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Med Princ Pract [journal]
- Rosacea and Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Case-Controlled Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 24.
Objective: To determine the relationship between rosacea, chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), and the clinical presentation of rosacea. Subjects and Method: Twenty-eight female Saudi patients diagnosed with rosacea at the Dermatology Clinic, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between September 2011 and September 2012 and 20 age- and sex-matched control patients were included in the study. Paranasal sinus X-rays and assessments of the serum concentration of IgE (ImmunoCAP test; Phadia Laboratory Systems) were performed in both groups. Result: The rosacea patients had significantly more radiological evidence of CRS than the patients without rosacea [19 (67.9%) vs. 4 (20%), p = 0.003]. The median IgE concentration was similar in both groups (225.4 vs. 223.1 kU/l). Nine rosacea patients (32.1%) without radiological evidence of CRS did not have a significantly different median concentration of IgE compared with those who had radiological evidence of CRS (190.5 vs. 111.5 kU/l, p = 0.859). Erythematotelangiectatic severity was significantly associated with CRS (p = 0.038). Serum IgE did not correlate with the severity of the facial condition. Conclusion: Patients with rosacea and CRS manifested severe erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. There was enough evidence to suggest an association between rosacea and CRS. Clinical and radiological assessments of the paranasal sinuses are recommended. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Sonographic Assessment of Renal Size in Healthy Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 24.
Objective: To assess the normal sonographic values of renal length and cortical thickness in healthy adults and establish reference ranges in our population for comparison when examining renal disease. Subjects and Methods: Sonographic assessment of renal length and cortical thickness were performed from January 2006 to December 2011 in 252 healthy individuals who were self-referred to the El-Reshaid Renal Clinic in Kuwait. They were screened for the absence of renal abnormalities. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and body surface area calculated. Patients were divided into 5 age groups: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61 -80 years, in order to generate reference graphs for renal length and cortical thickness. Results: The mean renal lengths for the right and left kidney were 10.68 ± 1.4 and 10.71 ± 1.0 cm, respectively (p = 0.56) without a significant change with age. The minimum cortical thickness was 0.6 cm. The renal length correlated with the weight of the patients (p < 0.01) and their BMI (p < 0.01) but not with their height. There was no difference in renal size or cortical thickness in patients older than 60 years despite an age-related decline in the glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Renal length and cortical thickness did not vary significantly with age. Renal length correlated well with weight and BMI but not with height. Hence, establishing normal ranges of renal parameters is essential for comparison in situations where possible renal disease is being investigated. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Mozart, Music and Medicine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 19.
According to the first publication in 1993 by Rauscher et al. [Nature 1993;365:611], the Mozart effect implies the enhancement of reasoning skills solving spatial problems in normal subjects after listening to Mozart's piano sonata K 448. A further evaluation of this effect has raised the question whether there is a link between music-generated emotions and a higher level of cognitive abilities by mere listening. Positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging have revealed that listening to pleasurable music activates cortical and subcortical cerebral areas where emotions are processed. These neurobiological effects of music suggest that auditory stimulation evokes emotions linked to heightened arousal and result in temporarily enhanced performance in many cognitive domains. Music therapy applies this arousal in a clinical setting as it may offer benefits to patients by diverting their attention from unpleasant experiences and future interventions. It has been applied in the context of various important clinical conditions such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer pain, epilepsy, depression and dementia. Furthermore, music may modulate the immune response, among other things, evidenced by increasing the activity of natural killer cells, lymphocytes and interferon-γ, which is an interesting feature as many diseases are related to a misbalanced immune system. Many of these clinical studies, however, suffer from methodological inadequacies. Nevertheless, at present, there is moderate but not altogether convincing evidence that listening to known and liked music helps to decrease the burden of a disease and enhances the immune system by modifying stress. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Diagnosis of Influenza: Only a Problem of Coding? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 24.
Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of hospital discharge diagnoses of influenza measured by using specific International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9 CM) codes. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted for the 3 years 2007, 2008 and 2011. The database included (1) administrative and clinical data on Sicilian patients admitted to acute care hospitals and (2) data from the influenza virological surveillance of 10 European countries (FluNet database). All Sicilian patients diagnosed with at least 1 ICD-9 CM code for influenza (487.0, 487.1 and 487.9) were considered influenza cases. Results: Overall, 2,880 patients with an ICD-9 CM code attributable to influenza were hospitalized in Sicily: 2,119 (73.6%) were admitted from November to April, whereas 761 (26.4%) were admitted from May to October. In the 3 years studied, the analyzed European influenza surveillance systems recorded a peak of laboratory-confirmed influenza activity from November to April with 36,753 (99.7%) influenza cases, whereas only 124 cases (0.3%) were observed from May to October. Conclusions: In Sicily, more than one quarter of all hospital admissions with an ICD-9 CM code for influenza were observed in the months with a negligible circulation of influenza viruses. Our findings show that several hospital discharge records included ICD-9 CM codes for influenza with low levels of sensitivity, specificity and/or appropriateness for clinical information and support the need for improving medical education on the epidemiology and hospital management of influenza cases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Utility of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnosed as Lymphoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 17.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO), who were finally diagnosed as lymphoma. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, China, from March 2009 to March 2012. The PET/CT images of consecutive patients with FUO were analyzed. Within 1 week of PET/CT scanning, additional histological tests were also performed if clinically needed. Results: A total of 73 consecutive patients were included. Of these, 34 (47%) had a PET/CT finding suggestive of the presence of lymphoma and 29 (85%) had a diagnosis of confirmed lymphoma; 39 (53%) had a PET/CT result revealing the absence of lymphoma and 4 (10%) were diagnosed by biopsy as having lymphoma, . The most frequent lymphoma diagnosis was peripheral T cell lymphoma (n = 16; 55%), followed by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n = 9; 31%). The accuracy of PET/CT was 88%. Conclusion: In this study, PET/CT had high diagnostic accuracy in patients with FUO resulting from lymphoma, which indicated that PET/CT scanning was a valuable diagnostic tool for these groups of patients with FUO. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Can Appropriate Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Asthma Reduce Excessive Antibiotic Usage? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 17.
Introduction: This study compared the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes before and after the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma patients who were followed up by specialists. Subjects and Methods: Included in this study were 334 patients (211 males and 123 females) of 2-16 years of age who were diagnosed with asthma and followed up for at least 1 year in our clinic. The frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes in the year prior to diagnosis and treatment were compared to these same variables after 1 year of follow-up by specialists. Results: The median age was 84 months (range: 24-192) and 212 (63%) children were at school or in day care centers. Atopy and a family history of asthma were present in 200 (60%) of the patients, and 137 (41%) reported that at least one member of their household smoked. Antibiotics were used a median number of 7 times [interquartile range (IQR) = 6] in the year before the asthma diagnosis, and 2 times (IQR = 3) during the year after treatment (p < 0.001). The mean number of asthma episodes before diagnosis, i.e. 4 (IQR = 8) was reduced to 0 (IQR = 2) in the year after treatment when the patients were followed up by specialists (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma significantly reduce the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthmatic episodes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Oxidative Stress in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 16.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stress and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) levels in children with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) compared to healthy controls, and to examine the association of demographical with oxidative stress. Subjects and Methods: Forty children diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and PON1 levels were measured. The oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated to indicate the degree of oxidative stress. Results: The TAS levels were lower (1.73 ± 0.5 vs. 2.54 ± 1.2 μmol Trolox Eq/l) while TOS levels were significantly higher (26.9 ± 14.4 vs. 13.4 ± 7.7 μmol H2O2 Eq/l) in the TB group than in the controls (p < 0.001). The OSI was significantly higher in the TB group than in the controls (21.2 ± 5.1 vs. 6.5 ± 4.9 units, p = 0.006). Serum PON1 levels were significantly lower in the TB group than in the controls (14.2 ± 13.2 vs. 28.4 ± 17.3 U/l, p < 0.001). The lower PON1 levels correlated with TAS and OSI levels but not with anthropometric parameters (r = 0.264, p = 0.018 and r = -0.255, p = 0.023, respectively). Conclusion: The TOS and OSI levels were higher and the TAS and PON1 levels were lower in pediatric patients with pulmonary TB when compared to healthy controls. This indicates greater oxidative stress in the patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Characteristics of Symptom Presentation and Risk Factors in Patients with Erosive Esophagitis and Nonerosive Reflux Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 8.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on symptom presentation and quality of life of patients with erosive esophagitis (EE) and nonerosive reflux disorder (NERD). Subjects and Methods: Medical records from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) between January and December 2009 were reviewed. The patients were assigned to either the EE or the NERD group. The general demographic data, the modified Chinese GERDQ scores and the Short Form (SF)-36 life quality questionnaire scores of the two groups of patients were compared. Results: Of the 261 patients, 87 (33.3%), 86 (33.0%) and 88 (33.7%) patients were classified into the EE, the NERD and the control groups, respectively. The patients in the EE group were significantly older (48.94 ± 17.38 vs. 43.34 ± 12.67 years), were predominately male (58.6 vs. 39.5%), had more frequently hiatal hernia (34.5 vs 17.4%), had a higher body weight (67.57 ± 15.13 vs. 61.06 ± 11.08 kg) and a higher body mass index (24.09 ± 4.61 vs. 22.68 ± 3.12) than those in the NERD group. The GERD-specific symptom scores and the general life quality scores of the EE and the NERD groups were similar, and both groups had lower life quality scores than the control group did. The female patients with NERD had a higher frequency of GERD symptoms and lower quality of life scores. Gender had no effect on symptom scores or life quality scores in the EE group. Conclusion: The GERD-specific symptom severity and general quality of life scores of the EE and the NERD patients were similar. Gender had a great influence on symptom presentation and quality of life in patients with NERD, but not in those with EE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Coexistence of Perineural Invasion and Lymph Node Metastases Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer after Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Radical Resection and Adjuvant Chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 5.
Objective: To determine the role of lymph node metastases (ypN) and perineural invasion (PNI) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Subjects and Methods: Eighty-eight LARC patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy from April 2006 to November 2011 were enrolled in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the association between clinicopathologic features and clinical outcome. Results: The presence of ypN (p = 0.011) and PNI (p = 0.032) was a significant adverse prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS). High histologic grade (p = 0.015), PNI+ (p = 0.043) and ypN+ (p = 0.041) were adverse prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Positive PNI was significantly associated with a higher risk of distant failure (odds ratio = 6.09; 95% CI: 1.57-27.05; p = 0.008). Moreover, patients with a coexistence of ypN+ and PNI+ had the significantly worst DFS (p < 0.001) and OS rates (p < 0.001) compared with other phenotypes. Conclusions: The presence of either PNI or ypN was a significant prognostic factor for predicting poor survival rates in LARC patients, especially those with a coexistence of both factors. Accordingly, we recommend an intensive follow-up and therapeutic programs for LARC patients with simultaneous PNI+ and ypN+. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Radiographic Diagnosis of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Temporomandibular Joint: Two Cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 5.
Objective: To present two cases of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) evaluated by panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Clinical Presentation and Intervention: Two patients were referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Clinic with pain, preauricular tenderness on the TMJ region and limitation of mandibular movements. An earlier panoramic radiograph revealed radiopaque lesions adjacent to the condyles. CBCT images were obtained from patients to assess the radiopacities. The CBCT scan detected irregular-type radiopaque lesions on anterior and superior aspects of the right condyle as well as degenerative osseous changes on both TMJs. Conclusion: The CBCT images revealed degenerative osseous changes and loose bodies on TMJs. The lesions were diagnosed as OCD with the help of trauma history, as well as clinical and radiographic findings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.