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Med Princ Pract [journal]
- Utility of Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Fever of Unknown Origin Diagnosed as Lymphoma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 17.
Objective: To assess the efficacy of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG PET)/computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis of patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO), who were finally diagnosed as lymphoma. Subjects and Methods: A retrospective study was performed in the First Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine of Zhejiang University, China, from March 2009 to March 2012. The PET/CT images of consecutive patients with FUO were analyzed. Within 1 week of PET/CT scanning, additional histological tests were also performed if clinically needed. Results: A total of 73 consecutive patients were included. Of these, 34 (47%) had a PET/CT finding suggestive of the presence of lymphoma and 29 (85%) had a diagnosis of confirmed lymphoma; 39 (53%) had a PET/CT result revealing the absence of lymphoma and 4 (10%) were diagnosed by biopsy as having lymphoma, . The most frequent lymphoma diagnosis was peripheral T cell lymphoma (n = 16; 55%), followed by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n = 9; 31%). The accuracy of PET/CT was 88%. Conclusion: In this study, PET/CT had high diagnostic accuracy in patients with FUO resulting from lymphoma, which indicated that PET/CT scanning was a valuable diagnostic tool for these groups of patients with FUO. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Can Appropriate Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Asthma Reduce Excessive Antibiotic Usage? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 17.
Introduction: This study compared the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes before and after the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric asthma patients who were followed up by specialists. Subjects and Methods: Included in this study were 334 patients (211 males and 123 females) of 2-16 years of age who were diagnosed with asthma and followed up for at least 1 year in our clinic. The frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthma episodes in the year prior to diagnosis and treatment were compared to these same variables after 1 year of follow-up by specialists. Results: The median age was 84 months (range: 24-192) and 212 (63%) children were at school or in day care centers. Atopy and a family history of asthma were present in 200 (60%) of the patients, and 137 (41%) reported that at least one member of their household smoked. Antibiotics were used a median number of 7 times [interquartile range (IQR) = 6] in the year before the asthma diagnosis, and 2 times (IQR = 3) during the year after treatment (p < 0.001). The mean number of asthma episodes before diagnosis, i.e. 4 (IQR = 8) was reduced to 0 (IQR = 2) in the year after treatment when the patients were followed up by specialists (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study shows that appropriate diagnosis and treatment of childhood asthma significantly reduce the frequency of antibiotic usage and the number of asthmatic episodes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Oxidative Stress in Pediatric Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 16.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the oxidative stress and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) levels in children with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) compared to healthy controls, and to examine the association of demographical with oxidative stress. Subjects and Methods: Forty children diagnosed with pulmonary TB and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and PON1 levels were measured. The oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated to indicate the degree of oxidative stress. Results: The TAS levels were lower (1.73 ± 0.5 vs. 2.54 ± 1.2 μmol Trolox Eq/l) while TOS levels were significantly higher (26.9 ± 14.4 vs. 13.4 ± 7.7 μmol H2O2 Eq/l) in the TB group than in the controls (p < 0.001). The OSI was significantly higher in the TB group than in the controls (21.2 ± 5.1 vs. 6.5 ± 4.9 units, p = 0.006). Serum PON1 levels were significantly lower in the TB group than in the controls (14.2 ± 13.2 vs. 28.4 ± 17.3 U/l, p < 0.001). The lower PON1 levels correlated with TAS and OSI levels but not with anthropometric parameters (r = 0.264, p = 0.018 and r = -0.255, p = 0.023, respectively). Conclusion: The TOS and OSI levels were higher and the TAS and PON1 levels were lower in pediatric patients with pulmonary TB when compared to healthy controls. This indicates greater oxidative stress in the patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Characteristics of Symptom Presentation and Risk Factors in Patients with Erosive Esophagitis and Nonerosive Reflux Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 8.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of gender on symptom presentation and quality of life of patients with erosive esophagitis (EE) and nonerosive reflux disorder (NERD). Subjects and Methods: Medical records from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) between January and December 2009 were reviewed. The patients were assigned to either the EE or the NERD group. The general demographic data, the modified Chinese GERDQ scores and the Short Form (SF)-36 life quality questionnaire scores of the two groups of patients were compared. Results: Of the 261 patients, 87 (33.3%), 86 (33.0%) and 88 (33.7%) patients were classified into the EE, the NERD and the control groups, respectively. The patients in the EE group were significantly older (48.94 ± 17.38 vs. 43.34 ± 12.67 years), were predominately male (58.6 vs. 39.5%), had more frequently hiatal hernia (34.5 vs 17.4%), had a higher body weight (67.57 ± 15.13 vs. 61.06 ± 11.08 kg) and a higher body mass index (24.09 ± 4.61 vs. 22.68 ± 3.12) than those in the NERD group. The GERD-specific symptom scores and the general life quality scores of the EE and the NERD groups were similar, and both groups had lower life quality scores than the control group did. The female patients with NERD had a higher frequency of GERD symptoms and lower quality of life scores. Gender had no effect on symptom scores or life quality scores in the EE group. Conclusion: The GERD-specific symptom severity and general quality of life scores of the EE and the NERD patients were similar. Gender had a great influence on symptom presentation and quality of life in patients with NERD, but not in those with EE. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Coexistence of Perineural Invasion and Lymph Node Metastases Is a Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer after Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Radical Resection and Adjuvant Chemotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 5.
Objective: To determine the role of lymph node metastases (ypN) and perineural invasion (PNI) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Subjects and Methods: Eighty-eight LARC patients receiving preoperative chemoradiotherapy from April 2006 to November 2011 were enrolled in this study. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to determine the association between clinicopathologic features and clinical outcome. Results: The presence of ypN (p = 0.011) and PNI (p = 0.032) was a significant adverse prognostic factor for disease-free survival (DFS). High histologic grade (p = 0.015), PNI+ (p = 0.043) and ypN+ (p = 0.041) were adverse prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Positive PNI was significantly associated with a higher risk of distant failure (odds ratio = 6.09; 95% CI: 1.57-27.05; p = 0.008). Moreover, patients with a coexistence of ypN+ and PNI+ had the significantly worst DFS (p < 0.001) and OS rates (p < 0.001) compared with other phenotypes. Conclusions: The presence of either PNI or ypN was a significant prognostic factor for predicting poor survival rates in LARC patients, especially those with a coexistence of both factors. Accordingly, we recommend an intensive follow-up and therapeutic programs for LARC patients with simultaneous PNI+ and ypN+. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Radiographic Diagnosis of Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Temporomandibular Joint: Two Cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 5.
Objective: To present two cases of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) in temporomandibular joints (TMJs) evaluated by panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Clinical Presentation and Intervention: Two patients were referred to the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Clinic with pain, preauricular tenderness on the TMJ region and limitation of mandibular movements. An earlier panoramic radiograph revealed radiopaque lesions adjacent to the condyles. CBCT images were obtained from patients to assess the radiopacities. The CBCT scan detected irregular-type radiopaque lesions on anterior and superior aspects of the right condyle as well as degenerative osseous changes on both TMJs. Conclusion: The CBCT images revealed degenerative osseous changes and loose bodies on TMJs. The lesions were diagnosed as OCD with the help of trauma history, as well as clinical and radiographic findings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Goal-Directed Fluid Therapy Based on Stroke Volume Variations Improves Fluid Management and Gastrointestinal Perfusion in Patients Undergoing Major Orthopedic Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 3.
Objective: To evaluate the influence of stroke volume variation (SVV)-based goal-directed therapy (GDT) on splanchnic organ functions and postoperative complications in orthopedic patients. Subjects and Methods: Eighty patients scheduled for major orthopedic surgery under general anesthesia were randomly allocated to one of two equal groups to receive either intraoperative volume therapy guided by SVV (GDT) or standard fluid management (control). In the SVV group, patients received colloid boluses of 4 ml/kg to maintain an SVV <10% when in the supine position or an SVV <14% if prone. In the control group, fluids were given to maintain a mean arterial pressure >65 mm Hg, a heart rate <100 bpm, a central venous pressure of 8-14 mm Hg, and a urine output >0.5 ml/kg/h. Intraoperative organ perfusion, hemodynamic data, hospitalization, postoperative complications, and mortality were recorded. Results: The heart rate at the end of surgery was significantly lower (p < 0.05), there were fewer hypotensive episodes (p < 0.05), the arterial and gastric intramucosal pH were higher (p < 0.05 for both), the gastric intramucosal PCO2 was lower (p < 0.05), the intraoperative infused colloids and the total infused volume were lower (p < 0.05 for both), and the postoperative time to flatus was shorter (p < 0.05) in the GDT group than in the control group. No differences in the length of hospital stay, complications, or mortality were found between the groups. Conclusion: SVV-based GDT during major orthopedic surgery reduced the volume of the required intraoperative infused fluids, maintained intraoperative hemodynamic stability, and improved the perioperative gastrointestinal function. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Is β-Thalassaemia Minor Associated with Metabolic Disorder? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jul 3.
Objective: To investigate the frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components in subjects with β-thalassaemia minor. Subjects and Methods: A total of 194 subjects, i.e. 92 subjects with β-thalassaemia minor (study group) and 102 subjects without β-thalassaemia minor (control group), were enrolled into this case-control study. Haemoglobin electrophoresis was performed on all patients. The waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the subjects were recorded. Fasting blood glucose and serum lipid levels were measured. Results: Both groups were similar in terms of age and sex (p > 0.05 for each). The percentages of haemoglobin A2 (4.3 ± 0.4 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3) and haemoglobin F (3.38 ± 1.4 vs. 0.26 ± 0.4) and the mean corpuscular volumes (64 ± 4.7 vs. 81.5 ± 9.3) of the groups were statistically different (p < 0.001 for each). The frequency of metabolic syndrome and its components was similar in both groups (p > 0.05 for each). According to correlation analyses, the percentage of haemoglobin A2 correlated with fasting insulin, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein levels (p < 0.05). Conclusions: No association was found between β-thalassaemia minor and metabolic syndrome despite insulin resistance, which was shown in subjects with β-thalassaemia minor. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
- Reply. [Comment, Letter]
- Med Princ Pract 2014; 23(3):293-4.
- Genomic Characterization of Acute Leukemias. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Med Princ Pract 2014 Jun 20.
Over the past two decades, hematologic malignancies have been extensively evaluated due to the introduction of powerful technologies, such as conventional karyotyping, FISH analysis, gene and microRNA expression profiling, array comparative genomic hybridization and SNP arrays, and next-generation sequencing (including whole-exome sequencing and RNA-seq). These analyses have allowed for the refinement of the mechanisms underlying the leukemic transformation in several oncohematologic disorders and, more importantly, they have permitted the definition of novel prognostic algorithms aimed at stratifying patients at the onset of disease and, consequently, treating them in the most appropriate manner. Furthermore, the identification of specific molecular markers is opening the door to targeted and personalized medicine. The most important findings on novel acquisitions in the context of acute lymphoblastic leukemia of both B and T lineage and de novo acute myeloid leukemia are described in this review. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.