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Journal of neuroimmune pharmacology [journal]
- Adenosine Triphosphate Released from HIV-Infected Macrophages Regulates Glutamatergic Tone and Dendritic Spine Density on Neurons. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 18.
Despite wide spread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in developed countries, approximately half of HIV-infected patients will develop impairments in cognitive function. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuronal dysfunction can be precipitated by HIV-infection of macrophages by mechanisms that involve alterations in innate and adaptive immune responses. HIV-infection of macrophages is known to increase the release of soluble neurotoxins. However, the composition of products released from infected macrophages is complex and not fully known. In this study we provide evidence that ATP and other immuno-/neuromodulatory nucleotides are exported from HIV-infected macrophages and modify neuronal structure. Supernatants collected from HIV-infected macrophages (HIV/MDM) contained large amounts of ATP, ADP, AMP and small amounts of adenosine, in addition to glutamate. Dilutions of these supernatants that were sub-threshold for glutamate receptor activation evoked rapid calcium flux in neurons that were completely inhibited by the enzymatic degradation of ATP, or by blockade of calcium permeable purinergic receptors. Applications of these highly diluted HIV/MDM onto neuronal cultures increased the amount of extracellular glutamate by mechanisms dependent on purinergic receptor activation, and downregulated spine density on neurons by mechanisms dependent on purinergic and glutamate receptor activation. We conclude from these data that ATP released from HIV-infected macrophages downregulates dendritic spine density on neurons by a mechanism that involves purinergic receptor mediated modulation of glutamatergic tone. These data suggest that neuronal function may be depressed in HIV infected individuals by mechanisms that involve macrophage release of ATP that triggers secondary effects on glutamate handling.
- The Immune System in Stroke: Clinical Challenges and Their Translation to Experimental Research. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 15.
Stroke represents an unresolved challenge for both developed and developing countries and has a huge socio-economic impact. Although considerable effort has been made to limit stroke incidence and improve outcome, strategies aimed at protecting injured neurons in the brain have all failed. This failure is likely to be due to both the incompleteness of modelling the disease and its causes in experimental research, and also the lack of understanding of how systemic mechanisms lead to an acute cerebrovascular event or contribute to outcome. Inflammation has been implicated in all forms of brain injury and it is now clear that immune mechanisms profoundly influence (and are responsible for the development of) risk and causation of stroke, and the outcome following the onset of cerebral ischemia. Until very recently, systemic inflammatory mechanisms, with respect to common comorbidities in stroke, have largely been ignored in experimental studies. The main aim is therefore to understand interactions between the immune system and brain injury in order to develop novel therapeutic approaches. Recent data from clinical and experimental research clearly show that systemic inflammatory diseases -such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes or infection - similar to stress and advanced age, are associated with dysregulated immune responses which can profoundly contribute to cerebrovascular inflammation and injury in the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the field of inflammation and stroke, focusing on the challenges of translation between pre-clinical and clinical studies, and potential anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory therapeutic approaches.
- Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to Assess NeuroInflammation and Neuropathic Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 12.
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) has been applied to numerous clinical studies, especially for neurological disorders. This technique can non-invasively evaluate brain metabolites and neurochemicals in selected brain regions and is particularly useful for assessing neuroinflammatory disorders. Neurometabolites assessed with MRS include the neuronal markers N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu), as well as the glial marker myo-inositol (MI). Therefore, the concentrations of these metabolites typically correspond to disease severity and often correlate well with clinical variables in the various brain disorders. Neuroinflammation with activated astrocytes and microglia in brain disorders are often associated with elevated MI, and to a lesser extent elevated total creatine (tCr) and choline containing compounds (Cho), which are found in higher concentrations in glia than neurons, while neuronal injury is indicated by lower than normal levels of NAA and Glu. This review summarizes the neurometabolite abnormalities found in MRS studies performed in patients with neuroinflammatory disorders or neuropathic pain, which also may be associated with neuroinflammation. These brain disorders include multiple sclerosis, neuroviral infections (including Human Immunodeficiency virus and Hepatitis C), degenerative brain disorders (including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease), stimulant abuse (including methamphetamine and cocaine) as well as several chronic pain syndromes.
- Imaging Biomarkers and the Role of Neuroinflammation in Neuropathic Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 12.
The papers from this thematic issue followed a translational research workshop, Imaging Neuroinflammation and Neuropathic Pain, that focused on the search for neuroimaging biomarkers to assess neuroinflammation associated with neuropathic pain. The topics covered in this issue include overviews of the historical and current knowledge regarding neuropathic pain, the potential mechanisms involved, the often under-recognized clinical presentations that can delay diagnosis, the various neuroimaging techniques that have been applied to evaluate neuropathic pain and neuroinflammation, to case series illustrating novel treatments of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, the use of telemedicine to disseminate knowledge and improve the diagnosis and treatment of pain syndromes is also discussed.
- Enhancement of NMDA Receptor-Mediated Excitatory Postsynaptic Currents by gp120-Treated Macrophages: Implications for HIV-1-Associated Neuropathology. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 10.
A plethora of prior studies has linked HIV-1-infected and immune activated brain mononuclear phagocytes (MP; blood borne macrophages and microglia) to neuronal dysfunction. These are modulated by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists and supporting their relevance for HIV-1-associated nervous system disease. The role of NMDAR subsets in HIV-1-induced neuronal injury, nonetheless, is poorly understood. To this end, we investigated conditioned media from HIV-1gp120-treated human monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM) for its abilities to affect NMDAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCNMDAR) in rat hippocampal slices. Bath application of gp120-treated MDM-conditioned media (MCM) produced an increase of EPSCNMDAR. In contrast, control (untreated) MCM had limited effects on EPSCNMDAR. Testing NR2A NMDAR (NR2AR)-mediated EPSC (EPSCNR2AR) and NR2B NMDAR (NR2BR)-mediated EPSC (EPSCNR2BR) for MCM showed significant increased EPSCNR2BR when compared to EPSCNR2AR enhancement. When synaptic NR2AR-mediated EPSC was blocked by bath application of MK801 combined with low frequency stimulations, MCM retained its ability to enhance EPSCNMDAR evoked by stronger stimulations. This suggested that increase in EPSCNMDAR was mediated, in part, through extra-synaptic NR2BR. Further analyses revealed that the soluble factors with low (<3 kD) to medium (3-10 kD) molecular weight mediated the observed increases in EPSCNMDAR. The link between activation of NR2BRs and HIV-1gp120 MCM for neuronal injury was demonstrated by NR2BR but not NR2AR blockers. Taken together, these results indicate that macrophage secretory products induce neuronal injury through extra-synaptic NR2BRs.
- The Immune Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 10.
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that leads to changes of nerve conduction due to damage of CNS- resident cells, primarily oligodendrocytes and neurons. CD4+ T cells are of primary importance in the immune cascades leading to tissue damage, but also CD8+ T cells, NK cells and B cells and antibodies contribute to tissue damage. In addition, the innate immune response and mainly microglial cells participate in the events leading to lesions. There are different types of MS and possibly this is due to different underlying immune mechanisms. The current treatment options mainly affect the immune response but have not much influence on secondary signaling changes in astrocytes and neurons which contribute to constant disease progression. The immune response in MS must be seen in the systemic context and there are strong indications that the gut and lung immunity affect MS disease precipitation. The strongest genetic influence in MS is mediated by the HLA class II genes and in Western Europeans and North Americans the disease is associated with HLA-DR2b. Possibly this is due to presentation of a set of specific antigens in context of this HLA allele. Novel data indicates that the immune response in MS is not only focused on certain myelin proteins like myelin basic protein (MBP) but to additional astrocytic and neuronal proteins, which is also mirrored in the pathology. While in the past the disease has been considered as mainly a white matter disease, nowadays it is clear that also grey matter is affected by the aberrant immune response. Still much needs to be learned regarding the underlying events in MS. This expanded knowledge is important to finally discover curative therapies.
- Fingolimod Modulates Peripheral Effector and Regulatory T Cells in MS Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 7.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex neurological disease where, in genetically predisposed individuals, the unbalanced interplay between pathogenic and regulatory T cells will result in the progression of the autoimmune assault to neural antigens. Fingolimod (FTY720), an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate modulator recently approved for the treatment of MS, inhibits the egress of T cells from lymph nodes acting specifically on naïve and memory T cells and sparing effector T cells. Here we characterized IL-17 and IFNγ producing effector CD4 and CD8 positive T cells as well as CD4 positive CD25(high)CD127(low) regulatory T cells in MS patients before and 1 month after treatment was started. We observed that fingolimod did not significantly affect the percentage of CCR6 and CD161 positive T cells in both CD4 and CD8 compartments. In contrast, it significantly reduced the levels of both CD4+ CCR6+ CD161+ and CD8+ CCR6+ CD161+ producing IFNγ alone or in combination with IL-17. The percentage of IL-17 secreting cells in both subsets was affected by the treatment to a lesser extent. Finally, we observed that CD4+ CD25(high)CD127(low) regulatory T cells were decreased in MS patients compared to healthy controls and fingolimod significantly increased their frequencies. All together these findings demonstrate that fingolimod functionally modulates the ability of potentially pathogenic effector cells to produce relevant pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the number of circulating regulatory T cells possibly contributing in restoring a balance between these populations.
- Mutation of Tyrosine 470 of Human Dopamine Transporter is Critical for HIV-1 Tat-Induced Inhibition of Dopamine Transport and Transporter Conformational Transitions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 5.
HIV-1 Tat protein plays a crucial role in perturbations of the dopamine (DA) system. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Tat decreases DA uptake, and allosterically modulates DA transporter (DAT) function. In the present study, we have found that Tat interacts directly with DAT, leading to inhibition of DAT function. Through computational modeling and simulations, a potential recognition binding site of human DAT (hDAT) for Tat was predicted. Mutation of tyrosine470 (Y470H) attenuated Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport, implicating the functional relevance of this residue for Tat binding to hDAT. Y470H reduced the maximal velocity of [(3)H]DA uptake without changes in the Km and IC50 values for DA inhibition of DA uptake but increased DA uptake potency for cocaine and GBR12909, suggesting that this residue does not overlap with the binding sites in hDAT for substrate but is critical for these inhibitors. Furthermore, Y470H also led to transporter conformational transitions by affecting zinc modulation of DA uptake and WIN35,428 binding as well as enhancing basal DA efflux. Collectively, these findings demonstrate Tyr470 as a functional recognition residue in hDAT for Tat-induced inhibition of DA transport and transporter conformational transitions. The consequence of mutation at this residue is to block the functional binding of Tat to hDAT without affecting physiological DA transport.
- Evidence for a Dysregulated Immune System in the Etiology of Psychiatric Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 5.
There is extensive bi-directional communication between the brain and the immune system in both health and disease. In recent years, the role of an altered immune system in the etiology of major psychiatric disorders has become more apparent. Studies have demonstrated that some patients with major psychiatric disorders exhibit characteristic signs of immune dysregulation and that this may be a common pathophysiological mechanism that underlies the development and progression of these disorders. Furthermore, many psychiatric disorders are also often accompanied by chronic medical conditions related to immune dysfunction such as autoimmune diseases, diabetes and atherosclerosis. One of the major psychiatric disorders that has been associated with an altered immune system is schizophrenia, with approximately one third of patients with this disorder showing immunological abnormalities such as an altered cytokine profile in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. An altered cytokine profile is also found in a proportion of patients with major depressive disorder and is thought to be potentially related to the pathophysiology of this disorder. Emerging evidence suggests that altered immune parameters may also be implicated in the neurobiological etiology of autism spectrum disorders. Further support for a role of immune dysregulation in the pathophysiology of these psychiatric disorders comes from studies showing the immunomodulating effects of antipsychotics and antidepressants, and the mood altering effects of anti-inflammatory therapies. This review will not attempt to discuss all of the psychiatric disorders that have been associated with an augmented immune system, but will instead focus on several key disorders where dysregulation of this system has been implicated in their pathophysiology including depression, schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder.
- Subclinical CNS Inflammation as Response to a Myelin Antigen in Humanized Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 2013 May 3.
Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the CNS. Its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is commonly induced by active immunization with myelin antigens. To investigate human immune responses against myelin antigens in vivo we established a new subclinical experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in humanized mice. NOD/Scidγc(-/-) animals were transferred with peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy human donors and immunized with myelin antigens in complete Freund's adjuvant and antigen-pulsed autologous dendritic cells. Human T cells recovered from these animals reacted specifically to the soluble domain of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and secreted proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, immunized animals developed subclinical CNS inflammation with infiltrating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells and production of encephalitogenic cytokines. Thus, this model of myelin-induced CNS inflammation by human T cells may allow testing of new human-specific therapeuticals for multiple sclerosis.