- Mitochondrial dynamics following global cerebral ischemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24.
Global brain ischemia/reperfusion induces neuronal damage in vulnerable brain regions, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neuronal death. Induction of neuronal death is mediated by release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria though a well-characterized increase in outer mitochondrial membrane permeability.However, for cyt c to be released it is first necessary for cyt c to be liberated from the cristae junctions which are gated by Opa1 oligomers. Opa1 has two known functions: maintenance of the cristae junction and mitochondrial fusion. These roles suggest that Opa1 could play a central role in both controlling cyt c release and mitochondrial fusion/fission processes during ischemia/reperfusion. To investigate this concept, we first utilized in vitro real-time imaging to visualize dynamic changes in mitochondria. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of neurons grown in culture induced a dual-phase mitochondrial fragmentation profile: (i) fragmentation during OGD with no apoptosis activation, followed by fusion of mitochondrial networks after reoxygenation and a (ii) subsequent extensive fragmentation and apoptosis activation that preceded cell death. We next evaluated changes in mitochondrial dynamic state during reperfusion in a rat model of global brain ischemia. Evaluation of mitochondrial morphology with confocal and electron microscopy revealed a similar induction of fragmentation following global brain ischemia. Mitochondrial fragmentation aligned temporally with specific apoptotic events, including cyt c release, caspase 3/7 activation, and interestingly, release of the fusion protein Opa1. Moreover, we uncovered evidence of loss of Opa1 complexes during the progression of reperfusion, and electron microscopy micrographs revealed a loss of cristae architecture following global brain ischemia. These data provide novel evidence implicating a temporal connection between Opa1 alterations and dysfunctional mitochondrial dynamics following global brain ischemia.
- Transferrin receptor expression and role in transendothelial transport of transferrin in cultured brain endothelial monolayers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24.
Receptor-mediated transcytosis of the transferrin receptor has been suggested as a potential transport system to deliver therapeutic molecules into the brain. Recent studies have however shown that therapeutic antibodies, which have been reported to cross the brain endothelium, reach greater brain exposure when the affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor is lowered. The lower affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor facilitates the dissociation from the receptor within the endosomal compartments, which may indicate that the receptor itself does not necessarily move across the endothelial cells by transcytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate transferrin receptor expression and role in transendothelial transferrin transport in cultured bovine brain endothelial cell monolayers. Transferrin receptor mRNA and protein levels were investigated in endothelial mono-cultures and co-cultures with astrocytes, as well as in freshly isolated brain capillaries using qPCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Transendothelial transport and luminal association of holo-transferrin was investigated using [(125)I]holo-transferrin or [(59)Fe]-transferrin. Transferrin receptor mRNA expression in all cell culture configurations was lower than in freshly isolated capillaries, but the expression slightly increased during six days of culture. The mRNA expression levels were similar in mono-cultures and co-cultures. Immunostaining demonstrated comparable transferrin receptor localization patterns in mono-cultures and co-cultures. The endothelial cells demonstrated an up-regulation of transferrin receptor mRNA after treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. The association of [(125)I]holo-transferrin and [(59)Fe]-transferrin to the endothelial cells was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled holo-transferrin, indicating receptor mediated association. However, over time the cell associated [(59)Fe]-label exceeded that of [(125)I]holo-transferrin, which could indicate release of iron in the endothelial cells and receptor recycling. Luminal-to-abluminal transport of [(125)I]holo-transferrin across endothelial cell monolayers was low and not inhibited by unlabeled holo-transferrin. This indicated that transendothelial transferrin transport was independent of transferrin receptor-mediated transcytosis.
- Presynaptic CamKII regulates activity-dependent axon terminal growth. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24.
Spaced synaptic depolarization induces rapid axon terminal growth and the formation of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we identify a novel presynaptic function for the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CamKII) protein in the control of activity-dependent synaptic growth. Consistent with this function, we find that both total and phosphorylated CamKII (p-CamKII) are enriched in axon terminals. Interestingly, p-CamKII appears to be enriched at the presynaptic axon terminal membrane. Moreover, levels of total CamKII protein within presynaptic boutons globally increase within one hour following stimulation. These effects correlate with the activity-dependent formation of new presynaptic boutons. The increase in presynaptic CamKII levels is inhibited by treatment with cyclohexamide suggesting a protein-synthesis dependent mechanism. We have previously found that acute spaced stimulation rapidly downregulates levels of neuronal microRNAs (miRNAs) that are required for the control of activity-dependent axon terminal growth at this synapse. The rapid activity-dependent accumulation of CamKII protein within axon terminals is inhibited by overexpression of activity-regulated miR-289 in motor neurons. Experiments in vitro using a CamKII translational reporter show that miR-289 can directly repress the translation of CamKII via a sequence motif found within the CamKII 3' untranslated region (UTR). Collectively, our studies support the idea that presynaptic CamKII acts downstream of synaptic stimulation and the miRNA pathway to control rapid activity-dependent changes in synapse structure.
- KCa3.1 constitutes a pharmacological target for astrogliosis associated with Alzheimer's disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a progression from decline of episodic memory to a global impairment of cognitive function. Astrogliosis is a hallmark feature of AD, and reactive gliosis has been considered as an important target for intervention in various neurological disorders. We previously found in astrocyte cultures that the expression of the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 was increased in reactive astrocytes induced by TGF-β, while pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of KCa3.1 attenuated astrogliosis. In this study, we sought to suppress reactive gliosis in the context of AD by inhibiting KCa3.1 and evaluate its effects on the cognitive impairment using murine animal models such as the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model that exhibits some AD-like symptoms. We found KCa3.1 expression was increased in reactive astrocytes as well as neurons in the brains of both SAMP8 mice and Alzheimer's disease patients. Blockade of KCa3.1 with the selective inhibitor TRAM-34 in SAMP8 mice resulted in a decrease in astrogliosis as well as microglia activation, and moreover an attenuation of memory deficits. Using KCa3.1 knockout mice, we further confirmed that deletion of KCa3.1 reduced the activation of astrocytes and microglia, and rescued the memory loss induced by intrahippocampal Aβ1-42 peptide injection. We also found in astrocyte cultures that blockade of KCa3.1 or deletion of KCa3.1 suppressed Aβ oligomer-induced astrogliosis. Our data suggest that KCa3.1 inhibition might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment.
- The activities of LDL receptor-related protein-1 (LRP1) compartmentalize into distinct plasma membrane microdomains. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 23.
LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) is an endocytic receptor for diverse ligands. In neurons and neuron-like cells, ligand-binding to LRP1 initiates cell-signaling. Herein, we show that in PC12 and N2a neuron-like cells, LRP1 distributes into lipid rafts and non-raft plasma membrane fractions. When lipid rafts were disrupted, using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or fumonisin B1, activation of Src family kinases and ERK1/2 by the LRP1 ligands, tissue-type plasminogen activator and activated α2-macroglobulin, was blocked. Biological consequences of activated LRP1 signaling, including neurite outgrowth and cell growth, also were blocked. The effects of lipid raft disruption on ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowth, in response to LRP1 ligands, were reproduced in experiments with cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture. Because the reagents used to disrupt lipid rafts may have effects on the composition of the plasma membrane outside lipid rafts, we studied the effects of these reagents on LRP1 activities unrelated to cell-signaling. Lipid raft disruption did not affect the total ligand binding capacity of LRP1, the affinity of LRP1 for its ligands, or its endocytic activity. These results demonstrate that well described activities of LRP1 require localization of this receptor to distinct plasma membrane microdomains.
- The role of cell adhesion molecules in brain wiring and neuropsychiatric disorders. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 22.
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the nervous system have long been a research focus, but many mice lacking CAMs show very subtle phenotypes, giving an impression that CAMs may not be major players in constructing the nervous system. However, recent human genetic studies suggest CAM involvement in many neuropsychiatric disorders, implicating that they must have significant functions in nervous system development, namely in circuitry formation. As CAMs can provide specificity through their molecular interactions, this review summarizes possible mechanisms on how alterations of CAMs can result in neuropsychiatric disorders through circuitry modification.
- ALS-FTLD associated mutations of SQSTM1 impact on Keap1-Nrf2 signalling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 20.
The transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor protein Keap1 play key roles in the regulation of antioxidant stress responses and both Keap1-Nrf2 signalling and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the ALS-FTLD spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders. The Keap1-binding partner and autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 has also recently been linked genetically to ALS-FTLD, with some missense mutations identified in patients mapping within or close to its Keap1-interacting region (KIR, residues 347-352) of SQSTM1/p62. Here we report the effects on protein function of four different disease associated mutations of SQSTM1/p62 which affect the KIR region. Only mutations mapping precisely to the KIR (P348L and G351A) were associated with a loss of Keap1 binding in co-immunoprecipitations comparable to wild-type SQSTM1/p62. These selective effects on Keap1 recognition were entirely rational based on protein structural models. Consistent with impaired Keap1 binding, the P348L and G351A KIR mutants showed reduced ability to activate Nrf2 signalling compared to wild-type SQSTM1/p62 in antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase reporter assays. The results suggest that SQSTM1 mutations within the KIR of SQSTM1/p62 contribute to aetiology of some cases of ALS-FTLD through a mechanism involving aberrant expression or regulation of oxidative response genes.
- MCP-1 mediated activation of microglia promotes white matter lesions and cognitive deficits by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 12.
Microglia activation played a vital role in the pathogenesis of white matter lesions (WMLs) by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. In addition, hypoxia induced up-regulated expression of MCP-1, promotes the activation of microglia. However, the role of MCP-1 mediated microglia activation in chronic cerebral ischemia is still unknown. To explore that, chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model was established by permanent stenosis of bilateral common carotid artery in mice. The activation of microglia and the related signal pathway p38MAPK/PKC in white matter, and working memory of mice were observed. We found that stenosis of common carotid arteries could induce MCP-1 mediated activation of microglia through p38MAPK/PKC pathway and white matter lesions. Taken together, our findings represent a novel mechanism of MCP-1 involved in activation of microglia, and provide a novel therapeutical strategy for chronic cerebral hypoperfusion.
- Early-life seizures alter synaptic calcium-permeable AMPA receptor function and plasticity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 10.:11-20.
Calcium (Ca(2+))-mediated(4) signaling pathways are critical to synaptic plasticity. In adults, the NMDA glutamate receptor (NMDAR) represents a major route for activity-dependent synaptic Ca(2+) entry. However, during neonatal development, when synaptic plasticity is particularly high, many AMPA glutamate receptors (AMPARs) are also permeable to Ca(2+) (CP-AMPAR) due to low GluA2 subunit expression, providing an additional route for activity- and glutamate-dependent Ca(2+) influx and subsequent signaling. Therefore, altered hippocampal Ca(2+) signaling may represent an age-specific pathogenic mechanism. We thus aimed to assess Ca(2+) responses 48h after hypoxia-induced neonatal seizures (HS) in postnatal day (P)10 rats, a post-seizure time point at which we previously reported LTP attenuation. We found that Ca(2+) responses were higher in brain slices from post-HS rats than in controls and that this increase was CP-AMPAR-dependent. To determine whether synaptic CP-AMPAR expression was also altered post-HS, we assessed the expression of GluA2 at hippocampal synapses and the expression of long-term depression (LTD), which has been linked to the presence of synaptic GluA2. Here we report a decrease 48h after HS in synaptic GluA2 expression at synapses and LTD in hippocampal CA1. Given the potentially critical role of AMPAR trafficking in disease progression, we aimed to establish whether post-seizure in vivo AMPAR antagonist treatment prevented the enhanced Ca(2+) responses, changes in GluA2 synaptic expression, and diminished LTD. We found that NBQX treatment prevents all three of these post-seizure consequences, further supporting a critical role for AMPARs as an age-specific therapeutic target.
- Thyroid hormones are essential to preserve non-proliferative cells of adult neurogenesis of the dentate gyrus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 5.:1-10.
Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a process that involves both cell populations that dynamically switch between pools of proliferative and quiescent cells, and cells that definitely leave the cell cycle to maturate into granular neurons. This investigation was carried out to determine the role of THs on the mitotic activity of specific proliferative cell populations and the preservation of non-proliferative cells participating in the neurogenic process of the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus. Hypothyroidism was induced in male adult Wistar rats with methimazole for 28days. We quantified the total number of proliferative cells (BrdU+), proliferative type 1 (BrdU+/GFAP+), and 2b and 3 (BrdU+/DCX+) cells. Early non-proliferative cells (BrdU-/DCX+ cells lacking dendritic process), postmitotic neuroblasts (Tuj 1+ cells lacking dendritic process), and immature granular neurons (IGN; DCX+ or Tuj 1+ and the presence of dendritic processes into granular or molecular layer) were also included. The evidence showed that the proliferation of Type 1, 2b and 3 cells is not modified by hypothyroidism. In contrast, hypothyroidism reduced the number of early non-proliferative cells and also leads to a decrement in the number of IGN. Our results show that proliferative cells of the DG are not sensitive to thyroid perturbations. However, THs are essential to preserve cell populations that leave the cell cycle in the DG of the hippocampus.