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Journal of plant physiology [journal]
- Antioxidant and phenolic acid profiles of tissue cultured and acclimatized Merwilla plumbea plantlets in relation to the applied cytokinins. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Plant Physiol 2013 Jun 7.
Merwilla plumbea (Lindl.) Speta is an important medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. We evaluated the effect of five cytokinins [benzyladenine (BA), 2-isopentenyladenine (2iP), meta-topolin (mT), meta-topolin riboside (mTR), and meta-methoxy-9-tetrahydropyran-2-yl-topolin (MemTTHP)] on the level of phenolic acids and antioxidant activity of M. plumbea during the tissue culture and acclimatization stages. Two cytokinins (mT and mTR) significantly improved the antioxidant activity of tissue culture plantlets while the control plantlets were better after acclimatization. Using UPLC-MS/MS, the levels of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (phenolic acids) varied significantly during tissue culture and acclimatization, depending on the cytokinin and plant part analyzed. Vanillic acid (24.9μgg(-1)) detected in underground parts of tissue culture plants supplemented with BA was the most abundant phenolic acid detected. The current findings indicate that the phytochemicals together with the bioactivity during in vitro propagation of M. plumbea is influenced by the cytokinin type used and the stage of plant material collection.
- Overexpression of the gibberellin 2-oxidase gene from Torenia fournieri induces dwarf phenotypes in the liliaceous monocotyledon Tricyrtis sp. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Plant Physiol 2013 Jun 6.
Gibberellins (GAs) are the plant hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development, including stem elongation. Genes encoding enzymes related to the GA biosynthetic and metabolic pathway have been isolated and characterized in many plant species. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox) catalyzes bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms; therefore, playing a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs. In the present study, we produced transgenic plants of the liliaceous monocotyledon Tricyrtis sp. overexpressing the GA2ox gene from the linderniaceous dicotyledon Torenia fournieri (TfGA2ox2). All six transgenic plants exhibited dwarf phenotypes, and they could be classified into two classes according to the degree of dwarfism: three plants were moderately dwarf and three were severely dwarf. All of the transgenic plants had small or no flowers, and smaller, rounder and darker green leaves. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that the TfGA2ox2 expression level generally correlated with the degree of dwarfism. The endogenous levels of bioactive GAs, GA1 and GA4, largely decreased in transgenic plants as shown by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, and the level also correlated with the degree of dwarfism. Exogenous treatment of transgenic plants with gibberellic acid (GA3) resulted in an increased shoot length, indicating that the GA signaling pathway might normally function in transgenic plants. Thus, morphological changes in transgenic plants may result from a decrease in the endogenous levels of bioactive GAs. Finally, a possibility of molecular breeding for plant form alteration in liliaceous ornamental plants by genetically engineering the GA metabolic pathway is discussed.