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Malaysian journal of nutrition [journal]
- Perceptions and practice of exclusive breastfeeding among Malay women in Kelantan, Malaysia: a qualitative approach. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):15-25.
Despite evidence from various studies on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) being best for infants, many women do not or are unable to practise EBF. This study aimed to examine perceptions on EBF and its influencing factors among a sample of Malay women in rural and urban areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.A qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted to examine respondents' views about EBF including their beliefs, experiences and feelings. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim, followed by discussion and identification of emergent concepts.Data saturation was achieved after interviewing a total of 30 women. The mean age of the women was about 30 years with most having at least secondary level schooling; the majority were working women. Thirteen of the 30 women practised EBF. They believed breastfeeding allowed them to fulfill their reproductive role and regarded it as a gift from God. The practice required sacrifice, and was therefore associated with a combination of positive and negative feelings. Differing opinions surfaced with regard to belief in the superiority of breastfeeding and feasibility of practice. Many women accepted breastfeeding practice but found it challenging to practise EBF especially when confronted with low milk production, perceived low nutritional quality breast milk, and work commitments.Women should be educated on the importance of EBF with regard to the nutritional adequacy of breast milk and long-term benefits for mother and children.
- Therapeutic potential of the haruan (Channa striatus): from food to medicinal uses. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):125-36.
The haruan (Channa striatus) is an indigenous, predatory freshwater fish of Malaysia. It is a common food fish among the local populace with traditionally identified pharmacological benefits in treating wound and pain and in boosting energy of the sick. Channa striatus is also a subject of renewed interest in Malaysian folk medicine in the search for a better cure for diseases and ailments. Amino acids and fatty acids, found in high concentrations in the fish, might have contributed to its pharmacological properties. Important amino acids of the fish include glycine, lysine and arginine, while its fatty acids are arachidonic acid, palmitic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. They appear to effect their influence through the formation of several types of bioactive molecules. Extracts of the fish are produced from whole fish, roe, mucus and skin of the fish. This review updates research findings on potential uses of Channa striatus, beyond the traditional prescription as a wound healer, pain reliever and energy booster to include its properties as a ACE-inhibitor, anti-depressant and neuroregenerative agent. The fish appears to have wide-ranging medical uses and should be studied more intensively to unearth its other properties and mechanisms of action.
- Nutrient intake of pregnant women in Indonesia: a review. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Review]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):113-24.
Pregnant women are encouraged to comply with dietary recommendations to meet their own nutritional needs as well as their child. Deficiency of certain nutrients may lead to morbidity of both the mother and child. In this review, information on nutrients intake of pregnant women from studies conducted in Indonesia will be analysed.A literature search of all possible sources of information was conducted. These included (i) electronic databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, EBSCO, and Google Scholar; (ii) archives and records of the Ministry of Health; (iii) library collection in institutions such as health polytechnics, local health offices, non-government organisations and universities in Yogyakarta, Central Java, East Java Province; and (iv) articles on pregnant women's nutrient intake conducted in Indonesia in 2000 - 2010. The results were analysed descriptively by comparing them with the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) value.Two of four studies showed mean energy intake below EAR. Protein intake was lower than EAR only in two studies, while four are in contrary to the EAR. No study showed low fat and carbohydrate intake. A large number of studies reported low average intake of calcium and iron.The reviewed studies suggest that intake of several nutrients by pregnant women in Indonesia is below the EAR.
- The importance of breastfeeding in rotaviral diarrhoeas. [Journal Article, Review]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):103-11.
Globally, rotaviral vaccines in use today have contributed to the reduction of the incidence of rotaviral diarrhoeas. Despite the substantial protection conferred by the current vaccines against the rotaviral strains, it is only prudent to recognise that other protective factors, like breastfeeding, also provide some degree of protection against this disease. This article has attempted to review some important mechanisms of protection in breast milk against the rotaviruses and highlight the oft forgotten non-immunoglobulin fraction in breast milk as an additional tool of protection against rotavirus disease. The adaptive capacity of breast milk to environment is another compelling reason to continue breastfeeding as it can usefully complement and be significant in the use of many vaccines. Vital immunoprotective constituents in breast milk beneficially protect the infant by initiating and strengthening many immune responses and should be borne in mind as essential tools of defence even in an era where vaccines play a pivotal role in the combat against certain diseases. It is impressive that besides nutritive advantages, the suckling infant enjoys appreciable immunoprotection via exclusive breastfeeding.
- Evaluation of composite millet breads for sensory and nutritional qualities and glycemic response. [Comparative Study, Evaluation Studies, Journal Article]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):89-101.
This study was undertaken with the objectives of formulating composite bread by utilising finger millet flour and foxtail millet flour and further to evaluate these breads for sensory, nutritional qualities, and glycemic response.Two genotypes of finger millet VL-146 and PRM-601 and one local cultivar of foxtail millet were studied. The finger millet flour (FMF) and foxtail millet flour (FTF) were individually blended in various proportions (30 to 60%) into refined wheat flour (RWF). These blends were then used in the preparation of composite breads. The refined wheat flour bread (RWF) served as the control. One bread from each millet flour blend was selected finally for further investigation on the basis of sensory scores.As the 30% millet flour substitution was most preferred among the three millet samples, it was selected for further evaluation. Nutrient composition of the selected breads showed that composite bread formulated using FTF showed significantly higher crude protein, crude fat, total ash, phosphorus and insoluble dietary fibre. The composite bread formulated using FMF contained significantly higher calcium, soluble dietary fibre, tannin and phytic acid. However, the control (RWF) bread contained significantly higher carbohydrate, physiological energy and starch. The lowest value for glycemic index among the breads was observed for bread containing FMF from genotype VL- 146 (41.43), followed by bread containing FMF from the genotype PRM- 601 (43.10), bread containing FTF (49.53) and control bread (67.82).Millet flour incorporated breads had low glycemic indices and were acceptable and nutritious.
- Non-cereal food consumption, food insecurity and nutritional status of children and mothers: a case study in Bangladesh. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):77-88.
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of food insecurity derived from non-cereal food consumption on nutritional status of children and mothers in a poverty-prone region in Bangladesh.Data from the Bangladesh Nutritional Surveillance Project, 2005 of Helen Keller International were used to relate non-cereal food consumption and household food insecurity to nutritional status of children and their mothers. Multiple regressions were used to determine the association between the nutritional outcomes and the explanatory variables. In the case of binary and multi-level outcomes, logistic regressions were used as well.Non-cereal dietary diversity was found to have little predictive power on BMI and MUAC of mothers and on the nutritional status of the children. Maternal education is strongly associated with mothers' and children's nutritional status.Dietary diversity based on non-cereal food consumption can be a useful tool to investigate the nutritional status of poor households, but more studies are needed to verify these findings.
- Acceptance of a test vegetable after repeated exposures among preschoolers. [Journal Article]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):67-75.
Low vegetable consumption in children is always a matter of concern. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of multiple exposures on acceptance of a test vegetable among preschoolers aged 6 years.This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was a cross-sectional study among 68 Malay children (37 boys; 31 girls) from 6 kindergartens in Muar, Johor. This phase was aimed at determining the selection of the most suitable vegetable as the test vegetable. Data on demographics, usual preparation methods of vegetables, frequency of vegetables served and consumed by the children at home and parents' perception of the children's liking towards vegetables were obtained through the questionnaire. In phase 2, 42 preschoolers (20 boys; 22 girls) from 3 kindergartens from phase 1 were randomly selected. Meals consisting of the test vegetable, that is, round cabbage were provided to the children during lunch time at the kindergartens for 3 days consecutively. Thirty-six grams of stir-fried cabbage was served each time and the leftover was weighed.There was a significant increase in intake of the test vegetable from first day (21.58 +/- 9.55 g) to the third day of exposure (28.26 +/- 8.35 g), z = -3.317, p = 0.002. Based on feedback from the parents, the level of liking towards the test vegetable was significantly increased after the intervention (p = 0.038).It is suggested that multiple exposures to vegetables could be a strategy to increase consumption of vegetables among preschoolers.
- Accelerometer-determined physical activity level among government employees in Penang, Malaysia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):57-66.
A cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate accelerometer-determined physical activity level of 233 Malay government employees (104 men, 129 women) working in the Federal Government Building Penang, Malaysia.Body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, body fat percentage and blood pressure were measured for each respondent. All the respondents were asked to wear an accelerometer for 3 days. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated using a standard formulas. Fasting blood sample was obtained to determine the lipid profile and glucose levels of the respondents.Based on the accelerometer-determined physical activity level, almost 65% of the respondents were categorised as sedentary. Approximately 50.2% of the respondents were overweight or obese. There were negative but significant relationships between body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.353, p < 0.05), body fat percentage (r = -0.394, p < 0.05), waist circumference (WC) (r = -0.198, p < 0.05) and physical activity level. Sedentary individuals had a higher risk than moderate to active individuals of having a BMI more than or equal to 25 kg/m2 (OR = 2.80, 95% CI 1.55-5.05), an-risk classified WC (OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.01-3.20), and a body fat percentage classified as unhealthy (OR = 3.01, 95% CI 1.41-6.44).The results of this study suggest that accelerometer-determined physical activity level is a significant factor associated with obesity in this study. The high prevalence of physical inactivity and obesity found among respondents of this study indicate a need for implementing intervention programmes among this population.
- Parental concerns and control in feeding of 9 to 12-year-old children in a primary school in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):47-55.
Body weight of children is affected by many factors including food habits which are influenced by their parents. Studies in the West have shown that parents tend to control child feeding in response to their child's weight status. The aim of this study was to assess Malaysian parental concerns about child weight and the control they exert on child feeding.This cross-sectional study was conducted on parents and their children aged 9 to 12 years from a primary school in Kuala Lumpur. The weight status of the children was classified according to the body mass index-for-age growth chart. Parental concerns about child weight and control in child feeding was assessed using the adapted Malay version of Child Feeding Questionnaire.A total of 204 parents participated in this study. The study found that being a female served as a protective factor against becoming overweight (OR: 0.28, CI: 0.13-0.62). Parents with overweight children were significantly older (OR: 1.08, CI: 1.01-1.15), concerned about their child's weight (OR: 2.77, CI: 1.49-5.12) and controlled their child's feeding by restricting food intake (OR: 2.70, CI: 1.30-5.60). They were less likely to pressure their children to eat (OR: 0.32, CI: 0.19-0.56). Parents from the low income group were more likely to have underweight children (OR: 4.15, CI: 1.28-13.47).There was significant difference in level of parental concern across differing child weight status. Parents with overweight children were likely to be more concerned about their child's weight, tending to control their feeding. In contrast, parents with underweight children did not exert control on their feeding.
- Evaluation of shellfish consumption in Nha Trang City, Southern coastal Vietnam. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Malays J Nutr 2012 Apr; 18(1):37-45.
Shellfish consumption may be a significant pathway to food contaminants such as heavy metals, pesticides and phycotoxins. Currently, little information exists about consumption of shellfish in Vietnam. Such data could be of interest in terms of nutritional value or risk assessment.Consumption of shellfish was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and validated by a 7-day recall method. Approximately 1% of the city population of Nha Trang was selected yielding a final sample of 440 participants. The participants were above 18 years of age, in apparently good health and were shellfish consumers.In South coastal Vietnam, the types of shellfish most consumed are green mussel, squid, crab and shrimp. The mean consumption rates of the bivalves, crustaceans, gastropods, cephalopods, echinoderms and all shellfish combined were 39.3, 20.9, 16.4, 11.2, 0.3 and 88.1 g/person/day, respectively. The consumption rate was slightly higher in the age group of 30-54 years, than in the younger (18-29 years) and older (55 years and above) age groups. Shellfish is essentially purchased in the markets and temporary markets, and mostly consumed during the dry season.Shellfish consumption in the Southern coastal region of Vietnam is high compared to consumption levels in other countries; it is also high compared to consumption levels of Vietnamese emigrants. Such data may be useful for further investigation on nutrition perspectives and in term of risk assessment of shellfish contaminants.