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Journal of the National Medical Association [journal]
- We stand with you. What you need o know about HIV/AIDS. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):578-80.
- Costoclavicular compression of the brachial plexus in a patient with a right aortic arch: MRI/MRA/MRV. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):567-75.
- A rare case of acute renal failure due to tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome successfully treated with steroid. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):564-6.
We hereby describe a 49-year-old woman with acute renal failure due to tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis (TINU) syndrome. This patient presented with vomiting and nausea and was found to have chronic uveitis, elevated creatinine, and interstitial nephritis. The combination of tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis emerged the diagnosis of TINU syndrome after a stepwise examination for differential diagnosis. Clinical course and renal function improved quickly on oral steroids but not to normal range. TINU syndrome, although known to some ophthalmologists and nephrologists, is still rather obscure. TINU syndrome should be considered in patients with uveitis in combination with acute renal failure. The prognosis for the renal disorder is excellent, although the uveitis often recurs or remains chronic.
- When families talk: applying interpretative phenomenological analysis to African American families discussing their awareness, commitment, and knowledge of organ donation. [Journal Article, Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):555-63.
This paper applies interpretative phenomenological analysis as a tool to understand ways African American families discuss and make sense of their knowledge, awareness, and commitment of the organ donation process. African American families (n = 20) participated in self-directed conversations based on the organ donor model, which is grounded in the theory of reasoned action and the theory of motivated information management. Results indicate that the media strongly influences an individual's willingness to participate in the organ donation process and their commitment to further discuss their decisions with close family members. Greater attention should be given to cultural-specific campaigns to increase the number of African American donors.
- Successful minority recruitment and adherence in physical activity Internet-based research: the WIN study. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):544-54.
Researchers studying physical activity often face challenges dealing with recruitment and resources, particularly when conducting longitudinal Internet-based research. Commonly raised methodological problems such as minority recruitment, participant commitment, and participant-staff involvement are addressed through a theoretically driven recruitment and adherence protocol in The Women's Exercise Injuries: Incidence and Risk Factors (WIN) Internet-based study.The objectives of this paper were to review and suggest solutions to problems of: (1) low recruitment of diverse samples, (2) low adherence, and (3) staffing needs.We recruited 1303 community-dwelling women and followed them through a multiple-phase, longitudinal, Internet-based study. Recruitment and adherence data were analyzed through descriptive methods and logistic regressions to examine participant adherence and sociodemographic factors and predictors of who entered the long-term phase of the study.We successfully retained 71.6% of the sample through 4 recruitment phases. Twenty-seven percent of the initially recruited sample was racial/ethnically diverse, 24% began the long-term phase, and 23% completed. Several strategies to enhance participant commitment were successfully used during the practice phase, providing a successful, low staff to participant ratio. Logistic regression indicated being married, being older, and having greater Internet skills were predictive of successfully entering the long-term phase of the study.Recruitment and compliance protocols were successful in meeting overall and racial/ethnic enrollment and recruitment goals. The theoretically based practice phase techniques were successful in re-engaging noncompliant participants. Strategies for minority enrollment and compliance are evaluated.
- A survey of ocular diseases in an isolated rural Haitian community: a retrospective evaluation. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):536-43.
To report the prevalence and incidence of ophthalmic pathology from a small, rural town in Haiti and to determine the leading causes of blindness in this population.Retrospective study from 2002 to 2009. Data collected include visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and ocular and family history.The study was conducted in a single center--Hospital de Lascahobas, Lascahobas, Haiti. Patients were natives of Lascahobas and the surrounding areas. Treatments were dispensed as indicated or warranted.A total of 3702 patients were seen and examined: 51.52% were male and 49.48% were female. Ages ranged from 6 months to 92 years (mean, 48.69 SD +/- 49.94). Uncorrected refractive error was the most common diagnosis (53.27%), followed by presbyopia (43.76%), hyperopia (34.03%), and myopia (22.21%). A total 981 patients (26.50%) were diagnosed with cataract. Three hundred twenty-three (32.93%) cataract surgeries were performed. The overall postoperative complications rate was 9.29%. A total of 706 patients (19.07%) were diagnosed with glaucoma: 23.65% were glaucoma suspect and 76.35% were diagnosed with open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Of those diagnosed with POAG, 35.06% had end-stage (absolute) glaucoma. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.56 SD +/- 8.2 years. The mean intraocular pressure was 24.07 and 25.60 mm Hg, and the mean cup to disc ratio of the right eye (OD) and the left eye (OS), respectively, was 0.67 and 0.72.Glaucoma was the most common cause for blindness. The most common cause of correctable vision loss was uncorrected refractive error followed by cataract. Providing constant eye care in this region will most likely decrease the incidence of correctable and permanent vision loss.
- Effort required to contact primary care providers after newborn screening identifies sickle cell trait. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):528-34.
People with heterozygous status for sickle cell disease (also called sickle cell trait) are essentially healthy, but evidence of rare health problems has increased interest in screening adolescents and young adults prior to enlisting in athletics or military service. Ironically, almost everyone with sickle cell trait is already identified during routine newborn screening for sickle cell disease, but this identification may never reach the parents. As part of a larger statewide study of communication after newborn screening, we decided to document the amount of labor required to connect sickle cell trait screening results with primary care providers (PCPs). Case review methods examined records and call logs from the first 150 cases in a 42-month project. Our study procedures identified PCPs for 136 of 150 infants (90.6%); a total of 266 phone calls were needed. We identified 9 categories of experiences, ranging from incorrect baby names to restrictions on accepting Medicaid patients. Cases demonstrate that it is possible to connect with most PCPs after newborn screening despite warnings about difficulties with this population. Success was due to persistence, relationships with clinics and hospitals, and Internet search capabilities. If sickle cell trait identification is necessary to protect health, then only modest increases in effort will be needed to reduce disparities in service.
- The relationship between functional health literacy and adherence to emergency department discharge instructions among Spanish-speaking patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):521-7.
Adherence to emergency department (ED) discharge instructions among immigrant Spanish-speaking populations in the United States is suboptimal. Our objectives were to: (1) investigate associations between functional health literacy (FHL) and ED discharge instruction adherence in Spanish-speaking populations, and (2) compare the ED adherence rates of Spanish speakersto English speakers.Using a matched cohort design, the FHL of adult native Spanish speakers in a tertiary care ED was assessed using the Test of Functional Health Literacy of Adults in Spanish (TOHFLA-S). Gender-matched and age-matched native English speakers were assessed using TOHFLA. TOFHLA scores range from 1 to 100 with adequate FHL cutoff at 74. Excluded patients were those aged less than 19 years, unwilling, prisoners, institutionalized, extremely ill, with a psychiatric complaint, in receipt of nonspecific instructions for follow-up, or with poor vision. A second interview assessed adherence with follow-up appointments and filling prescriptions.Fifty matched pairs were enrolled. Spanish speakers were less likely to understand discharge instructions (Spanish speakers, 78%; English speakers, 94%; p < .0001) or to keep follow-up appointments (Spanish speakers, 46%; English speakers, 83%; p <.0001). TOFHLA for Spanish speakers averaged 62 vs 93 for English speakers (p < .0001). FHL was associated with understanding of and adherence to discharge instructions for Spanish speakers. Further, Spanish speakers reported lack of understanding as a primary reason for nonadherence.Spanish-speaking patients were less likely to comply with discharge instructions and scored lower on a test of FHL than English-speaking patients. Poor adherence to ED discharge instructions was associated with lower FHL scores for our Spanish-speaking population. Alternative methods of providing discharge instructions to this population of patients should be explored.
- Beliefs and attitudes toward obstructive sleep apnea evaluation and treatment among blacks. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):510-9.
Although blacks are at higher risk for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), they are not as likely as their white counterparts to receive OSA evaluation and treatment. This study assessed knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards OSA evaluation and treatment among blacks residing in Brooklyn, New York.Five focus groups involving 39 black men and women (aged > or =18 years) were conducted at State University of New York (SUNY) Downstate Medical Center in Brooklyn to ascertain barriers preventing or delaying OSA evaluation and treatment.Misconceptions about sleep apnea were a common theme that emerged from participants' responses. Obstructive sleep apnea was often viewed as a type of insomnia, an age-related phenomenon, and as being caused by certain bedtime activities. The major theme that emerged about barriers to OSA evaluation was unfamiliarity with the study environment. Barriers were categorized as: problems sleeping in a strange and unfamiliar environment, unfamiliarity with the study protocol, and fear of being watched while sleeping. Barriers to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment adoption were related to the confining nature of the device, discomfort of wearing a mask while they slept, and concerns about their partner's perceptions of treatment.Results of this study suggest potential avenues for interventions to increase adherence to recommended evaluation and treatment of OSA. Potential strategies include reducing misconceptions about OSA, increasing awareness of OSA in vulnerable communities, familiarizing patients and their partners with laboratory procedures used to diagnose and treat OSA. We propose that these strategies should be used to inform the development of culturally and linguistically tailored sleep apnea interventions to increase awareness of OSA among blacks who are at risk for OSA and associated comorbidities.
- Race and psychiatric diagnostic patterns: understanding the influence of hospital characteristics in the National Hospital Discharge Survey. [Journal Article]
- J Natl Med Assoc 2012 Nov-Dec; 104(11-12):505-9.
Historically, blacks have been more frequently diagnosed with schizophrenia and less frequently diagnosed with mood disorders than whites. Our understanding of why these disparities exist has primarily focused on patient and clinician characteristics and failed to examine the influence of social contextual factors such as hospital characteristics on diagnostic patterns. We analyzed data from the 2007 National Hospital Discharge Survey, a large national database of hospital inpatient stays. The paper examines whether race influences inpatient diagnoses before and after adjustment for select patient and hospital characteristics. Results indicate that blacks were 3-fold more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (odds ratio [OR], 3.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.96-4.57) or a psychotic disorder (OR, 3.39; 95% CI, 2.90-3.96) than whites. However, blacks were less likely than whites to be diagnosed with bipolar disorder (OR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.50-0.72) or mood disorder (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.43-0.58). These same diagnostic patterns persisted after adjustment for selected patient and hospital characteristics. These results provide confirmation of trends observed in earlier studies of single hospitals with smaller sample sizes. Further research is necessary to determine whether the hospital characteristics selected for these analyses are appropriate proxy measures of factors that influence diagnostic judgment in inpatient settings.