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Marine pollution bulletin [journal]
- Sources, fluxes and risk of organic micropollutants to the Cantabrian Sea (Spain). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 11.
The sources, distribution and risk of 51 organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the Cantabrian coastal environment (NW Spain) were evaluated. Gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates esters, bisphenol A and alkylphenols. 45 OMPs were detected in coastal/estuarine waters. Wastewater treatment plant effluents and emissary discharges were identified as the main sources of contamination. The accumulation of OMPs in sediments and the bioaccumulation in 21days caged mussels were also assessed. Chemical results were combined with the "Combined Monitoring-based and Modeling-based Priority Setting Scheme" COMMPS procedure for risk assessment analysis. Finally, the chemical status of the different sampling locations was estimated using site risk indexes. Those indexes can be conveniently displayed in quality geographical maps and are considered a valuable tool for the environmental management and risk assessment of the region under study.
- Application of the CARLIT index along a biogeographical gradient in the Alboran Sea (European Coast). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 11.
An index, based on littoral communities assemblages (CARLIT), was applied to assess the ecological status of Northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters, following the requirements of the European Water Framework Directive. The biogeographical particularities of the Alboran Sea suggested a reassessment of this index, and that was the main objective of this work. Due to these biogeographical particularities, two regions were proposed in the studied region, with new reference conditions for each region. Subsequently, by means of a multivariate analysis, littoral community abundances and the CARLIT index were compared with factors related to geomorphology, biogeography and anthropogenic pressures. Overall, the biogeographical component determined the distribution of littoral communities. In contrast, the ecological status yielded by the index only was significantly related to anthropogenic pressures. The results pointed out that the reassessment of the CARLIT index was suitable to evaluate the ecological status of the Alboran Sea.
- Influence of waste management policy on the characteristics of beach litter in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 11.
Marine debris is a ubiquitous problem that poses a serious threat to the global oceans; it has motivated public participation in clean-up campaigns, as well as governmental involvement in developing mitigation strategies. While it is known that the problem of marine litter may be affected by waste management practices on land, beach survey results have seldom been compared with them. In this study, marine litter surveys on four beaches of Cijin Island were conducted to explore the effects of waste management and policy implications. Indirect evidence shows that chances for land-based litter, such as plastic bags and bottles, entering the marine environment can be greatly decreased if they can be properly reduced, reused and recycled. We suggest that mitigation measures should focus on source reduction, waste recycling and management, utilizing effective economic instruments, and pursuing a long-term public education campaign to raise the public awareness of this problem.
- Bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in young-of-the-year bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 9.
Spatial gradients of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the young-of-the-year (YOY) bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) in the vicinity of a PCB Superfund Site in New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, and in the adjacent waters. PCB concentrations in bluefish varied between different locations, and also among fish from a given location. A generally decreasing gradient in PCB concentrations was evident as the bluefish were collected away from the Superfund Site. The average sum of PCB concentrations were highest for bluefish collected in the Upper Harbor between Interstate-195 Bridge and Coggeshall Street Bridge (Upper Harbor), followed by bluefish in Lower Harbor from north of Popes Island Bridge (Lower Harbor), and bluefish from Outer Harbor south of Hurricane Barrier (Outer Harbor). The levels of PCBs in bluefish from Clarks Cove and PCBs in bluefish from Buzzards Bay were similar and lowest among all bluefish specimens analyzed in the present study. Pesticide concentrations were about one order of magnitude or lower than the PCB concentrations, and the gradient of pesticide concentrations generally followed the gradient of PCB concentrations. Some of the commonly detected pesticides in the order of decreasing concentrations included DDTs and metabolites, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan sulfate, and α-chlordane. Distribution of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides were examined in the tissues of YOY bluefish from Clarks Cove. PCBs and lipids in the brain samples of YOY bluefish were generally numerically greater than PCBs in the liver samples, but these differences were not statistically significant. PCBs and lipids in hypaxial muscle samples were numerically greater than PCBs in epaxial muscle samples, although these two groups of tissues were not statistically different. Despite the higher susceptibility of lighter PCB homologs to geophysical and biogeochemical weathering processes, the relative dominance of lighter homologs in the Upper Harbor and Lower Harbor samples suggested ongoing or recent sources of these lighter PCBs, particularly Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016 in this area. The presence of heavier homologs in the Upper Harbor and Lower Harbor bluefish samples could be attributed to Aroclor 1252 and Aroclor 1254 that were being used in relatively smaller quantities in the manufacture of electrical components in addition to Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1016. The concentration of heavier PCB homologs appears to increase in YOY bluefish the further away from the PCB Superfund Site in the Acushnet Estuary the samples were collected. Principal component analyses of PCB 153 normalized concentrations of the individual PCB congeners resulted in two general groupings; a relatively tight group comprised of YOY bluefish from Upper Harbor, Lower Harbor, and Outer Harbor, and a rather loose and more dispersed group comprised of Buzzards Bay bluefish and the tissue samples of bluefish from Clarks Cove. Principal component analyses of major pesticides suggested close groupings of bluefish from Clarks Cove and bluefish from Buzzards Bay. Pesticides in bluefish from Upper Harbor, Lower Harbor, and Outer Harbor formed a loose group, with some bluefish from these locations populating close to Clarks Cove and Buzzards Bay bluefish. Although PCBs have been implicated in various behavioral and health effects in the experimental and field studies, the deleterious effects of chronic exposure to high concentrations of PCBs and the potential for recruitment of New Bedford Harbor YOY bluefish population to the adult stock remains obscure. Adaptive or evolutionary resistance to contaminants have been documented in resident species in some highly contaminated estuaries, however similar responses have not been investigated in the migratory species like bluefish. The results of the present study provide a reference baseline for YOY bluefish for "before-and-after" comparative studies and other toxicological studies for the New Bedford Harbor Superfund Site that is currently being remediated.
- An integrated microfluidic device in marine microalgae culture for toxicity screening application. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 9.
Algal assay using marine microalgae has emerged as an important method to evaluate the toxicity of chemicals, which is currently undertaken using conventional culture and additional detection of physiological cellular endpoints. While effective, this approach can be labor-intensive and thus could benefit from a more streamlined, integrated approach. Microfluidics offers a way to accomplish this goal. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic device which consists of a concentration gradient generator (CGG), diffusible culturing module and power-free valve system. It allows the processes of chemical liquid dilution and diffusion, micro-scale microalgal culture (in batch or chemostatic conditions), cell stimulation and on-lined screening to be integrated into a single device. Using the device, marine microalgae were successfully cultured and stressed on-chip. The simple assay provides multi-biological response measurements of cell division rate, autofluorescence and esterase activity. This work showed promising in developing a microfluidic platform for toxicity screening based on marine microalgal culture.
- Chemical dispersion of oil with mineral fines in a low temperature environment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 8.
The increasing risks of potential oil spills in the arctic regions, which are characterized by low temperatures, are a big challenge. The traditional dispersant method has shown limited effectiveness in oil cleanup. This work studied the role of mineral fines in the formation of oil-mineral aggregates (OMAs) at low temperature (0-4°C) environment. The loading amount of minerals and dispersant with different dispersant and oil types were investigated under a full factorial design. The shapes and sizes of OMAs were analyzed. Results showed that the behavior of OMA formation differs when dispersant and mineral fines are used individually or together. Both the experimental and microscopic results also showed the existence of optimal dispersant to oil ratios and mineral to oil ratios. In general, poor oil removal performance was observed for more viscous oil. Corexit 9500 performed better than Corexit 9527 with various oils, in terms of oil dispersion and OMA formation.
- Droplet breakup in subsea oil releases - Part 2: Predictions of droplet size distributions with and without injection of chemical dispersants. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 8.
A new method for prediction of droplet size distributions from subsea oil and gas releases is presented in this paper. The method is based on experimental data obtained from oil droplet breakup experiments conducted in a new test facility at SINTEF. The facility is described in a companion paper, while this paper deals with the theoretical basis for the model and the empirical correlations used to derive the model parameters from the available data from the test facility. A major issue dealt with in this paper is the basis for extrapolation of the data to full scale (blowout) conditions. Possible contribution from factors such as buoyancy flux and gas void fraction are discussed and evaluated based on results from the DeepSpill field experiment.
- An ecotoxicological analysis of the sediment quality in a European Atlantic harbor emphasizes the current limitations of the Water Framework Directive. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 7.
The "PortoNovo" project was developed to standardize the methodologies for water quality management in the port areas of coastal Atlantic regions to improve the Water Frame Directive (WFD) for these specific water bodies. Under this scope, water and sediment samples were collected from five sites within the Port of Aveiro, Portugal. According to the physical and chemical parameters that were analyzed (i.e., metals, total organic carbon, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), the sediments were not considered at risk based on European sediment quality laws. However, the bioassays that were performed on the sediment samples (Microtox®) and the standardized acute toxicity test using the marine rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, on sediment elutriates revealed higher toxicity levels. The use of bioassays to assess sediment quality clearly complements more conservative approaches and highlights current gaps within the WFD. The approach presented here can be easily transferred to other port areas for more reliable water quality management.
- Assessment of biomarkers in Mytilus edulis to determine good environmental status for implementation of MSFD in Ireland. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 7.
Candidate OSPAR/ICES recommended biomarkers at the level of the individual in Mytilus edulis for determination of good environmental status for MSFD were evaluated against contaminant levels at sites around Ireland. The sites chosen ranged from moderate to low pollution levels, but the actual ranking of the sites varied according to the contaminant levels present. At the most contaminated site, Cork, 4 out of 16 contaminants exceeded the EAC, while at Shannon, no EACs were exceeded. The SOS assay suggested that Cork was the healthiest site with a LT50 of 17.6days, while SOS for Shannon was 15.6days. Likewise, condition factors varied among sites and did not always correspond to contaminant-based status. There may be uncertainty in assigning status around the not good:good boundary. This raises potential difficulties not only in the biomarker/contaminant load relationship but also in the reliability of the biomarkers themselves and hence barriers meeting compliance levels.
- Evaluation of autochthonous bioaugmentation and biostimulation during microcosm-simulated oil spills. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mar Pollut Bull 2013 May 6.
Oil spills are treated as a widespread problem that poses a great threat to any ecosystem. Following first response actions, bioremediation has emerged as the best strategy for combating oil spills and can be enhanced by the following two complementary approaches: bioaugmentation and biostimulation. Bioaugmentation is one of the most controversial issues of bioremediation. Studies that compare the relative performance of bioaugmentation and biostimulation suggest that nutrient addition alone has a greater effect on oil biodegradation than the addition of microbial products because the survival and degradation ability of microbes introduced to a contaminated site are highly dependent on environmental conditions. Microbial populations grown in rich media under laboratory conditions become stressed when exposed to field conditions in which nutrient concentrations are substantially lower. There is increasing evidence that the best approach to overcoming these barriers is the use of microorganisms from the polluted area, an approach proposed as autochthonous bioaugmentation (ABA) and defined as a bioaugmentation technology that exclusively uses microorganisms indigenous to the sites (soil, sand, and water) slated for decontamination. In this work, we examined the effectiveness of strategies combining autochthonous bioaugmentation with biostimulation for successful remediation of polluted marine environments. Seawater was collected from a pristine area (Agios Onoufrios Beach, Chania) and was placed in a bioreactor with 1% v/v crude oil to facilitate the adaptation of the indigenous microorganism population. The pre-adapted consortium and the indigenous population were tested in combination with inorganic or lipophilic nutrients in the presence (or absence) of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids) during 90-day long experiments. Chemical analysis (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) of petroleum hydrocarbons confirmed the results of previous work demonstrating that the biodegradation processes were enhanced by the addition of lipophilic fertilizers (uric acid and lecithin) in combination with biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), resulting in increased removal of petroleum hydrocarbons as well as reduction of the lag phase within 15days of treatment. Considering this outcome and examining the results, the use of biostimulation additives in combination with naturally pre-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading consortia (bioaugmentation) has proved to be an effective treatment and is a promising strategy that could be applied specifically when an oil spill approaches near a shore line and an immediate hydrocarbon degradation effort is needed.