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- [Preformed pediatric endotracheal tubes]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):368-75.
The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the details of preformed pediatric endotracheal tubes (PPETTs, I. D. 3.0-6.0 mm).Dimensions of all PPETTs were measured as follows: the distance from tube tip to the distal border of depth markings, length and the number of depth markings, outer diameter and length of the tubes, the distance from tube tip to the bent section, the number of the Murphy eyes and calculated cross sectional area of the Murphy eyes, the distance from tube tip to the distal/proximal border of the cuff, cuff diameter and cuff volume at 20 cmH2O cuff pressure.A total of 80 PPETTs, including 18 brands from 5 manufacturers, were investigated, of which 30% of PPETTs are cuffed tubes. There are significant variability in the distance from tube tip to the bent section, the number and position of depth markings, the number of the Murphy eyes and position and diameter of cuff at 20 cmH2O cuff pressure for a given I. D.There are no uniformity in the details of PPETTs. The details of PPETTs including those with high volume low pressure cuff should be updated.
- [A case of cardiac arrest before and after emergent exploratory laparotomy for panperitonitis]. [Letter]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):366-7.
- [Wasn't the postoperative cardiac arrest caused by hyperkalemia?]. [Letter]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):365.
- [A case of respiratory distress due to massive pleural effusion after surgery for ovarian tumor]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):362-4.
A 59-year-old woman with ovarian tumor was scheduled for radical hysterectomy under general anesthesia. Preoperative examination showed massive ascites and slight pleural effusion. Since respiratory status had improved by oxgen therapy, she underwent a surgery as scheduled, although she complained of slight dyspnea and low Sp(O2). Induction of anesthesia was uneventful. However, oxygenation deteriorated and airway pressure increased after suction of ascites during the operation. We treated it with increased FI(O2). After surgery, we found bilateral massive pleural effusion on the chest X-ray and drained it. Oxygenation improved, and the endotracheal tube was removed. Patients with ovarian tumor with pleural effusion and ascites may have desaturation due to increased pleural effusion during the operation, or pleural effusion might increase preoperatively. Therefore, we need to be cautious about anesthetic management of them and examine chest X-ray and arterial blood gas frequently.
- [Perioperative management of a child with central diabetes insipidus who underwent two surgeries before and after desmopressin administration]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):358-61.
A 14-year-old girl weighing 32 kg was diagnosed with suprasellar tumor causing hydrocephalus, hypothyroidism, adrenal dysfunction and central diabetes insipidus. She was treated with levothyroxine and hydrocortisone and urged to take fluid to replace urine. She was scheduled to undergo ventricular drainage to relieve hydrocephalus prior to tumor resection. For the first surgery, desmopressin was not started and urine output reached 4,000 to 6,000 ml x day(-1), urine osmolality 64 mOsm x l(-1) and urine specific gravity 1.002. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane and maintained with propofol and remifentanil. Maintenance fluid was with acetated Ringer's solution and urine loss was replaced with 5% dextrose. Bradycardia and hypotension occurred after intubation, which was treated with volume load. Infusion volume was 750 ml and urine output was 1100 ml during 133 min of anesthesia. Postoperative day 1 nasal desmopressin was started. Ten days later, partial tumor resection was performed. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and fentanyl and maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. Infusion volume was 610 ml, urine output 380 ml, and blood loss 151 ml during 344 min of anesthesia. Hemodynamic parameters were stable throughout the procedure. Pathology of the tumor was revealed to be germinoma. Bradycardia and hypotension experienced during the first surgery was suspected to be caused by preoperative hypovolemia brought by polyuria. Desmopressin was proved to be effective to treat excessive urine output and to maintain good perioperative water balance.
- [Anesthetic management of a patient with carnitine palmitoyltransferase deficiency with a history of rhabdomyolysis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):354-7.
Carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) makes the fatty acids available through beta-oxidation. Deficiency of CPT causes difficulties of muscle cells to metabolize fatty acid. In affected patients, exercise, fast for a prolonged period, and stress, lead to exhaustion of the store of glucose in the body, and rhabdomyolysis may occur, since muscle can not utilize fatty acid as an alternative energy source. Therefore, anesthetic management of CPT deficiency needs infusion of glucose continuously, avoiding the use of the drugs that cause rhabdomyolysis and suppressing the surgical stress. A 67-year-old man, who had previous history of rhabdmyolysis during the postoperative period, and diagnosed CPT deficiency was scheduled for total gastrectomy. General anesthesia was induced with remifentanil, thiamylal and rocuronium after epidural catheter insertion. During surgery, general anesthesia was maintained with remifentanil, sevoflurane, and blood glucose was monitored frequently, with continuous glucose infusion. No complications occurred during anesthesia and perioperative course was uneventful.
- [A case of malignant hyperthermia with evident symptoms in the postoperative period]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):351-3.
A 36-year-old man (185 cm tall, weighing 85 kg) was scheduled for fixation of a right carpal bone fracture. He had no operative history, and his preoperative laboratory data were normal. A laryngeal mask was inserted after intravenous propofol and fentanyl administration without a muscle relaxant. Anesthesia was maintained by sevoflurane in a mixture of air and oxygen. A tourniquet was placed on the right upper arm. One hour after the operation, his heart rate increased to 90-100 beats x min(-1) from 70-80 beats x min(-1) at the start of the operation, and tachycardic continued, even after release of the tourniquet. Although end-tidal CO2 was 50-60 mmHg, his body temperature remained 37.6 degrees C, and neither muscle stiffness nor brown urine was observed. The duration of the operation and the duration of anesthesia were 2 hours 40 min and 4 hours, respectively. The patient went back to the ward without myalgia after removal of the laryngeal mask. On the postoperative day one, the patient had brown urine. On the postoperative day 2, he experienced myalgia of the upper and lower extremities and masseter muscle. On the postoperative day 3, myoglobinuria was detected. As in this case, although evident symptoms of malignant hyperthermia are not always observed during operations, some cases show obvious symptoms during the postoperative period. Thus, it is important to be aware of the symptoms of malignant hyperthermia postoperatively for early diagnosis and treatment.
- [Anesthesia for removal of a screw compressing the aorta after posterior spinal surgery]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):348-50.
Iatrogenic vascular injury in posterior spinal surgery is a rare but potentially serious complication. We describe anesthetic management of a pedicle screw removal after posterior spinal surgery. A 60-year-old man underwent posterior spinal fusion due to ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, but postoperative computed tomography scans of the chest demonstrated a compression of the posterior wall of the thoracic aorta by the pedicle screw at T10. Therefore, he was scheduled for screw removal. Surgery was performed in the right lateral decubitus position for emergency surgery. An occlusion balloon catheter, percutaneous cardiopulmonary support and a rapid infusion system were prepared in anticipation of massive hemorrhage. The operation was completed successfully without any adverse events. In conclusion, although major vascular injury during posterior spinal fusion is rare, we should be careful of massive hemorrhage.
- [Successful internal jugular venipuncture in an infant with a high risk of puncturing the vertebral artery]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):344-7.
A five-month-old baby girl, 61.8 cm in height and weighing 4.9 kg, underwent ventricular septal defect repair under general anesthesia. Authors checked for small vessels around the IJV using an ultrasound echo apparatus with a 5/10-MHz probe (TiTAN, SonoSite Co., Tokyo, Japan) at a point 28 mm from the clavicle over the IJV. We observed a 3.8-mm-wide and 8.7-mm-deep vertebral artery 1.3 mm behind the 5.5-mm-wide IJV with color Doppler flow imaging for CVC. It seemed difficult to avoid puncturing the vertebral artery. We checked for small arteries again at a point 40 mm from the clavicle. We also confirmed the 3.2-mm-wide and 13.4-mm-deep vertebral artery 5.3 mm behind the IJV. It thus seemed possible to avoid puncturing the vertebral artery at this point. The operator punctured the IJV carefully using real-time ultrasound guidance with a 24 G plastic puncture needle (Jelco Plus, Smith Medical, Tokyo, Japan), and avoided puncturing the vertebral artery. The CVC was successful, and no after-effect was observed following the operation. Before inserting the puncture needle each time, one should check for small arteries behind the IJV with color Doppler flow imaging.
- [A case of prolonged hypercapnea after interscalene brachial plexus block]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Masui 2013 Mar; 62(3):341-3.
An 83-year-old woman was scheduled for surgery of the left upper and lower extremity fracture. She had past history of lung partial resection for lung cancer and rheumatoid arthritis, and recent history of pneumonia. She also had fluid retention in the thoracic cavity. Open resection of the femoral neck fracture was first performed uneventfully under spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5% 2 ml. Then, interscalene blaxioplexus block was performed with 0.75% ropivacaine 15 ml and 1% lidocaine 10 ml for tension band wiring of the fractured olecranon. Midazolam 1 mg and propofol 1.5 mg x kg(-1) x hr(-1) were administered for sedation. Thirty minutes after the block, oxgen saturation decreased to 92% under O2 3 l x min(-1) by a mask. She was intubated and arterial carbon dioxide tension was above 150 mmHg. A few hours later, she became conscious and mask CPAP was used after extubation for one day. Pa(CO2) was 90-100 mmHg for 3 days and decreased to 56.9 mmHg on the 6th day, but her consciousness had been clear. Phrenic nerve palsy and sedation in the patient with decreased lung function might have induced prolonged hypercapnea.