Mol Phylogenet Evol [journal]
- Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 18.
Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be simultaneously important in influence the patterns of diversification of parasites.
- A test of color-based taxonomy in nudibranchs: molecular phylogeny and species delimitation of the Felimida clenchi (Mollusca: Chromodorididae) species complex. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 18.
Traditionally, species identification in nudibranch gastropods relies heavily on body color pattern. The Felimida clenchi species complex, a group of brightly colored Atlantic and Mediterranean species in the family Chromodorididae, has a history of exceptional controversy and discussion among taxonomists. The most widely accepted hypothesis is that the complex includes four species (Felimida clenchi, F. neona, F. binza and F. britoi), each with a characteristic body color pattern. In this study, we investigated the taxonomic value of coloration in the Felimida clenchi complex, using molecular phylogenetics, species-delimitation analyses (ABGD, GMYC, PTP), haplotype-network methods, and the anatomy of the reproductive system. None of our analyses recovered the traditional separation into four species. Our results indicated the existence of three species, a result inconsistent with previous taxonomic hypotheses. We distinguished an undescribed species of Felimida and redefined the concepts of F. clenchi and F. binza, both highly polychromatic species. For the first time, molecular data support the existence of extreme color polymorphism in chromatic nudibranch species, with direct implications for the taxonomy of the group and its diversity. The polychromatism observed in the F. clenchi complex apparently correlates with the regional occurrence of similar color patterns in congeneric species, suggesting different mimicry circles. This may represent a parallel in the marine environment to the mechanisms that play a major role in the diversification of color in terrestrial and fresh-water chromatic groups, such as heliconian butterflies.
- Taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationship of tits based on mitogenomes and nuclear segments. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 18.
The phylogeny of tits has been studied using various molecular markers, but their phylogenetic relationships remain controversial. To further investigate their taxonomic status and phylogenetic relationships, the entire mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) and five nuclear segments were sequenced from 10 species of tits and two outgroups (Sylviparus modestus and Remiz consobrinus), followed by the comparison of mitogenomic characteristics and reconstruction of phylogenetic relationship based on the different datasets. The results revealed the following: the mitogenomes of 10 ingroup tits, each 16,768-16,800 bp in length, displayed typical mitogenome organization and the gene order found in most previously determined Passeriformes mitogenomes; close relationships existed between Parus major and P. monticolus, between P. montanus and P. palustris, and between P. ater and P. venustulus; and Pseudopodoces humilis was a sister group to P. spilonotus, P. cyanus, or the clade containing P. major and P. monticolus.
- Phylogeny, ecology, morphological evolution, and reclassification of the diatom orders Surirellales and Rhopalodiales. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 22.
The Surirellales and Rhopalodiales are large, widespread, and morphologically diverse groups of raphid pennate diatoms (Bacillariphyta) whose raphe, a structure that facilitates active motility, opens internally into a siliceous canal. We collected 202 representatives of the lineage and sequenced genes from the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes to infer phylogenetic relationships as a basis for comparative study of ecology and morphological evolution as well as reclassification. The lineage was ancestrally marine, and we report the first evidence for a 'stepping stone' model of marine-freshwater transitions in which freshwater invasions were preceded by adaptation to intermediate brackish habitats. Phylogenetic comparative analyses also showed that the shift from an apical (e.g., Entomoneis) to transapical major axis of development (e.g., Surirella) did not have to proceed through subcircular intermediate forms (i.e., Campylodiscus). Rather, subcircular forms evolved both within lineages with longer apical axis or longer transapical axis. We also used the inferred phylogeny as a basis for genus-level reclassification of the lineage. Campylodiscus now includes the fastuosoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus, but excludes other marine Campylodiscus which are now classified as Coronia. Surirella includes the Surirella striatula clade, Surirella Pinnatae group, and species formerly classified as Cymatopleura. We resurrected the genus Iconella Jurilj to accommodate Stenopterobia and the robustoid members of Surirella and Campylodiscus. We broadened Epithemia to include members of the paraphyletic genus Rhopalodia. Finally, we discuss the challenges of constructing a classification that best leverages available phylogenetic data, while minimizing disruption to the research community and recognizing practical considerations stemming from the slow rate of progress on systematic studies of understudied organisms.
- Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Neritimorpha (Mollusca: Gastropoda). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 22.
Despite the extraordinary morphological and ecological diversity of Neritimorpha, few studies have focused on the phylogenetic relationships of this lineage of gastropods, which includes four extant superfamilies: Neritopsoidea, Hydrocenoidea, Helicinoidea, and Neritoidea. Here, the nucleotide sequences of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Georissa bangueyensis (Hydrocenoidea), Neritina usnea (Neritoidea), and Pleuropoma jana (Helicinoidea) and the nearly complete mt genomes of Titiscania sp. (Neritopsoidea), and Theodoxus fluviatilis (Neritoidea) were determined. Phylogenetic reconstruction using probabilistic methods were based on mitochondrial (13 protein coding genes and two ribosomal rRNA genes), nuclear (partial 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, actin, and histone H3 genes) and combined sequence data sets. All phylogenetic analyses except one converged on a single, highly supported tree in which Neritopsoidea was recovered as the sister group of a clade including Helicinoidea as the sister group of Hydrocenoidea and Neritoidea. This topology agrees with the fossil record and supports at least three independent invasions of land by neritimorph snails. The mitochondrial genomes of Titiscania sp., G. bangueyensis, N. usnea, and T. fluviatilis share the same gene organization previously described for Nerita mt genomes whereas that of P. jana has undergone major rearrangements. We sequenced about half of the mitochondrial genome of another species of Helicinoidea, Viana regina and confirmed that this species shares the highly derived gene order of P. jana.
- Phylogeographic analyses reveal Transpontic long distance dispersal in land snails belonging to the Caucasotachea atrolabiata complex (Gastropoda: Helicidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 19.
The phylogeography and population structure of land snails belonging to the Caucasotachea atrolabiata complex in the Caucasus region was investigated to obtain a better understanding of diversification processes in this biodiversity hotspot. So far the complex has been classified into three species, C. atrolabiata from the north-western Caucasus, C. calligera from Transcaucasia and C. intercedens from the eastern Pontus Mountains. Phylogenetic (neighbor-net and neighbor-joining tree) as well as admixture analyses based on AFLP data showed that the complex consists of two population clusters corresponding to C. atrolabiata and C. calligera. The populations assigned to C. intercedens in fact represent hybrids consisting of different proportions of the genomes of C. atrolabiata and C. calligera. There is a broad transition zone between C. atrolabiata and C. calligera in the Pontic Mountains and a second transition zone in Abkhazia. Because of the evidence for gene flow, it is suggested to classify the two aforementioned taxa as subspecies, namely C. a. atrolabiata and C. a. calligera. The presence of mitochondrial C. a. atrolabiata haplotypes in Turkey can only be explained by passive dispersal across the Black Sea. The distribution of C. a. atrolabiata and additional cases of land snails with disjunct Transpontic distribution patterns cannot be ascribed to a common cause, but are results of long-distance dispersal events at different times.
- Molecular phylogenetics and diversification of trap-jaw ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 19.
Ants in the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus belong to one of the largest clades in the subfamily Ponerinae, and are one of four lineages of ants possessing spring-loaded "trap-jaws." Here we present results from the first global species-level molecular phylogenetic analysis of these trap-jaw ants, reconstructed from one mitochondrial, one ribosomal RNA, and three nuclear protein-coding genes. Bayesian and likelihood analyses strongly support reciprocal monophyly for the genera Anochetus and Odontomachus. Additionally, we found strong support for seven trap-jaw ant clades (four in Anochetus and three in Odontomachus) mostly concordant with geographic distribution. Ambiguity remains concerning the closest living non-trap-jaw ant relative of the Anochetus+Odontomachus clade, but Bayes factor hypothesis testing strongly suggests that trap-jaw ants evolved from a short mandible ancestor. Ponerine trap-jaw ants originated in the early Eocene (52.5 Mya) in either South America or Southeast Asia, where they have radiated rapidly in the last 30 million years, and subsequently dispersed multiple times to Africa and Australia. These results will guide future taxonomic work on the group and act as a phylogenetic framework to study the macroevolution of extreme ant mouthpart specialization.
- Multi-locus fossil-calibrated phylogeny, biogeography and a subgeneric revision of the Margaritiferidae (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionoida). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 18.
The taxonomy and biogeographic history of the bivalve family Margaritiferidae are controversial because previous molecular studies did not provide a well-resolved phylogenetic framework for these enigmatic freshwater mussels that have extensive but disjunct distribution in North America, Eurasia and North Africa. In this study, we present a new, fossil-calibrated phylogenetic hypothesis based on five molecular markers (∼4 kb of total length) for ten species. Our results indicate that all recent margaritiferids are in the single genus, Margaritifera Schumacher, 1816. Additionally, we identified three relatively well-supported phylogenetic clades that are valid subgenera, i.e., Margaritifera s. str. (Holarctic), Margaritanopsis (= Cumberlandia) (southeast North America-southeast Asia disjunct) and Pseudunio (Mediterranean). We suggest that the crown lineage of the Margaritiferidae most likely originated in the Cretaceous (mean age 93 Ma, 95% CI 66-126 Ma). The combined results of ancestral area reconstructions based on the three different approaches (S-DIVA, DEC and S-DEC) showed that ancient vicariance events could have played an important role in speciation within the family. The rates of mitochondrial evolution of margaritiferids are notably slow, which may be associated with their longevity, long generation time and low metabolic rates. Our findings highlight the complex biogeographic history of the Margaritiferidae as an intermixing of ancient vicariance and dispersal events, which were most likely associated with some inland barriers, continental movements and a sea level dynamic.
- An Evaluation of Logic Regression-based Biomarker Discovery across Multiple Intergenic Regions for Predicting Host Specificity in Escherichia coli. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 15.
Several studies have demonstrated that E. coli appears to display some level of host adaptation and specificity. Recent studies in our laboratory support these findings as determined by logic regression modeling of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in intergenic regions (ITGRs). We sought to determine the degree of host-specific information encoded in various ITGRs across a library of animal E. coli isolates using both whole genome analysis and a targeted ITGR sequencing approach. Our findings demonstrated that ITGRs across the genome encode various degrees of host-specific information. Incorporating multiple ITGRs (i.e., concatenation) into logic regression model building resulted in greater host-specificity and sensitivity outcomes in biomarkers, but the overall level of polymorphism in an ITGR did not correlate with the degree of host-specificity encoded in the ITGR. This suggests that distinct SNPs in ITGRs may be more important in defining host-specificity than overall sequence variation, explaining why traditional unsupervised learning phylogenetic approaches may be less informative in terms of revealing host-specific information encoded in DNA sequence. In silico analysis of 80 candidate ITGRs from publically available E. coli genomes was performed as a tool for discovering highly host-specific ITGRs. In one ITGR (ydeR-yedS) we identified a SNP biomarker that was 98% specific for cattle and for which 92% of all E. coli isolates originating from cattle carried this unique biomarker. In the case of humans, a host-specific biomarker (98% specificity) was identified in the concatenated ITGR sequences of rcsD-ompC, ydeR-yedS, and rclR-ykgE, and for which 78% of E. coli originating from humans carried this biomarker. Interestingly, human-specific biomarkers were dominant in ITGRs regulating antibiotic resistance, whereas in cattle host-specific biomarkers were found in ITGRs involved in stress regulation. These data suggest that evolution towards host specificity may be driven by different natural selection pressures on the regulome of E. coli among different animal hosts.
- Investigating the origin of vagrant dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in coastal waters of Réunion Island. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Phylogenet Evol 2016 Jul 12.:98-103.
Due to their geographic isolation, biotas of oceanic islands are likely influenced by episodic long distance dispersal events, but such observations are scarce. In June 2012, fishermen from Réunion Island caught an unknown specimen of grouper, identified as dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). This was highly unexpected considering the large distance of its closest verified occurrence (South Africa, ∼2500km). To identify the origin of this specimen and the mechanisms driving this potential long distance colonization, we combined genetic analyses and hydrodynamic connectivity modeling approaches. Molecular markers and samples from various locations across the distribution range resulted in the identification of three putative source populations. The Réunion specimen clustered genetically with South Africa. The estimated spawning period in relation to the connectivity modeling of larvae showed no possible direct connection between South Africa and Réunion. However, connectivity was predicted through intermediate stepping stone populations likely located around the southern tip of Madagascar, where the occurrence of the species has yet to be verified. The results further highlight the potential role of the cyclone Bingiza (February 2011) in the connection between Madagascar and Réunion. This shows that cyclones may be an important driver in long distance colonization of oceanic islands.