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Mol Phylogenet Evol [journal]
- Divergence and codon usage bias of Betanodavirus, a neurotropic pathogen in fish. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 10.
Betanodavirus is a small bipartite RNA virus of global economical significance that can cause severe neurological disorders to an increasing number of marine fish species. Herein, to further the understanding of the evolution of betanodavirus, Bayesian coalescent analyses were conducted to the time-stamped entire coding sequences of their RNA polymerase and coat protein genes. Similar moderate nucleotide substitution rates were then estimated for the two genes. According to age calculations, the divergence of the two genes into the four genotypes initiated nearly simultaneously at ∼700years ago, despite the different scenarios, whereas the seven analyzed chimeric isolates might be the outcomes of a single genetic reassortment event taking place in the early 1980s in Southern Europe. Furthermore, codon usage bias analyses indicated that each gene had influences in addition to mutational bias and codon choice of betanodavirus was not completely complied with that of fish host.
- Molecular phylogeny of the western Palaearctic Helicoidea (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 5.:99-117.
The Helicoidea is one of the most diverse superfamilies of terrestrial land snails. In this study we present a molecular phylogeny of the western Palaearctic Helicoidea obtained by means of neighbor joining, maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment and the nuclear rRNA gene cluster including the 3' end of the 5.8S gene, the complete ITS2 region and 5' end of the large subunit 28S. Most of the morphologically-defined families were confirmed. We propose a revised phylogenetic classification so that families, subfamilies and tribes are monophyletic. The family Hygromiidae sensu Hausdorf and Bouchet (2005) is divided into three clades which are here given familial rank: Canariellidae and Geomitridae, which are recognized for the first time at familial rank, and Hygromiidae s.str. (including Ciliella and Trochulus) that is here restricted. The subfamilies Ciliellinae, Geomitrinae, Hygromiinae, Monachainae and Trochulinae recognized in current classifications were not recovered as monophyletic groups. The family Cochlicellidae is here given tribe rank (Cochlicellini) belonging to the Geomitridae. We describe a new tribe, Plentuisini. Three subfamilies are recognized within Helicidae: Ariantinae, Helicinae (including Theba) and Murellinae. New classification indicates that free right ommatophore retractor muscle arose only once within Geomitridae. The anatomy of the auxiliary copulatory organs of the reproductive system of families, subfamilies and tribes is highlighted. We estimate the origin of the Helicoidea at the end of the Early Cretaceous and its families as Late-Cretaceous to Paleogene. Western Palaearctic Helicoidea belongs to two different lineages that diverged around 86Ma ago, both starting their diversification at the end of the Cretaceous (around 73-76Ma). Radiation of some western Helicoidean families started during the Eocene.
- Speciation history and widespread introgression in the European short-call tree frogs (Hyla arborea sensu lato, H. intermedia and H. sarda). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 4.
European tree frogs (Hyla) characterized by short temporal parameters of the advertisement call form six genetically differentiated but morphologically cryptic taxa, H. arborea sensu stricto, H. orientalis and H. molleri from across Europe to western Asia (together referred to as H. arborea sensu lato), two putative taxa within H. intermedia (Northern and Southern) from the Italian Peninsula and Sicily, and H. sarda from Sardinia and Corsica. Here, we assess species limits and phylogenetic relationships within these 'short-call tree frogs' based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear protein-coding markers. The mitochondrial and nuclear genes show partly incongruent phylogeographic patterns, which point to a complex history of gene flow across taxa, particularly in the Balkans. To test the species limits in the short-call tree frogs and to infer the species tree, we used coalescent-based approaches. The monophyly of H. arborea sensu lato is supported by the mtDNA as well as by the all-gene species tree. The Northern and Southern lineages of H. intermedia have been connected by nuclear gene flow (despite their deep mtDNA divergence) and should be treated as conspecific. On the contrary, the parapatric taxa within H. arborea sensu lato should be considered distinct species (H. arborea, H. orientalis, H. molleri) based on the coalescent analysis, although signs of hybridizationwere detected between them (H. arborea×H. orientalis; H. arborea×H. molleri). A mitochondrial capture upon secondary contact appears to explain the close mtDNA relationship between the geographically remote Iberian H. molleri and H. orientalis from around the Black Sea. Introgressive hybridization occurred also between the Balkan H. arborea and northern Italian H. intermedia, and between the Minor Asiatic H. orientalis and Arabian H. felixarabica (the latter belonging to a different acoustic group/clade). Our results shed light on the species limits in the European short-call tree frogs and show that introgression played an important role in the evolutionary history of the short-call tree frogs and occurred even between taxa supported as distinct species.
- Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analyses reveal the evolution of bioluminescence and light detection in marine deep-sea shrimps of the family Oplophoridae (Crustacea: Decapoda). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 4.
Bioluminescence is essential to the survival of many organisms, particularly in the deep sea where light is limited. Shrimp of the family Oplophoridae exhibit a remarkable mechanism of bioluminescence in the form of a secretion used for predatory defense. Three of the ten genera possess an additional mode of bioluminescence in the form of light-emitting organs called photophores. Phylogenetic analyses can be useful for tracing the evolution of bioluminescence, however, the few studies that have attempted to reconcile the relationships within Oplophoridae have generated trees with low-resolution. We present the most comprehensive phylogeny of Oplophoridae to date, with 90% genera coverage using seven genes (mitochondrial and nuclear) across 30 oplophorid species. We use our resulting topology to trace the evolution of bioluminescence within Oplophoridae. Previous studies have suggested that oplophorid visual systems may be tuned to differentiate the separate modes of bioluminescence. While all oplophorid shrimp possess a visual pigment sensitive to blue-green light, only those bearing photophores have an additional pigment sensitive to near-ultraviolet light. We attempt to characterize opsins, visual pigment proteins essential to light detection, in two photophore-bearing species (Systellaspis debilis and Oplophorus gracilirostris) and make inferences regarding their function and evolutionary significance.
- Evolutionary dynamics of a common sub-Antarctic octocoral family. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 3.
Sequence data were obtained for five different loci, both mitochondrial (cox1, mtMutS, 16S) and nuclear (18S, 28S rDNA) from 64 species representing 25 genera of the common deep-sea octocoral family Primnoidae. We tested the hypothesis that Primnoidae have an Antarctic origin, as this is where they currently have high species richness, using Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference methods of phylogenetic analysis. Using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny we also investigated the time of species radiation in sub-Antarctic Primnoidae. Our relatively wide taxon sampling and phylogenetic analysis supported Primnoidae as a monophyletic family. The base of the well-supported phylogeny was Pacific in origin, indicating Primnoidae sub-Antarctic diversity is a secondary species radiation. There is also evidence for a subsequent range extension of sub-Antarctic lineages into deep-water areas of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Conservative and speculative fossil-calibration analyses resulted in two differing estimations of sub-Antarctic species divergence times. Conservative analysis suggested a sub-Antarctic species radiation occurred ∼52 MYA (95% HPD: 36-73 MYA), potentially before the opening of the Drake Passage and Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) formation (41-37 MYA). Speculative analysis pushed this radiation back into the late Jurassic, 157 MYA (95% HPD: 118-204 MYA). Genus-level groupings were broadly supported in this analysis with some notable polyphyletic exceptions: Callogorgia, Fanellia, Primnoella, Plumarella, Thouarella. Molecular and morphological evidence supports the placement of Tauroprimnoa austasensis within Dasystenella and Fannyella kuekenthali within Metafannyella.
- Phylogeny, divergence times, and historical biogeography of the angiosperm family Saxifragaceae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Dec 3.:86-98.
Saxifragaceae (Saxifragales) contain approximately 640 species and 33 genera, about half of which are monotypic. Due to factors such as morphological stasis, convergent morphological evolution, and disjunct distributions, relationships within Saxifragaceae have historically been troublesome. The family occurs primarily in mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with the highest generic and species diversity in western North America, but disjunct taxa are known from southern South America. Here, we integrate broad gene (56 loci) and taxon (223 species) sampling strategies, both the most comprehensive to date within Saxifragaceae, with fossil calibrations and geographical distribution data to address relationships, divergence times, and historical biogeography among major lineages of Saxifragaceae. Two previously recognized main clades, the heucheroids (eight groups+Saniculiphyllum) and saxifragoids (Saxifraga s.s.), were re-affirmed by our phylogenetic analyses. Relationships among the eight heucheroid groups, as well as the phylogenetic position of Saniculiphyllum within the heucheroids, were resolved with mostly high support. Divergence time estimates indicate that Saxifragaceae began to diversify ca. 38.37 million years ago (Mya; 95% HPD=30.99-46.11Mya) in the Mid-Late Eocene, and that the two major lineages, the heucheroids and saxifragoids, began to diversify approximately 30.04Mya (95% HPD=23.87-37.15Mya) and 30.85 Mya (95% HPD=23.47-39.33Mya), respectively. We reconstructed ancestral geographic areas using statistical dispersal-vicariance (S-DIVA). These analyses indicate several radiations within Saxifragaceae: one in eastern Asia and multiple radiations in western North America. Our results also demonstrate that large amounts of sequence data coupled with broad taxon sampling can help resolve clade relationships that have thus far seemed intractable.
- A molecular phylogeny of camaenid land snails from north-western Australia unravels widespread homoplasy in morphological characters (Gastropoda, Helicoidea). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Nov 22.:44-55.
North-western Australia harbours more than 300 species of camaenid land snail in 41 genera exhibiting considerable and well documented morphological diversity. We performed Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses of concatenated nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI, 16S) DNA sequences from 140 species of 37 of these genera plus an additional 27 extralimital species in order to resolve their phylogenetic relationships and to address the significance of morphological characters for the delineation of monophyletic taxa. While north-western Australian Camaenidae in their entirety are not monophyletic with respect to extralimital groups, they underwent extensive in situ-diversification in several independent phylogenetic radiations. A Maximum Likelihood-based character history reconstruction revealed extensive convergence in all studied shell characters and in three out of four genital features across this group. However, in some genera close morphological similarity is best explained by the retention of ancestral characters. We hypothesize that both morphological stasis in some groups and convergent character evolution in others can to a large extent be attributed to adaptive transformations in response to historically increasing aridity throughout north-western Australia in concert with structural constraints.
- Distinct and extinct: Genetic differentiation of the Hawaiian eagle. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Nov 15.:40-43.
Eagles currently occur in the Hawaiian Islands only as vagrants, but Quaternary bones of Haliaeetus eagles have been found on three of the major islands. A previous study of a ∼3500-year-old skeleton from Maui found its mtDNA more similar to White-tailed (H. albicilla) than to Bald (H. leucocephalus) Eagles, but low intraspecific resolution of the markers and lack of comparative data from mainland populations precluded assessment of whether the individual was part of the diversity found in Eurasia, or whether it represented an endemic Hawaiian lineage. Using ancient DNA techniques, we sequenced part of the rapidly evolving mtDNA control region from the same specimen, and compared it to published range-wide control region data from White-tailed Eagles and newly generated sequences from Bald Eagles. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the Hawaiian eagle represents a distinct (>3% divergent) mtDNA lineage most closely related to those of extant White-tailed Eagles. Based on fossil calibration, we estimate that the Hawaiian mtDNA lineage diverged from mainland sequences around the Middle Pleistocene. Although not clearly differentiated morphologically from mainland forms, the Hawaiian eagle thus likely constituted an isolated, resident population in the Hawaiian archipelago for more than 100,000years, where it was the largest terrestrial predator.
- Phylogeny of the monarch flycatchers reveals extensive paraphyly and novel relationships within a major Australo-Pacific radiation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Nov 22.
Monarch flycatchers are a major component of Australo-Pacific and Wallacean avifaunas. To date, the family has received incomplete attention by molecular systematists who focused on subclades with minimal character and/or taxon sampling. As a result, Monarchidae taxonomy is still out-of-date, and biogeographic reconstructions have been based on poorly-resolved phylogenies, limiting their interpretation. Here, we produced a comprehensive, molecular phylogeny of the Monarchidae inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear loci using both concatenated and multilocus coalescent frameworks. We sampled 92% of the 99 recognized monarchid biological species and included deeper sampling within several phylogenetic species complexes, including Monarcha castaneiventris, Symposiachrus barbatus, and Terpsiphone rufiventer. Melampitta is identified as sister to the monarch flycatchers, which themselves comprise four major lineages. The first lineage is composed of Terpsiphone and allies, the second lineage is Grallina, the third is Arses and Myiagra, and the fourth lineage comprises a diverse assemblage of genera including the "core monarchs" and the most geographically isolated groups like Chasiempis (Hawaii) and Pomarea (eastern Polynesia). Gene tree discordance was evident in Myiagra, which has implications for basal lineages in the genus (e.g., M. azureocapilla, M. hebetior, and M. alecto). Numerous genera within the core monarchs are paraphyletic, including Mayrornis and Pomarea, whereas the validity of others such as Metabolus are questionable. We recognize polytypic taxa as multiple species, including Lamprolia victoriae and Myiagra azureocapilla. In general, the topology of species complexes included short internodes that were not well resolved, owing to their rapid diversification across island archipelagos. Terpsiphone rufiventer comprises multiple lineages, including a heretofore-unappreciated West African lineage, but relationships within these rapid radiations will require extensive genomic sampling for further resolution. This study establishes a new benchmark for Monarchidae systematics and it provides an excellent framework for future work on biogeography and character evolution in a diverse Australo-Papuan radiation.
- The role of peripheral endemism and habitat associations in the evolution of the Indo-West Pacific tuskfishes (Labridae: Choerodon). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2014 Nov 24.
The unrivalled level of biodiversity across the tropical Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) has been the subject of wide debate. Attempts to understand its origins have focussed on the timing of speciation, rates of diversification and the directionality of colonization across geographical and climatic gradients in an array of marine groups. We investigate origins and evolution in the Choerodon tuskfishes, a group of labrids whose centre of diversity coincides with this region. Mitochondrial (COI, 16S) and nuclear (RAG2, Tmo4c4) molecular phylogenies and biogeographic analyses, coupled with molecular clock dating, were inferred from 18 of the 23 valid Choerodon species. Two additional, undescribed Choerodon species were also included, showing reciprocal monophyly in both genomes, confirming their species level status. Choerodon diverged from their ancestral sister group, the Odacines, at the onset of the Miocene, coinciding with the collision of the Australian and Eurasian Plates when extensive areas of shallow-water habitat formed. Despite subsequent evolutionary patterns being partially obscured by overlapping distribution ranges between many species and a lack of clear evidence for climatically driven lineage divergences, our data support an evolutionary scenario of peripheral endemics budding from once widespread populations across this biodiversity hotspot. Interestingly, these peripheral endemics tend to occupy more specialised reef or non-reef habitats whereas widespread groups appear to generally take advantage of both reef and non-reef environments. Our results are discussed in light of the most accredited hypotheses proposed to explain species richness in the IAA, with some support for processes such as centrifugal speciation.