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Journal of veterinary internal medicine [journal]
- Glycemic Status and Predictors of Relapse for Diabetic Cats in Remission. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 24.
It is unknown if diabetic cats in remission have persistent abnormalities of glucose metabolism and should be considered prediabetic, or have normal glucose tolerance.To characterize glycemic status of diabetic cats in remission and to determine predictors of relapse.A total of 21 cats in diabetic remission and 28 healthy control cats.At a median of 107 days after remission, screening blood glucose concentration was measured on entry to the clinic. After a 24-hour fast in hospital, fasting blood glucose, fructosamine and feline pancreatic lipase concentrations were measured, and 3 hours later, a simplified IV glucose tolerance test (1 g glucose/kg) performed. Twenty cats were monitored for relapse for at least 9 months.Of the 21 cats in remission, 19% (4/21) had impaired fasting glucose concentration and 76% (16/21) had impaired glucose tolerance. Of cats followed up for 9 months after testing, 30% (6/20) had relapsed and required insulin treatment. Fasting blood glucose concentration ≥7.5 mmol/L (≥135 mg/dL) (odds ratio [OR] = 12.8) and severely impaired glucose tolerance (≥5 hours to return to <6.5 mmol/L or <117 mg/dL; OR = 15.2) were significantly associated with relapse. Blood glucose concentration >14 mmol/L; 252 mg/dL at 3 hours was significantly associated with relapse (OR = 10.1).Most cats in diabetic remission have impaired glucose tolerance and a minority have impaired fasting glucose concentration and should be considered prediabetic. More severe glucose intolerance and impaired fasting glucose concentration are predictors of relapse. Ongoing glucose monitoring of diabetic cats in remission is recommended.
- A Comparison of Liver Sampling Techniques in Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 24.
The liver sampling technique in dogs that consistently provides samples adequate for accurate histopathologic interpretation is not known.To compare histopathologic results of liver samples obtained by punch, cup, and 14 gauge needle to large wedge samples collected at necropsy.Seventy dogs undergoing necropsy.Prospective study. Liver specimens were obtained from the left lateral liver lobe with an 8 mm punch, a 5 mm cup, and a 14 gauge needle. After sample acquisition, two larger tissue samples were collected near the center of the left lateral lobe to be used as a histologic standard for comparison. Histopathologic features and numbers of portal triads in each sample were recorded.The mean number of portal triads obtained by each sampling method were 2.9 in needle samples, 3.4 in cup samples, 12 in punch samples, and 30.7 in the necropsy samples. The diagnoses in 66% of needle samples, 60% of cup samples, and 69% of punch samples were in agreement with the necropsy samples, and these proportions were not significantly different from each other. The corresponding kappa coefficients were 0.59 for needle biopsies, 0.52 for cup biopsies, and 0.62 for punch biopsies.The histopathologic interpretation of a liver sample in the dog is unlikely to vary if the liver biopsy specimen contains at least 3-12 portal triads. However, in comparison large necropsy samples, the accuracy of all tested methods was relatively low.
- Feline Cystinuria Caused by a Missense Mutation in the SLC3A1 Gene. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 24.
Cystinuria is an inherited metabolic disease that is relatively common in dogs, but rare in cats and is characterized by defective amino acid reabsorption, leading to cystine urolithiasis.The aim of this study was to report on a mutation in a cystinuric cat.A male domestic shorthair (DSH) cat with cystine calculi, 11 control cats from Wyoming, and 54 DSH and purebred control cats from elsewhere in the United States.Exons of the SLC3A1 gene were sequenced from genomic DNA of the cystinuric cat and a healthy cat. Genetic screening for the discovered polymorphisms was conducted on all cats.A DSH cat showed stranguria beginning at 2 months of age, and cystine calculi were removed at 4 months of age. The cat was euthanized at 6 months of age because of neurological signs possibly related to arginine deficiency. Twenty-five SLC3A1 polymorphisms were observed in the sequenced cats when compared to the feline reference sequence. The cystinuric cat was homozygous for 5 exonic and 8 noncoding SLC3A1 polymorphisms, and 1 of them was a unique missense mutation (c.1342C>T). This mutation results in a deleterious amino acid substitution (p.Arg448Trp) of a highly conserved arginine residue in the rBAT protein encoded by the SLC3A1 gene. This mutation was found previously in cystinuric human patients, but was not seen in any other tested cats.This study is the first report of an SLC3A1 mutation causing cystinuria in a cat, and could be used to characterize other cystinuric cats at the molecular level.
- Functional Phenotype and its Correlation with Therapeutic Response and Inflammatory Type of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid in Feline Lower Airway Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 22.
Currently, functional assessment to monitor therapeutic response in feline lower airway disease (FLAD) has limited application.To evaluate if expiratory indices derived from pseudo-tidal breathing flow-volume loop (pTBFVL) representing lower airway obstruction would decrease after clinical improvement and to investigate the correlation between functional phenotype and inflammatory cell type in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid.Nineteen client-owned cats with FLAD.Prospective observational study. Functional assessment with pTBFVL indices (eg, peak to mid-expiratory flow; PEF/EF50) and conventional barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP) parameters (eg, enhanced pause) was carried out before receiving treatment. BAL was performed to analyze inflammatory cell types. Signs were assessed by scoring. The cats were treated with glucocorticoids daily and functional testing was repeated.Loop indices PEF/EF50 and PEF/EF25 were significantly decreased after treatment (P < .001). Conventional BWBP parameters were not significantly different before and after treatment. Cats with PEF/EF50 > 1.51 before treatment had a significantly higher granulocyte (eosinophil plus neutrophil) percentage in BAL fluid (P = .014). Granulocyte percentage in BAL fluid was strongly correlated with PEF/EF25 (P = .001, rs = 0.74) and moderately correlated with PEF/EF50 (P = .022, rs = 0.57), whereas eosinophil or neutrophil percentage alone had no significant correlation with functional parameters.Functional parameters including PEF/EF50 and PEF/EF25 can be used for monitoring therapeutic response. The presence of airflow limitation during mid- to late expiration is affected by the overall extent of granulocyte infiltration.
- Relationship of Body Size to Metabolic Markers and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Cats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 20.
Cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) are larger and have higher insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) concentrations than cats without HCM.The aim of this study was to assess echocardiographic findings in a colony of adult cats to determine the relationship between early growth and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).Twenty-eight neutered adult cats (20 males, 8 females) from a colony ≥3 years of age for which growth curves were available.Case-control study. Physical examination and echocardiography were performed, and body weight, body condition score (BCS), and head length and width were measured. Circulating glucose, insulin, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and IGF-1 concentrations were measured and growth data were collected. Stepwise multivariate analyses were performed.Mean age was 5.2 ± 1.1 years. Current BCSs ranged from 4 to 9 (median, 6) and mean body weight was 4.88 ± 1.29 kg. Variation in body weight was apparent by 6 (mean = 3.26 ± 0.80 kg) and 12 months of age (mean = 4.02 ± 1.02 kg). Cardiac abnormalities included a cardiac murmur (n = 7; 24%), gallop (n = 3; 10%), and arrhythmia (n = 1; 4%). Fourteen of 28 cats (50%) had echocardiographic evidence of LVH. Head width (P = .017), body weight (P < .001), NT-proBNP (P = .023), and IGF-1 (P = .013-.022) were significantly associated with selected measures of LVH.Potential associations between body size, IGF-1, LVH, and HCM warrant future prospective studies.
- Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Dogs with Pituitary-Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism and Atypical Hyperadrenocorticism. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov 20.
Atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC) is considered when dogs have clinical signs of hypercortisolemia with normal hyperadrenocorticism screening tests.To compare cortisol concentrations and adrenal gland size among dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH), atypical hyperadrenocorticism (AHAC), and healthy controls.Ten healthy dogs, 7 dogs with PDH, and 8 dogs with AHAC.Dogs were prospectively enrolled between November 2011 and January 2013. Dogs were diagnosed with PDH or AHAC based on clinical signs and positive screening test results (PDH) or abnormal extended adrenal hormone panel results (AHAC). Transverse adrenal gland measurements were obtained by abdominal ultrasound. Hourly mean cortisol (9 samplings), sum of hourly cortisol measurements and adrenal gland sizes were compared among the 3 groups.Hourly (control, 1.4 ± 0.6 μg/dL; AHAC, 2.9 ± 1.3; PDH, 4.3 ± 1.5) (mean, SD) and sum (control, 11.3 ± 3.3; AHAC, 23.2 ± 7.7; PDH, 34.7 ± 9.9) cortisol concentrations differed significantly between the controls and AHAC (P < .01) and PDH (P < .01) groups. Hourly (P < .01) but not sum (P = .27) cortisol concentrations differed between AHAC and PDH dogs. Average transverse adrenal gland diameter of control dogs (5.3 ± 1.2 mm) was significantly less than dogs with PDH (6.4 ± 1.4; P = .02) and AHAC (7.2 ± 1.5; P < .01); adrenal gland diameter did not differ (P = .18) between dogs with AHAC and PDH.Serum cortisol concentrations in dogs with AHAC were increased compared to controls but less than dogs with PDH, while adrenal gland diameter was similar between dogs with AHAC and PDH. These findings suggest cortisol excess could contribute to the pathophysiology of AHAC.
- Suspected Congenital Centronuclear Myopathy in an Arabian-cross Foal. [Journal Article]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov; 28(6):1886-91.
- Cerebral High-grade Oligodendroglioma with Sarcomatous Transdifferentiation ("Oligosarcoma") in a Boxer Dog. [Journal Article]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov; 28(6):1881-5.
- Repeatability and Intra- and Inter-observer Agreement of Cervical Vertebral Sagittal Diameter Ratios in Horses with Neurological Disease. [Journal Article]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov; 28(6):1860-70.
Sagittal ratio values (SRVs) of cervical vertebrae are used for ante-mortem diagnosis of cervical vertebral stenotic myelopathy, but intraobserver and interobserver variability in measurement may influence radiographic interpretation of vertebral stenosis in horses with neurological disease.To determine intraobserver repeatability in SRVs, intra- and interobserver agreement in SRVs and whether or not agreement was influenced by animal age.Forty-two horses (>1 year old) with neurological disease from which laterolateral computed radiographic images of C2-C7 were obtained.Four observers made measurements from C2 to C7 for each horse and interobserver agreement for intra- and intervertebral SRVs was determined using Bland-Altman analysis (acceptable agreement: limits of agreement [LOA] ≤ 0.05) on all horses and those ≤3 (n = 25) and >3 (n = 17) years old. Each observer also made repeated measurements for 10 horses and intraobserver repeatability and agreement were determined.Adequate intraobserver repeatability was achieved for 6 sites. Within observers, paired measurements had a median difference ≤5.7%, but a large range in differences often occurred, most frequently at intervertebral sites. For C5, C6, C7, and C3-4, LOA ≤ 0.05 were achieved by at least 1 observer. With the exception of C5 for 1 pair, LOA were >0.05 for interobserver agreement, regardless of animal age. LOA were largest at intervertebral sites.Within and between observers, measurement error may limit the diagnostic accuracy of SRVs and result in discrepancies of diagnosis and treatment and warrants consideration when used clinically in horses with neurological disease.
- The journal of veterinary internal medicine: yesterday and today. [Editorial]
- J Vet Intern Med 2014 Nov; 28(6):1638-9.