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Med Princ Pract [journal]
- The Relationship between Alu I Polymorphisms in the Calcitonin Receptor Gene and Fluorosis Endemic to Chongqing, China. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 15.
Objective: This study explored the association between an Alu I polymorphism at position 1,377 of the calcitonin receptor (CTR) gene and endemic fluorosis. Subjects and Methods: A case-control study of 321 participants was conducted in regions with high fluorosis rates (Wushan and Fengjie counties) and those without high fluorosis rates (Yubei Qu county; termed nonfluorosis areas) in Chongqing, China. The participants were divided into three groups: the fluorosis group (FG) from areas with high fluoride exposure (121), the nonfluorosis group (NFG) from areas with high fluoride exposure (130), and a control group (CG) from areas with no excessive fluoride exposure (70). An Alu I polymorphism in the CTR gene was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results: The genotype distributions within each group were as follows: CC 60.33% (73/121), CT 30.58% (37/121) and TT 9.09% (11/121) for the FG; CC 74.62% (97/130), CT 21.54% (28/130) and TT 3.85% (5/130) for the NFG, and CC 68.57% (48/70), CT 31.43% (22/70) and TT 0% (0/70) for the CG. Significant differences in Alu I genotypes were observed among the groups (χ(2) = 12.317, υ = 4, p = 0.015). Allele frequencies of CTR genotypes differed significantly among the groups (χ(2) = 8.859, υ = 2, p = 0.012): C 75.62% (183/242) and T 24.38% (59/242) for the FG, C 85.38% (222/260) and T 14.62% (38/260) for the NFG, and C 84.29% (118/140) and T 15.71% (22/140) for the CG. Conclusion: An association between fluorosis and the Alu I polymorphism in the CTR gene was observed in fluoride-exposed populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Antinociceptive and Antihyperglycemic Effects of Melissa officinalis Essential Oil in an Experimental Model of Diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 15.
Objective: The efficacy of oral administration of Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) on hyperalgesia was investigated using the formalin test in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Animals were divided into control, MOEO-treated control (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 mg/day), diabetic and MOEO-treated diabetic (0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 mg/day) groups. Nociceptive testing was performed on male adult Wistar rats 4 weeks after the onset of hyperglycemia. At the end of the experiment, all rats were weighed and plasma glucose measurements were performed. Results: Diabetes was associated with significant hyperalgesia during both phases of the formalin test. MOEO (0.04 mg/day) completely reversed hyperalgesia in diabetic rats, while MOEO (0.02 and 0.04 mg/day) caused less intensive nociceptive behaviors during both phases of the test in control rats. MOEO at both high doses restored euglycemia and reduced the body weight of treated diabetic animals compared to untreated diabetic animals. The 0.01-mg dose of MOEO did not alter pain responses in the control or diabetic groups compared to their respective controls. Conclusions: This study shows that chronic administration of MOEO displays efficacy in an experimental model of diabetic hyperalgesia. MOEO may therefore show promise as a treatment for painful diabetic neuropathy. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Serum Myeloperoxidase Level Is Associated with Heart-Type Fatty Acid-Binding Protein but Not Troponin T in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 15.
Objective: Our aim was to investigate the possible relationship between myeloperoxidase (MPO) and myocardial damage markers such as heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) and troponin T (TnT) in patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Materials and Methods: Forty-two consecutive patients (age range: 27-80 years) with chronic HF were enrolled in the study. Serum H-FABP, TnT and MPO levels were measured. Routine biochemical and clinical parameters were recorded. Echocardiographic examinations were performed on all patients. A linear regression analysis was performed to determine the correlates of serum H-FABP. Results: The MPO, H-FABP and TnT levels were 255 ± 227, 60.6 ± 48.5 and 0.07 ± 0.15 ng/ml, respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, age (β = -0.36, p = 0.006), creatinine level (β = 0.3, p = 0.024) and serum MPO level (β = 0.41, p = 0.009) were significant determinants of H-FABP levels. Bivariate predictors were not significantly associated with TnT levels in linear regression analyses. Conclusions: The MPO was significantly associated with serum H-FABP levels but not with TnT. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Pressure Ulcers and Malnutrition: Results from a Snapshot Sampling in a University Hospital. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 7.
Objective: We aimed to ascertain the factors potentially contributing to the manifestation of pressure ulcers (PU) due to poor nutritional status in a nonselected hospitalized population. Subjects and Methods: This is a prospective cohort study of 471 adult inpatients treated at our university hospital. Study parameters included anthropometric data, demographics, medical history, mood status, diet-related factors and self-perception of health status. For each participant, the body mass index (BMI) was calculated, and a malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) was used to screen for nutritional deficiencies, with the presence of PU constituting the outcome of interest. An independent-samples t test, χ(2) analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed. Results: The overall prevalence of PU in our cohort was 14.2%. Advanced age, low BMI, poor health status by self-assessment, serious mood disorders, malnutrition, abnormal appetite status, a quantity of food intake half of normal, an artificial diet, limited or no autonomy in everyday activities (p < 0.01 for all) and recent weight loss (p < 0.05) were identified as important determinants for the manifestation of PU. Multivariate analysis highlighted limited autonomy in everyday activities (OR 6.456 and 95% CI 3.212-12.973; p = 0.000), MUST score (OR 3.825 and 95% CI 1.730-8.455; p = 0.001) and artificial diet (OR 1.869 and 95% CI 1.247-2.802; p = 0.018) as the most powerful predictors of PU development. Conclusion: Poor nutritional status, limited autonomy in everyday activities and artificial nutrition seemed to confer noteworthy prognostic value regarding PU development in the acute-care setting. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Impact of Parity on Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study in Iranian Women. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 15.
Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze whether or not parity influenced the prevalence of obesity in both pre- and postmenopausal women. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on characteristics of urban women regarding parity. A total of 1,620 women aged 45-63 years were selected using cluster sampling. A face-to-face household interview was conducted by trained, skillful personnel. A risk factor questionnaire was used to obtain information on reproductive history and sociodemographic factors. Statistical associations between parity and obesity using logistic regression were then investigated. Results: The mean BMI was 29.1 ± 5.1, and 96.8% of the sample population were parous, with a median of 4 births. Of the total women enrolled, 216 (13.3%) had <3 parities, while 1,404 (86.7%) had ≥3 parities. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥30) was 38.3%, diagnosed at a mean age of 51.4 ± 5.2 years. After adjustment for a range of potential confounders (age, marital status, employment, education, smoking status, abortion history, savings situation and menopausal status), women with ≥3 parities were at higher risk of being obese (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.24-2.45; p = 0.001). Conclusion: A positive association was observed between the number of parities and obesity. The findings of this study suggest that the BMI is associated with high parity in Babolian women. Health policymakers should work with health providers to develop appropriate postpartum weight loss interventions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Should Aspirin Be Used for the Primary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the General Population? [LETTER]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 1.
- Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids among Health-Care Workers in Serbia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Nov 1.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology of occupational accidents and self-reported attitude of health-care workers (HCWs) in Serbia. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs in selected departments of five tertiary care hospitals and in one secondary care hospital in February 2012. A previously developed self-administered questionnaire was provided to HCWs who had direct daily contact with patients. χ(2) test and Student's t test were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Of the 1,441 potential participants, 983 (68.2%) completed the questionnaire: 655 (66.7%) were nurses/medical technicians, 243 (24.7%) were physicians and 85 (8.6%) were other personnel. Of the 983 participants, 291 (29.6%) HCWs had had at least one accident during the previous year and 106 (40.2%) of them reported it to the responsible person. The highest prevalence (68.6%) of accidents was among nurses/technicians (p = 0.001). Accidents occurred more often in large clinical centers (81.1%; p < 0.001) and in the clinical ward, intensive care unit and operating theater (p = 0.003) than in other departments. Seventy-six (13.1%) nurses/medical technicians had an accident during needle recapping (p < 0.001). Of all the HCWs, 550 (55.9%) were fully vaccinated, including significantly more doctors (154, 63.4%) than participants from other job categories (p < 0.001). Conclusion: There was a relatively high rate of accidents among HCWs in our hospitals, most commonly amongst nurses and staff working in clinical wards, intensive care units and operating theaters. The most common types of accidents were needlestick injuries and accidents due to improper handling of contaminated sharp devices or occuring while cleaning instruments or by coming into contact with blood through damaged skin or through the conjunctiva/mucous membranes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- A Microcomputed Tomography-Based Comparison of Root Canal Filling Quality following Different Instrumentation and Obturation Techniques. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Oct 25.
Objective: With a microcomputed tomography (microCT) imaging device, we aimed to quantitatively evaluate root canal fillings after commonly used endodontic procedures and also tested the suitability of microCT for this purpose. Materials and Methods: Eighty single roots were instrumented and obturated with gutta-percha and Tubli-Seal. They were divided into 4 groups of 20. The Hand groups were instrumented with hand files and filled with thermoplastic (Th) compaction and cold lateral (CL) condensation, i.e. Hand-Th and Hand-CL, respectively. The Rot groups, i.e. Rot-Th and Rot-CL, were instrumented with a rotary ProFile system and filled as above. The roots were scanned and 3-dimensional (3D) visualization was obtained. The number, size, percentage of volume and distribution of voids at the filling/dentine interface (i-voids) and voids surrounded by filling material (s-voids) were measured. Results: Canal fillings differed significantly with regard to the size of both types of voids and the average number of i-voids. All canals presented a low volume of voids. The highest percentage (0.69%) was found for i-voids in the Hand-CL group, while the lowest volume (0.11% for s-voids and 0.14% for i-voids) was in the Hand-Th canals. Apically, in the last 3 mm, i-voids were observed mainly in the Th groups, and s-voids occurred mostly in the coronal part of the canal filling in all cases. Conclusion: MicroCT was a useful tool for 3D quantitative evaluations of these root canal fillings. None of the root canal instrumentation and filling methods ensured void-free obturation. CL condensation produced mainly i-voids. With Th compaction, internal s-voids were particularly common, but there were mainly i-voids in the apical part. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.