytes apoptosis induced by AB. The inhibitory effect of hesperetin on cardiac remodelling was mediated by blocking PKCα/βII-AKT, JNK and TGFβ1-Smad signalling pathways. In conclusion, we found that the orange flavonoid hesperetin protected against cardiac remodelling induced by pressure overload via inhibiting cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, oxidative stress and myocytes apoptosis. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic drug for cardiac remodelling and HF.
- The role of preameloblast-conditioned medium in dental pulp regeneration. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 15.
Pulp regeneration using human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) maintains tooth vitality compared with conventional root canal therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that preameloblast-conditioned medium (PA-CM) from murine apical bud cells induces the odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs and promoted dentin formation in mouse subcutaneous tissue. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effects of PA-CM with human whole pulp cells on pulp regeneration in an empty root canal space. Human pulp cells were seeded in the pulp cavities of 5 mm-thick human tooth segments with or without PA-CM treatment, and then transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. In the pulp cell-only group, skeletal muscle with pulp-like tissue was generated in the pulp cavity. A reparative dentin-like structure with entrapped cells lined the existing dentin wall. However, in the PA-CM-treated group, only pulp-like tissue was regenerated without muscle or a reparative dentin-like structure. Moreover, human odontoblast-like cells exhibited palisade arrangement around the pulp, and typical odontoblast processes elongated into dentinal tubules. The results suggest that PA-CM can induce pulp regeneration of human pulp cells with physiological structures in an empty root canal space.
- gp78 is specifically expressed in human prostate cancer rather than normal prostate tissue. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 12.
Elevated expression of gp78 has been observed in many types of cancers including lung, stomach, colon, liver and skin cancer. But there is no report about its expression in prostate cancers. In this study, using immunohistochemical staining we found gp78 is highly expressed in prostate cancers especially early stage tumors, but not in normal prostate tissues. gp78 protein expression is heterogeneous. In some tumors it was expressed in basal cells, while others in stromal cells. For gp78 is a ubiquitin E3 ligase, we then investigated the expression pattern of its cognate E2 (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme)-Ube2g2 in prostate cancers. We found it was expressed in both cancerous and normal tissues of prostate without significant differences in expression level. And unlike gp78, it exhibited a homogeneous expression pattern in different cell types in prostate tissues. In conclusion, our results indicate that gp78 is expressed specifically in human prostate cancer rather than normal prostate tissues, it could be a putative biomarker for prostate cancer diagnosis.
- Loss of RUNX3 expression may contribute to poor prognosis in patients with chondrosarcoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 12.
Chondrosarcoma is the second most common type of bone cancer. Loss of RUNX3 expression has been demonstrated in many other cancers. However, no studies have shown the relationship between RUNX3 expression and chondrosarcoma. In this study, we detected RUNX3 expression in the progression of chondrosarcoma. In patient samples, the levels of RUNX3 mRNA and protein were lower in cancer tissues than in normal tissues. Down-regulation of RUNX3 mRNA in tumor tissues was associated with an increase in RUNX3 promoter methylation. Loss of RUNX3 expression was significantly associated with more aggressive chondrosarcoma types and decreased survival time of patients. To examine the effects of exogenous expression of RUNX3 in vitro, chondrosarcoma cells were transfected with the pcDNA3.1-RUNX3 expression vector. Relative to control cells, RUNX3-expressing cells exhibited lower proliferation and higher apoptosis rates as assessed by colony formation and Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that RUNX3 acts a tumor suppressor in chondrosarcoma and that RUNX3 promoter methylation may be the molecular mechanism for its decreased expression.
- The influence of high glucose on the Cip/Kip family expression profiles in HRECs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 1.
Neovascularization is the main characteristic of the proliferative stage of diabetic retinopathy. It has been proven that cell cycle regulation is involved in angiogenesis. The cell cycle regulators, Cip/Kip protein family, belong to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, are versatile proteins, and except for their function in cell cycle regulation, they also participate in transcription, apoptosis and migration. The expression profiles of the Cip/Kip family in human retina microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) under normal or high glucose conditions has not been described before. This study was undertaken to determine the expression profiles of the Cip/Kip family proteins, e.g., proteins which are influenced by high glucose and in what manner. Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses were used to investigate the protein expression profiles. Only p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) were detected in HRECs, and they were located in the nucleus. P21(cip1) protein abundance was higher than p27(kip1) in HRECs. Incubation of HRECs in medium containing 30 mM D-glucose for 48 h resulted in downregulation of p21(cip1) protein expression, but had no influence on p27(kip1) protein levels or p21(cip1) mRNA abundance. These results were accompanied by cell cycle G1 phase exit and a lower cell survival rate. Our data show for the first time that high glucose changes the Cip/Kip family expression profiles in HRECs, which may be the foundation for the investigation of the role of the Cip/Kip family in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
- Chitosan-functionalized silk fibroin 3D scaffold for keratocyte culture. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 1.
The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential suitability of an artificial membrane composed of silk fibroin (SF) functionalized by different ratios of chitosan (CS) as a substrate for the stroma of the cornea. Keratocytes were cultured on translucent membranes made of SF and CS with different ratios. The biophysical properties of the silk fibroin and chitosan (SF/CS) membrane were examined. The SF/CS showed tensile strengths that increased as the CS concentration increased, but the physical and mechanical properties of chitosan-functionalized silk fibroin scaffolds weakened significantly compared with those of native corneas. The resulting cell scaffolds were evaluated using western blot in addition to light and electron microscopy. The cell attachment and proliferation on the scaffold were similar to those on a plastic plate. Keratocytes cultured in serum on SF/CS exhibited stellate morphology along with a marked increase in the expression of keratocan compared with identical cultures on tissue culture plastics. The biocompatibility was tested by transplanting the acellular membrane into rabbit corneal stromal pockets. There was no inflammatory complication detected at any time point on the macroscopic level. Taken together, these results indicate that SF/CS holds promise as a substrate for corneal reconstruction.
- Inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma growth and angiogenesis by dual silencing of NET-1 and VEGF. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Mol Histol 2013 May 1.
Simultaneous silencing of multiple up-regulated genes is an attractive and viable strategy to treat many incurable diseases including cancer. Herein we used dual gene targeted siRNA (DGT siRNA) conjugate composed of NET-1 and VEGF siRNA sequences in the same backbone could inhibit growth and angiogenesis HCC. DGT siRNA showed a further down regulation on VEGF mRNA and protein levels compared with NET-1 siRNA or VEGF siRNA, but not on NET-1 expression. It also exhibited greater suppression on proliferation and trigger of apoptosis in HepG2 cells than NET-1 siRNA or VEGF siRNA; this could be explained by the significant down regulation of cyclin D1 and Bcl-2. A lower level of ANG2 mRNA and protein was detected in HUVEC cultured with supernatant of HepG2 cells treated with DGT siRNA than that of VEGF siRNA or NET-1 siRNA, resulting in much more inhibited angiogenesis of HUVEC. Tumor growth was inhibited and microvessel density dropped in the xenograft tumor models compared to the untreated controls. NET-1 and VEGF silencing play a key role in inhibiting hepatocellular cell proliferation, promoting apoptosis, and reducing angiogenesis. Simultaneous silencing of NET-1 and VEGF using DGT siRNA construct may provide an advantageous alternative in development of therapeutics for Hepatocellular carcinoma.