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Korean J Parasitol [journal]
- Environmental factors related to enterobiasis in a southeast region of Korea. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):139-42.
Pinworm infection can occur through contact with contaminated surfaces followed by ingestion or even through inhalation of infective eggs. We have limited information regarding environmental contamination by eggs of Enterobius vermicularis. In order to determine environmental risk factors associated with the rate of E. vermicularis infection, we investigated possible environmental risk factors using a questionnaire from 46 kindergartens in 3 different cities of the southeast area of Korea. In total, using the cellotape anal swab technique, 3,422 children were examined for E. vermicularis infection. We evaluated E. vermicularis egg of books, educational materials, toys, room door handles, dusts of window edges, desks, chairs, tables, and dusts of classrooms. The overall egg-positive rate for E. vermicularis was 6.0%, and the prevalence of enterobiasis in each kindergarten ranged between 0% and 16.9%. We found that 78.9% of egg positive kindergartens were managed by private foundations, which was significantly higher, compared with kindergartens managed by public foundations or the nation. Compared with public or national kindergartens, most private kindergartens were located in residential areas and the number of children in these areas was significantly higher. In conclusion, numbers of children in kindergartens was found to be an environmental risk factor associated with transmission of enterobiasis in Korea.
- Increased cytokine and nitric oxide levels in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):133-7.
This study aimed to measure the levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and nitrite/nitrate (NO x ) in serum of dogs experimentally infected with Rangelia vitalii. Twelve female mongrel dogs were divided into 2 groups; group A (uninfected controls) composed by healthy dogs (n=5) and group B consisting of dogs inoculated with R. vitalii (n=7). Animals were monitored by blood smear examinations, which showed intraerythrocytic forms of the parasite on day 5 post-infection (PI). Blood samples were collected through the jugular vein on days 0, 10, and 20 PI to determine the serum levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, and NO x . Cytokines were assessed by ELISA quantitative sandwich technique, and NO x was measured by the modified Griess method. Cytokine levels (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6) were increased (P<0.01) in serum of infected animals. Serum levels of NO x were also increased on days 10 PI (P<0.01) and 20 PI (P<0.05) in infected animals. Therefore, the infection with R. vitalii causes an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide content. These alterations may be associated with host immune protection against the parasite.
- Development of a disperse dye immunoassay technique for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):129-32.
In this study a disperse dye immunoassay method was standardized and evaluated for detection of antibodies against Neospora caninum in cattle. Sera from 150 cattle with a recent history of abortion were collected and tested by commercial ELISA kit and a standardized in-house dye immunoassay system. The positivity rate for the sera used in this study was 34.6% for the disperse dye immunoassay (DDIA) compared to 32% obtained by ELISA kit. This study showed no significant difference between DDIA and ELISA. The results indicated that the DDIA provide an economic, simple, rapid and robust test for detection of N. caninum infection in cattle.
- First feline case of otodectosis in the Republic of Korea and successful treatment with imidacloprid/moxidectin topical solution. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):125-8.
In April 2010, pruritic symptoms were recognized in 3 privately-owned Siamese cats raised in Gwangju, Korea. Examination of ear canals revealed dark brown, ceruminous otic exudates that contain numerous live mites at various developmental stages. Based on morphological characteristics of adult mites in which caruncles were present on legs 1 and 2 in adult females and on legs 1, 2, 3, and 4 in adult males while the tarsus of leg 3 in both sexes was equipped with 2 long setae, the mite was identified as Otodectes cynotis. Ten ear mite-free domestic shorthaired cats were experimentally infected with O. cynotis to evaluate the efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin spot-on. Live mites were recovered from 1 of 10 treated cats on day 9 post-treatment (PT) while no live mites were observed from the ear canals of treated cats on days 16 and 30 PT. The efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin spot-on on O. cynotis in cats was, therefore, 90% on day 9 and 100% on days 16 and 30 PT. This is the first report of otodectosis in 3 cats naturally infested with O. cynotis in Gwang-ju, Korea. Both natural and experimental infestations were successfully treated with 10% imidacloprid/1% moxidectin spot-on.
- A case of oral myiasis caused by Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in Korea. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):119-23.
We report here a case of oral myiasis in the Republic of Korea. The patient was a 37-year-old man with a 30-year history of Becker's muscular dystrophy. He was intubated due to dyspnea 8 days prior to admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). A few hours after the ICU admission, 43 fly larvae were found during suction of the oral cavity. All maggots were identified as the third instars of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) by morphology. We discussed on the characteristics of myiasis acquired in Korea, including the infection risk and predisposing factors.
- A case of anisakidosis caused by Pseudoterranova decipiens larva. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):115-7.
Pseudoterranova decipiens larva is a rare cause of anisakiasis. Indeed, prior to the present study, there had been only 12 reports of larval P. decipiens infection in the Republic of Korea. In June 2011, an anisakid larva, 32.1 mm in length and 0.88 mm in width, and finally identified as the third stage larva of P. decipiens owing to the presence of an intestinal cecum but lacking ventricular appendage, was discovered in a 61-year-old woman during the course of endoscopy executed as a part of routine physical examinations. The patient had eaten raw a rockfish 13 hr prior to the endoscopy, but showed no symptoms of anisakiasis. This paper is the 13th report of P. decipiens infection in Korea.
- Fishborne trematode metacercariae in Luang Prabang, Khammouane, and Saravane Province, Lao PDR. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):107-14.
Fishborne trematode (FBT) metacercariae were investigated in fish from 3 Provinces of Lao PDR. Total 242 freshwater fish of 40 species were collected in local markets of Luang Prabang (59 fish of 16 species), Khammouane (81 fish of 19 species), and Saravane (97 fish of 14 species), and each of them was examined by artificial digestion method. Four species of metacercariae (Opisthorchis viverrini, Haplorchis taichui, Haplorchis yokogawai, and Centrocestus formosanus) were detected. O. viverrini was detected in 35 fish (14.5%), and their density was 252 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 88 metacercariae in 5 fish; Khammouane, 187 in 6 fish; Saravane, 303 in 24 fish). H. taichui was found in 102 fish (42.1%), and their density was 485 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 260 metacercariae in 38 fish; Khammouane, 1,084 in 23 fish; Saravane, 359 in 41 fish). H. yokogawai was detected in 92 fish (38.0%), and their density was 222 per infected fish (Luang Prabang, 362 metacercariae in 17 fish; Khammouane, 126 in 20 fish; Saravane, 214 in 55 fish). Metacercariae of C. formosanus were found in 8 fish (3.3%), and their density was 3 per infected fish. In the present study, it has been confirmed that FBT metacercariae, in particular, H. taichui, H. yokogawai, and O. viverrini, are highly prevalent in fish from Luang Prabang, Khammouane, and Saravane Province, Lao PDR.
- Molecular approaches to Taenia asiatica. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):1-8.
Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica are taeniid tapeworms that cause taeniasis in humans and cysticercosis in intermediate host animals. Taeniases remain an important public health concerns in the world. Molecular diagnostic methods using PCR assays have been developed for rapid and accurate detection of human infecting taeniid tapeworms, including the use of sequence-specific DNA probes, PCR-RFLP, and multiplex PCR. More recently, DNA diagnosis using PCR based on histopathological specimens such as 10% formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and stained sections mounted on slides has been applied to cestode infections. The mitochondrial gene sequence is believed to be a very useful molecular marker for not only studying evolutionary relationships among distantly related taxa, but also for investigating the phylo-biogeography of closely related species. The complete sequence of the human Taenia tapeworms mitochondrial genomes were determined, and its organization and structure were compared to other human-tropic Taenia tapeworms for which complete mitochondrial sequence data were available. The multiplex PCR assay with the Ta4978F, Ts5058F, Tso7421F, and Rev7915 primers will be useful for differential diagnosis, molecular characterization, and epidemiological surveys of human Taenia tapeworms.
- Trematodes recovered in the small intestine of stray cats in the Republic of Korea. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):99-106.
In 2005, we reported the infection status of 438 stray cats with various species of intestinal helminths, including nematodes (4 species), trematodes (23 species), and cestodes (5 species) in the Republic of Korea. However, morphologic details of each helminth species have not been provided. In the present study, we intended to describe morphologic details of 13 trematode species which were either new fauna of cats (10 species) or new fauna of not only cats but also all animal hosts (3 species). The worms were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin under a cover slip pressure, stained with Semichon's acetocarmine, and then observed using a light microscope equipped with a micrometer. The 13 subjected species included members of the Heterophyidae (Stellantchasmus falcatus, Stictodora fuscata, Stictodora lari, Centrocestus armatus, Procerovum varium, and Cryptocotyle concava), Echinostomatidae (Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma revolutum, Echinochasmus japonicus, and Stephanoprora sp.), Diplostomidae (Neodiplostomum seoulense), Plagiorchiidae (Plagiorchis muris), and Dicrocoeliidae (Eurytrema pancreaticum). By the present study, Cryptocotyle sp. and Neodiplostomum sp. recored in our previous study were identified as C. concava and N. seoulense, respectively. Three species, P. varium, C. concava, and Stephanoprora sp., are new trematode fauna in Korea.
- Monoclonal antibody-based dipstick assay: a reliable field applicable technique for diagnosis of Schistosoma mansoni infection using human serum and urine samples. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Korean J Parasitol 2013 Feb; 51(1):93-8.
A field applicable diagnostic technique, the dipstick assay, was evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing human Schistosoma mansoni infection. A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against S. mansoni adult worm tegumental antigen (AWTA) was employed in dipstick and sandwich ELISA for detection of circulating schistosome antigen (CSA) in both serum and urine samples. Based on clinical and parasitological examinations, 60 S. mansoni-infected patients, 30 patients infected with parasites other than schistosomiasis, and 30 uninfected healthy individuals were selected. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick assay in urine samples were 86.7% and 90.0%, respectively, compared to 90.0% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity of sandwich ELISA. In serum samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 88.3% and 91.7% for dipstick assay vs. 91.7% and 95.0% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic efficacy of dipstick assay in urine and serum samples was 88.3% and 90.0%, while it was 90.8% and 93.3% for sandwich ELISA, respectively. The diagnostic indices of dipstick assay and ELISA either in serum or in urine were statistically comparable (P>0.05). In conclusion, the dipstick assay offers an alternative simple, rapid, non-invasive technique in detecting CSA or complement to stool examinations especially in field studies.