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Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine [journal]
- Re: the impact of prior authorization requirements on primary care physicians' offices: report of two parallel network studies. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):340.
- Re: home visits and the social context. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):339.
- Breaking Up is Hard to Do: Lessons Learned from a Pharma-Free Practice Transformation. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):332-8.
Academic medical centers are examining relationships with the pharmaceutical industry and making changes to limit interactions. Most doctors, however, practice outside of academic institutions and see pharmaceutical detailers and accept drug samples and gifts. Little guidance for practicing physicians exists about transforming practices to become pharma-free. Consideration must be given to the impact on practice culture, staff views, and patient needs.A small private practice, setting out to transform into a pharma-free clinic, used a practice transformation process that examined the industry presence in the clinic, educated the doctors on potential conflicts of interest, and improved practice flow. Staff were given the opportunity to share concerns, and their issues were acknowledged. Educational interventions were developed to help providers keep current. Finally, efforts were made to educate patients about the policy.The clinic recorded the degree to which it was detailed. Loss of gifts, keeping current with new drugs, and managing without samples were noted concerns. Policy change champions developed strategies to address concerns. Discussion: A shift in practice culture to a pharma-free clinic is achievable and maintainable over time. Barriers to success can be identified and overcome with attention given to careful gathering of information, staff input, and stakeholder education.
- Physician payment disclosure under health care reform: will the sun shine? [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):327-31.
Pharmaceutical marketing has become a mainstay in U.S. health care delivery and traditionally has been directed toward physicians. In an attempt to address potential undue influence of industry and conflicts of interest that arise, states and the recently upheld health care reform act have passed transparency, or "sunshine," laws requiring disclosure of industry payments to physicians. The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services recently announced the final rule for the Sunshine Provisions as part of the reform act. However, the future effectiveness of these provisions are questionable and may be limited given the changing landscape of pharmaceutical marketing away from physician detailing to other forms of promotion. To address this changing paradigm, more proactive policy solutions will be necessary to ensure adequate and ethical regulation of pharmaceutical promotion.
- Community of solution for the u.s. Health care system: lessons from the u.s. Educational system. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):323-6.
The Folsom Group asserts that radical changes are needed to fix the health care system in the United States. The U.S. education system is one potential model to emulate. Could a future health care system-level community of solution be modeled after the U.S. education system? Could community health care services be planned, organized, and delivered at the neighborhood level by district, similar to the structure for delivering public education? Could community health centers, governed by community boards, serve every neighborhood? This essay imagines how U.S. health care system reforms could be designed using our public school system as a roadmap. Our intention is to challenge readers to recognize the urgent need for radical reform in the U.S. health care system, to introduce one potential model for reform, and to encourage creative thinking about other system-level communities of solution that could lead to profound change and improvements in the U.S. health care system.
- Early lessons and challenges from the healthy mendocino community of solution. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):316-22.
Northern California's Mendocino County is joining the national movement to upgrade the quantity and quality of local data available for assessing and improving local health. A broad-based coalition in the county has successfully engaged 20 community partners in funding a web-based tool for this purpose. HealthyMendocino.org, launched in January 2013, is designed to support setting local priorities, planning and evaluating the program, and building community by giving easy access to timely data on 90 indicators of local health and its determinants compiled from a range of state and federal sources. This article, written before the site's launch by the Chair of the Healthy Mendocino Steering Committee, describes the community of solution that came together to envision, publicize, raise support for, and bring to fruition this new resource. Mendocino is a rural county with limited financial capacity but rich social assets, including a strong collaborative tradition and an infrastructure of dynamic coalitions. This article outlines the anticipated benefits, early lessons, and challenges of the initiative and explains how the organizers leveraged connections with other communities of solution that already are working to improve the quality of life in the area. The article also notes ways in which this local initiative illustrates and aligns with several of the grand challenges outlined in the modern Folsom Report-specifically, challenges 7, 8, 11, 12, and above all 13, which concerns the use of health information technology to enable the flow of knowledge to the community of solution.
- Breaking barriers to care: a community of solution for chronic disease management. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):311-5.
For 10 years the Medical College of Wisconsin and Columbia St. Mary's Hospital have joined together in a partnership to work within some of Milwaukee's most impoverished neighborhoods. Beginning simply by providing health care through a free clinic, the partnership soon was confronted with numerous examples of barriers to care being experienced by patients. A community-based participatory action process allowed the local population to give voice to the local realities of barriers to care. Here we combine our anecdotal clinical experience, the neighborhood's input, and an example of a successful program from a low-resource international setting to create a novel approach to treating chronic disease in uninsured populations. This model of care has been successful for 2 reasons. First, the model shows good health outcomes at low cost. Second, solid community partnerships with care providers, churches, and other groups have been formed in support of the model, ensuring its credibility and sustainability.
- HeartBeat Connections: A Rural Community of Solution for Cardiovascular Health. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):299-310.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be the leading cause of death among Americans. National guidelines emphasize early identification and control of CVD risk factors, but challenges remain in the primary care setting in terms of engaging patients and improving medical therapy adherence. The rapid growth of electronic health records (EHRs) provides a new way to proactively identify populations of high-risk patients and target them with prevention strategies. The HeartBeat Connections (HBC) program was developed as part of a population-based demonstration project aimed at reducing myocardial infarctions.HBC uses EHR data to identify residents at high CVD risk in a rural community. Participants receive coaching from a registered dietitian or a registered nurse focused on lifestyle behavior changes and preventive medication initiation/titration. Discussion: HBC provides patients with access to nonprescribing professionals on a more frequent basis than typical office visits, and it is focused specifically on helping patients improve lifestyle behaviors and medication adherence as they relate to the primary prevention of CVD.Innovative population health approaches that use EHR data to address common barriers to CVD prevention and engage communities in addressing population health needs are needed to help more patients prevent coronary events.
- Advanced primary care in san antonio: linking practice and community strategies to improve health. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):288-98.
Improving health among people living in poverty often transcends narrowly focused illness care. Meaningful success is unlikely without confronting the complex social origins of illness. We describe an emerging community of solution to improve health outcomes for a population of 6000 San Antonio, Texas, residents enrolled in a county health care program. The community of solution comprises a county health system, a family medicine residency program, a metropolitan public health department, and local nonprofit organizations and businesses. Community-based activities responding to the needs of individuals and their neighborhoods are driven by a cohort of promotores (community health workers) whose mission encompasses change at both the individual and community levels. Centered on patients' functional goals, promotores mobilize family and community resources and consider what community-level action will address the social determinants of health. On the clinical side, care teams implement population-based risk assessment and nurse care management with a focus on care transitions as well as other measures to meet the needs of patients with high morbidity and high use of health care. Population-based outcome metrics include reductions in hospitalizations, emergency department and urgent care visits, and the associated charges. Promotores also assess patients' progress along the trajectory of their selected functional goals.
- A primary care-public health partnership addressing homelessness, serious mental illness, and health disparities. [Journal Article]
- J Am Board Fam Med 2013 May-Jun; 26(3):279-87.
People with histories of homelessness and serious mental illness experience profound health disparities. Housing First is an evidenced-based practice that is working to end homelessness for these individuals through a combination of permanent housing and community-based supports.The Jefferson Department of Family and Community Medicine and a Housing First agency, Pathways to Housing-PA, has formed a partnership to address multiple levels of health care needs for this group. We present a preliminary program evaluation of this partnership using the framework of the patient-centered medical home and the "10 Essential Public Health Services."Preliminary program evaluation results suggest that this partnership is evolving to function as an integrated person-centered health home and an effective local public health monitoring system.The Pathways to Housing-PA/Jefferson Department of Family and Community Medicine partnership represents a community of solution, and multiple measures provide preliminary evidence that this model is feasible and can address the "grand challenges" of integrated community health services.