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Mayo Clinic proceedings. Mayo Clinic [journal]
- Herpes Zoster Eye Complications: Rates and Trends. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May 9.
PURPOSE:To provide population-based data on the risk, types, and outcomes of eye involvement in herpes zoster (HZ).
METHODS:A cohort study based on review of the medical records of patients in whom HZ was diagnosed between January 1, 1980, and December 31, 2007, was performed. Herpes zoster was confirmed by the presence of the typical rash and symptoms or by laboratory testing, and eye involvement was confirmed by ophthalmologists' evaluation. Information was collected on all eye diagnoses and on HZ eye-related visits, treatments, procedures, and outcomes.
RESULTS:Of the 7370 individuals with HZ in any dermatome, 184 (2.5%) had eye involvement. The mean age of the 184 was 62.6 years, and 5 cases occurred in patients younger than 21. Overall, 6.5% (12) were immunosuppressed at the time of the eye complications. The rate of increase in HZ eye involvement was 23% by decade from 1980 to 2007. Common eye complications were keratitis (n=144, 76.2%), uveitis/iritis (n=88, 46.6%), and conjunctivitis (n=67, 35.4%). Recurrent keratitis and recurrent iritis/uveitis occurred in 6.9% (13) and 7.4% (14), respectively. Outcomes included 6 patients (3.3%) with new vision decrements to 20/200 or worse. Two individuals had successful corneal transplants. Another 6 individuals (3.3%) had lid ptosis that affected vision, including 1 elderly woman with permanent unilateral tarsorrhaphy. Severe HZ eye pain was reported to be directly responsible for 1 unsuccessful suicide attempt. Acute retinal necrosis did not develop in any individual. A mean of 10.8 eye visits per patient with HZ and eye involvement was reported to continue for a mean of 308 days.
CONCLUSION:Eye complications are common and result in considerable health care use and permanent vision decrement in about 6.6% (6) of individuals with HZ eye involvement. Most health care use and long-term adverse outcomes occurred in patients in whom prevention of HZ with the zoster vaccine would be possible.
- New Aspects of the Diagnosis of Celiac Disease in Children, Adolescents, and Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May 6.
- Anesthesia and Incident Dementia: A Population-Based, Nested, Case-Control Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 Apr 29.
OBJECTIVE:To test the hypothesis that exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia during adulthood is not significantly associated with incident dementia using a retrospective, population-based, nested, case-control study design. PARTICIPANTS AND
METHODS:Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project and the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Patient Registry, residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, diagnosed as having dementia between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1994, were identified. For each incident case, a sex- and age-matched control was randomly selected from the general pool of Olmsted County residents who were dementia free in the index year of dementia diagnosis. Medical records were reviewed to determine exposures to procedures requiring anesthesia after age 45 years and before the index year. Data were analyzed using logistic regression.
RESULTS:We analyzed 877 cases of dementia, each with a corresponding control. Of the dementia cases, 615 (70%) underwent 1681 procedures requiring general anesthesia; of the controls, 636 (73%) underwent 1638 procedures. When assessed as a dichotomous variable, anesthetic exposure was not significantly associated with dementia (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73-1.10; P=.27). In addition, no significant association was found when exposure was quantified as number of procedures (odds ratios, 0.87, 0.86, and 1.0 for 1, 2-3, and ≥4 exposures, respectively, compared with none; P=.51).
CONCLUSION:This study found no significant association between exposure to procedures requiring general anesthesia after age 45 years and incident dementia.
- An unusual cause of melena. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):e45.
- Japanese screen by kano eitoku. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):e43.
- Ian wilmut-pioneer of cloning. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):e41.
- 57-year-old man with flushing and fainting. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):527-31.
- Childhood food allergies: current diagnosis, treatment, and management strategies. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):512-26.
Food allergy is a growing public health concern in the United States that affects an estimated 8% of children. Food allergy is defined as an adverse health effect arising from a specific immune response that occurs reproducibly on exposure to a specific food. Nearly 40% of children with food allergy have a history of severe reactions that if not treated immediately with proper medication can lead to hospitalization or even death. The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) convened an expert panel in 2010 to develop guidelines outlining evidence-based practices in diagnosing and managing food allergy. The purpose of this review is to aid clinicians in translating the NIAID guidelines into primary care practice and includes the following content domains: (1) the definition and mechanism of childhood food allergy, (2) differences between food allergy and food intolerance, (3) the epidemiology of childhood food allergy in the United States, (4) best practices derived from the NIAID guidelines focused on primary care clinicians' management of childhood food allergy, (5) emerging food allergy treatments, and (6) future directions in food allergy research and practice. Articles focused on childhood food allergy were considered for inclusion in this review. Studies were restricted to the English language and to those published within the past 40 years. A cross-listed combination of the following words, phrases, and MeSH terms was searched in PubMed and Google Scholar to identify relevant articles: food allergy, food hypersensitivity, child, pediatric, prevalence, and epidemiology. Additional sources were identified through the bibliographies of the retrieved articles.
- The new oral anticoagulants in clinical practice. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):495-511.
Vitamin K antagonists were the only class of oral anticoagulants available to clinicians for decades. However, with the US Food and Drug Administration approval of new oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban, clinicians now have a broader choice. Given the recent approval and availability of these medications, several questions arise while deciding which of them would be best suited for a particular patient. This article provides a concise review for clinicians entailing the main studies that evaluated the efficacy and safety of these drugs, their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, and a practical approach to their clinical use. For this review, we conducted searches of PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published between January 1, 2000, and January 30, 2013, using the following search terms: oral anticoagulants, dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban, novel anticoagulants, bleeding complications, management of bleeding complications, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics. Studies published in English were selected for inclusion in this review, as were additional articles identified from bibliographies.
- Cardiovascular fitness and mortality after contemporary cardiac rehabilitation. [Journal Article]
- Mayo Clin Proc 2013 May; 88(5):455-63.
To assess the association between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and outcomes in a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) cohort.We conducted a retrospective study of 5641 patients (4282 men [76%] and 1359 women [24%]; mean ± SD age, 60.0±10.3 years) with coronary artery disease who participated in CR between July 1, 1996, and February 28, 2009. Based on peak metabolic equivalents (METs), patients were classified as low fitness (LFit) (<5 METs), moderate fitness (5-8 METs), or high fitness (>8 METs).Baseline fitness predicted long-term mortality: relative to the LFit group, patients with moderate fitness had an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.42-0.69), and those with high fitness a hazard ratio of 0.32 (95% CI, 0.24-0.44). Improvement in CRF at 12 weeks was associated with decreased overall mortality, with a 13% point reduction with each MET increase (P<.001) and a 30% point reduction in those who started with LFit. At 1 year, each MET increase in CRF was associated with a 25% point reduction in overall mortality in the whole group (P<.001).In this study of contemporary CR patients, higher baseline fitness predicted lower mortality. The novel finding was that improvement in fitness during a CR program and improvements that persisted at 1 year were also associated with decreased mortality, most strongly in patients who start with LFit.