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Metab Syndr Relat Disord [journal]
- Physical Exercise Restores Microvascular Function in Obese Rats with Metabolic Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 19.
Abstract Background: Obesity and metabolic syndrome are related to systemic functional microvascular alterations, including a significant reduction in microvessel density. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on functional capillary density in the skeletal muscle and skin of obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Methods: We used male Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed a standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks. Animals receiving the HFD were randomly divided into sedentary (HFD+SED) and training groups (HFD+TR) at the 20(th) week. After 12 weeks of aerobic treadmill training, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); hemodynamic, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters; and functional capillary density were assessed. In addition, a maximal exercise test was performed. Results: Exercise training increased the VO2max (69±3 mL/kg per min) and exercise tolerance (30±1 min) compared with the HFD+SED (41±6 mL/kg per min, P<0.05 and 16±1 min, P<0.001) and with the CON (52±7 mL/kg per min and 18±1 min, P<0.05) groups. The HFD+TR group also showed reduced retroperitoneal fat (0.03±0.00 vs. 0.05±0.00 gram/gram, P<0.001), epididymal fat (0.01±0.00 vs. 0.02±0.00 gram/gram, P<0.001), and systolic blood pressure (127±2 vs. 150±2 mmHg, P<0.001). The HFD+TR group also demonstrated improved glucose tolerance, as evaluated by an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma glucose levels (5.0±0.1 vs. 6.4±0.2 mmol/L, P<0.001) and fasting plasma insulin levels (26.5±2.3 vs. 38.9±3.7 μIU/mL, P<0.05). Glucose tolerance did not differ between HFD+TR and CON groups. Exercise training also increased the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries in the skeletal muscle (252±9 vs. 207±9 capillaries/mm(2)) of the training group compared with that in the sedentary animals (260±15 capillaries/mm(2)). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that exercise training reverses capillary rarefaction in our experimental model of metabolic syndrome and obesity.
- Effect of Resveratrol Administration on Metabolic Syndrome, Insulin Sensitivity, and Insulin Secretion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 19.
Abstract Aim: This study evaluated the effect of resveratrol administration on metabolic syndrome, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was carried out in 24 patients with diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in accordance with the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Glucose and insulin levels were measured after a 75-gram dextrose load. Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations at baseline were also evaluated. Twelve patients received trans-resveratrol (500 mg) three times per day before meals for 90 days. The remaining 12 patients received placebo at the same dose. The area under the curve (AUC) values of glucose and insulin, total insulin secretion, first-phase of insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity were calculated. Results: After resveratrol administration, there were significant differences in total weight (94.4±13.2 vs. 90.5±12.3 kg, P=0.007), body mass index (BMI) (35.6±3.2 vs. 34.3±3.0 kg/m(2), P=0.006), fat mass (41.2±7.9 vs. 38.8±6.0 kg, P=0.001), and waist circumference (WC) (109±9 vs. 105±10 cm, P=0.004). There were also significant differences in AUC of insulin (48,418±22,707 vs. 26,473±8,273 pmol/L, P=0.003) and insulinogenic index (0.48±0.22 vs. 0.28±0.08, P=0.004). Conclusions: Administration of resveratrol significantly decreases weight, BMI, fat mass, WC, AUC of insulin, and total insulin secretion.
- The Effect of Insulin Resistance on Breast Cancer Risk in Latinas of Mexican Origin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 19.
Abstract Background: Conclusive evidence has yet to emerge regarding the association between markers of hyperinsulinemia and breast cancer. We determined the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on breast cancer risk in Latinas of Mexican origin who did not have a direct family history of breast cancer and had not been previously diagnosed with prediabetes or diabetes. Methods: This was a case-control study in which a case (n=124) was defined as a patient with a recent histopathologic diagnosis of breast cancer and a control (n=197) was defined as a participant who had recently undergone a mammography and had either a Breast Imaging, Reporting & Data System (BI-RADS)-1 or a BI-RADS-2 score. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured. IR was determined by using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) criterion. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined using unconditional binary logistic regression analysis. Results: IR was detected in 33.9% of cases and 41.6% of controls, based on a HOMA-IR ≥3.5. Although multivariate analysis did not show any association between IR and breast cancer risk (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31-1.01), it showed that an HbA1c ≥5.7% increased the risk of breast cancer (OR 3.41, 95% CI 1.93-6.01), regardless of menopausal status. Conclusions: The findings suggest that IR had no effect on breast cancer risk; however HbA1c increased the risk in Latinas of Mexican origin who had not been diagnosed previously with prediabetes or diabetes and had no direct family history of breast cancer. Prospective studies are required to establish the impact of IR over time.
- Is Non-High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol a Marker and Therapeutic Target for Dyslipidemia in Metabolic Syndrome? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 19.
- Association of Cystatin C with Measures of Obesity and Its Impact on Cardiovascular Events Among Healthy US Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 14.
Abstract Background: This study sought to explore the relationship between cystatin C (CysC) and anthropometric measures of obesity and the influence of this association on mortality [cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary heart disease, and all-cause] in a nationally representative population free of CVD, diabetes mellitus, and macroalbuminuria (MA). Methods: The study cohort included 4577 adult participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Spearman correlation analysis was performed to ascertain the association between various anthropometric measures and CysC. Formal statistical analyses of the interaction term between anthropometric measures and CysC for outcomes were performed followed by stratified multivariate Cox proportional Hazard analyses. Results: A moderate degree of association was seen between CysC and measures of visceral adiposity as represented by waist-to-height ratio (WHR) and waist circumference (WC) and only a weak association between CysC and body mass index (BMI). CysC was predictive of all study outcomes in individuals with normal anthropometric measurements only. Conclusions: CysC correlated better with measures of visceral adiposity (WC and WHR) compared to BMI and appears to be a better predictor of adverse cardiovascular outcomes among those with anthropometric measures not suggestive of obesity compared to those with abnormal measures of anthropometry.
- Prepregnancy Body Mass Index and Prenatal Fasting Glucose Are Effective Predictors of Early Postpartum Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Mothers with Gestational Diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 6.
Abstract Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) may be an expression of early metabolic syndrome. It is unknown whether weight and/or glucose parameters assessed at GDM pregnancies predict the risk of metabolic syndrome at the early postpartum period. Methods: A group of women with GDM (N=1512) was evaluated at 3-11 months postpartum. Incident cases of diabetes were excluded. Antenatal measurements of GDM severity, third-trimester average glycated hemoglobin levels, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and increased gestational weight gain were considered. The predictive capability of these factors for postpartum metabolic syndrome was estimated. Results: The prevalence of postpartum metabolic syndrome was 10.9%. The three most common features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (31.2%), high fasting glucose values (23.5%), and a high waist circumference (22.8%). The main predictors of metabolic syndrome were overweight or obesity prepregnancy and high antenatal fasting glycemia. This analysis was adjusted for family history of diabetes, prior GDM, dyslipidemia before pregnancy, chronic arterial hypertension, age, and smoking. The model area 95% confidence interval under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87 (0.84-0.90) for metabolic syndrome presence. The risk for metabolic syndrome was progressively increased as risk factors were added (P<0.001 for trend). When obesity and high fasting glycemia were combined, a multiplied effect ensued. Conclusions: Women having GDM are at threat of early postpartum metabolic syndrome. This risk can be easily identified by assessing prepregnancy BMI and antenatal fasting glycemia in the first pregnancy visit.
- Metabolic Syndrome Criteria As Predictors of Insulin Resistance, Inflammation and Mortality in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug 6.
Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and metabolic syndrome are characterized by overlapping disorders, including glucose intolerance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and, in some cases, obesity. However, there are no specific criteria for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in CKD. Metabolic syndrome can also be associated with increased risk of mortality. Some traditional risk factors may protect dialysis patients from mortality, known as "reverse epidemiology." Metabolic syndrome might undergo reverse epidemiology. The objectives were to detect differences in frequency and metabolic characteristics associated with three sets of diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome, to evaluate the accuracy of insulin resistance (IR) and inflammation to identify patients with metabolic syndrome, and to investigate the effects of metabolic syndrome by three sets of diagnostic criteria on mortality in chronic hemodialysis patients. Methods: An observational study was conducted. Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome proposed by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and Harmonizing the Metabolic Syndrome (HMetS) statement were applied to 98 hemodialysis patients. Results: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 51%, 66.3%, and 75.3% according to NCEP ATP III, IDF, and HMetS criteria, respectively. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome by HMetS was simultaneously capable of revealing both inflammation and IR, whereas NCEP ATP III and IDF criteria were only able to identify IR. Mortality risk increased in the presence of metabolic syndrome regardless of the criteria used. Conclusions: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis varies according to the diagnostic criteria used. IR and inflammation predict metabolic syndrome only when diagnosed by HMetS criteria. HMetS was the diagnostic criteria that can predict the highest risk of mortality.
- Metabolic Syndrome: Prevalence and Association with Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Nigerian Hypertensive Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Jul 29.
Abstract Background: Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome, and a third of hypertensive patients have metabolic syndrome, with the common mechanistic pathway believed to be insulin resistance. It is probable that hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome will have more severe cardiac abnormalities than those without. Similarly, electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have serious implications for cardiovascular disease outcome. Data on association between metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities are scarce in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in hypertensive patients and possible association of metabolic syndrome with ECG abnormalities in them. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty-five new adult hypertensive patients were studied in a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was estimated by National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criteria. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode. SPSS IBM 20 was used to analyze data. Results: Mean age was 59.19±13.33 (30-75 years). Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 40.74% (28.85% in males; 48.19% in females). Abnormal waist circumference (58.51%) was the commonest additional component of metabolic syndrome in these patients. ECG abnormalities were in 77.78% of the population, with 49.63% and 28.15% being minor and major abnormalities, respectively. There was no significant association between metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities in these patients. Conclusion: Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive patients was high, central obesity being the commonest component of the syndrome. The high prevalence of ECG abnormalities may be more a reflection of the presence of hypertension than any other component of the syndrome.
- Evaluation of Clinical and Inflammatory Markers of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Postmenopausal Women with Metabolic Syndrome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Aug; 12(6):330-338.
Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to assess clinical and inflammatory markers in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 180 Brazilian women (age ≥45 years and amenorrhea ≥12 months). Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed by the presence of at least three of the following indicators: Waist circumference (WC) >88 cm, triglycerides (TGs) ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL; blood pressure ≥130/85 mmHg; and glucose ≥100 mg/dL. NAFLD was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound. Participants were divided into three groups: Metabolic syndrome alone (n=53); metabolic syndrome+NAFLD (n=67); or absence of metabolic syndrome or NAFLD (control, n=60). Clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical variables were quantified. The inflammatory profile included adiponectin, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Data were submitted to statistical analysis using a Tukey test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-squared, Pearson correlation, and logistic regression (odds ratio, OR). Results: Women with metabolic syndrome+NAFLD, abdominal obesity, high glucose, and insulin resistance by HOMA-IR were compared to women with metabolic syndrome alone and controls (P<0.05). High values of IL-6 and TNF-α and low values of adiponectin were observed among women with metabolic syndrome alone or metabolic syndrome+NAFLD when compared to controls (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, the variables considered as risk of NAFLD development were: High systolic blood pressure (SBP) [(OR 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-1.04]; large WC (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13); insulin resistance (OR 3.81, 95% CI 2.01-7.13); and metabolic syndrome (OR 8.68, 95% CI 3.3-24.1). Adiponectin levels reduced NAFLD risk (OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.96). Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, and insulin resistance were risk markers for the development of NAFLD, whereas higher adiponectin values indicated a protection marker.
- Do n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Increase or Decrease Lipid Peroxidation in Humans? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2014 Jul 21.
Abstract Background: Despite many known health benefits of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), there is a concern that their high degree of unsaturation may actually increase oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation (LPO), and chronic inflammatory diseases. Methods: In this review, we have analyzed results from published human studies regarding the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on markers of lipid peroxidation. Results: Of the 22 published human studies, nine found no change, eight a decrease, and five an increase in markers of LPO. These inconsistencies may be due to methods, subject characteristics, dose, duration, fatty acid and antioxidant composition of supplements, and basal diets. Methods used for analysis seem to be the most significant factor. Six of eight studies with a decrease in LPO determined F2-isoprostanes produced in vivo, and two determined plasma antioxidant capacity or hydroperoxides. n-3 PUFA can serve as scavengers for free radicals and also modulate expression of genes that determine the balance between oxidative and antioxidative status. Recent studies that monitored oxidation products of cholesterol and fatty acids support the hypothesis that n-3 PUFA decrease LPO. Most of the studies showing no change or increase in LPO determined markers that involved ex vivo sample preparation or oxidation (malondialdehyde, low-density lipoprotein oxidation, lipid hydroperoxides). Conclusion: A majority of studies do not indicate that n-3 PUFA increased LPO. Future studies need to investigate the effects of dose, duration, and composition of n-3 PUFA with standardized diets and methods on concentrations and types of LPO products produced.