(Molecular cellular proteomics[TA])
- Salmonella Typhimurium enzymatically landscapes the host intestinal epithelial cell surface glycome to increase invasion. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Oct 17
- Although gut host-pathogen interactions are glycan-mediated processes, few details are known about the participating structures. Here we employ high-resolution mass spectrometric profiling to compreh...
Although gut host-pathogen interactions are glycan-mediated processes, few details are known about the participating structures. Here we employ high-resolution mass spectrometric profiling to comprehensively identify and quantitatively measure the exact modifications of native intestinal epithelial cell surface N-glycans induced by S. Typhimurium infection. Sixty minutes post-infection, select sialylated structures showed decreases in terms of total number and abundances. To assess the effect of cell surface mannosylation, we selectively rerouted glycan expression on the host using the alpha-mannosidase inhibitor, kifunensine, toward overexpression of high mannose. Under these conditions, internalization of S. Typhimurium significantly increased, demonstrating that bacteria show preference for particular structures. Finally, we developed a novel assay to measure membrane glycoprotein turnover rates, which revealed that glycan modifications occur by bacterial enzyme activity rather than by host-derived restructuring strategies. This study is the first to provide precise structural information on how host N-glycans are altered to support S. Typhimurium invasion.
- Immunoseroproteomic profiling in African American men with prostate cancer: evidence for an autoantibody response to glycolysis and plasminogen-associated proteins. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Oct 14
- African American (AA) men suffer from a disproportionately high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Despite these disparities, African American me...
African American (AA) men suffer from a disproportionately high incidence and mortality of prostate cancer (PCa) compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Despite these disparities, African American men are underrepresented in clinical trials and in studies on PCa biology and biomarker discovery. We used immunoseroproteomics to profile anti-tumor autoantibody responses in AA and European American (EA) men with PCa, and explored differences in these responses. This minimally invasive approach detects autoantibodies to tumor-associated antigens that could serve as clinical biomarkers and immunotherapeutic agents. Sera from AA and EA men with PCa were probed by immunoblotting against PC3 cell proteins, with AA sera showing stronger immunoreactivity. Mass spectrometry analysis of immunoreactive protein spots revealed that several AA sera contained autoantibodies to a number of proteins associated with both the glycolysis and plasminogen pathways, particularly to alpha-enolase (ENO1). The proteomic data was deposited in ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003968. Analysis of sera from 340 racially diverse men by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) showed higher frequency of anti-ENO1 autoantibodies in PCa sera compared to control sera. We observed differences between AA-PCa and EA-PCa patients in their immunoreactivity against ENO1. While EA-PCa sera reacted with higher frequency against purified ENO1 in ELISA and recognized by immunoblotting the endogenous cellular ENO1 across a panel of prostate cell lines, AA-PCa sera reacted weakly against this protein by ELISA but recognized it by immunoblotting preferentially in metastatic cell lines. These race-related differences in immunoreactivity to ENO1 could not be accounted by differential autoantibody recognition of phosphoepitopes within this antigen. Proteomic analysis revealed differences in the posttranslational modification profiles of ENO1 variants differentially recognized by AA-PCa and EA-PCa sera. These intriguing results suggest the possibility of race-related differences in the anti-tumor autoantibody response in PCa, and have implications for defining novel biological determinants of PCa health disparities.
- Robust Label-Free, Quantitative Profiling of Circulating Plasma Microparticle Associated Proteins. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Oct 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Using aliquots of 250 μL platelet-free plasma from one individual donor, we achieved excellent reproducibility with an inter-assay coefficient of variation of 2.7 ± 1.7% (mean ± 1 standard deviation) on individual peptide intensities across 27 acquisitions performed over a period of 3.5 months. We show that the microparticle proteome between twelve healthy volunteers were remarkably similar, and that it is clearly distinguishable from whole cell and platelet lysates. We propose the use of the proteome profile shown in this work as a quality criterion for microparticle purity in proteomics studies. Furthermore, one freeze thaw cycle damaged the microparticle integrity, articulated by a loss of cytoplasm proteins, encompassing a specific set of proteins involved in regulating dynamic structures of the cytoskeleton, and thrombin activation leading to MP clotting. On the other hand, plasma membrane protein composition was unaffected. Finally, we show that multiplexed data-independent acquisition can be used for relative quantification of target proteins using Skyline software. Mass spectrometry data are available via ProteomeXchange with (identifier PXD003935) and panoramaweb.org.
- The salivary protein repertoire of the polyphagous spider mite Tetranychus urticae: a quest for effectors. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Oct 4
- The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown t...
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extremely polyphagous crop pest. Alongside an unparalleled detoxification potential for plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites can attenuate or even suppress plant defenses. Salivary constituents, notably effectors, have been proposed to play an important role in manipulating plant defenses and might determine the outcome of plant-mite interactions. Here, the proteomic composition of saliva from T. urticae lines adapted to various host plants - bean, maize, soy, and tomato - was analyzed using a custom-developed feeding assay coupled with nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry. About 90 putative T. urticae salivary proteins were identified. Many are of unknown function, and in numerous cases belonging to multi-membered gene families. RNAseq expression analysis revealed that many genes coding for these salivary proteins were highly expressed in the proterosoma, the mite body region that includes the salivary glands. A subset of genes encoding putative salivary proteins was selected for whole-mount in situ hybridization, and were found to be expressed in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands. Strikingly, host plant dependent expression was evident for putative salivary proteins, and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome-wide expression profiling. This meta-analysis revealed for the first time the salivary protein repertoire of a phytophagous chelicerate. The availability of this salivary proteome will assist in unraveling the molecular interface between phytophagous mites and their host plants, and may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops. Furthermore, the technique used in this study is a time- and resource-efficient method to examine the salivary protein composition of other small arthropods for which saliva or salivary glands cannot be easily isolated.
- Proteome-Wide Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots Reveals Regulatory Elements Predicted to Impact Biological Function and Disease. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Oct 3
- Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotyp...
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate protein behavior through modulation of protein-protein interactions, enzymatic activity, and protein stability essential in the translation of genotype to phenotype in eukaryotes. Currently, less than 4% of all eukaryotic PTMs are reported to have biological function &- a statistic that continues to decrease with an increasing rate of PTM detection. Previously, we developed SAPH-ire (Structural Analysis of PTM Hotspots) &- a method for the prioritization of PTM function potential that has been used effectively to reveal novel PTM regulatory elements in discrete protein families (Dewhurst et al., 2015). Here, we apply SAPH-ire to the set of eukaryotic protein families containing experimental PTM and 3D structure data &- capturing 1,325 protein families with 50,839 unique PTM sites organized into 31,747 modified alignment positions (MAPs), of which 2,010 (~6%) possess known biological function. Here, we show that using an artificial neural network model (SAPH-ire NN) trained to identify MAP hotspots with biological function results in prediction outcomes that far surpass the use of single hotspot features, including nearest neighbor PTM clustering methods. We find the greatest enhancement in prediction for positions with PTM counts of five or less, which represent 98% of all MAPs in the eukaryotic proteome and 90% of all MAPs found to have biological function. Analysis of the top 1092 MAP hotspots revealed 267 of truly unknown function (containing 5443 distinct PTMs). Of these, 165 hotspots could be mapped to human KEGG pathways for normal and/or disease physiology. Many high-ranking hotspots were also found to be disease-associated pathogenic sites of amino acid substitution despite the lack of observable PTM in the human protein family member. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that the functional relevance of a PTM can be predicted very effectively by neural network models, revealing a large but testable body of potential regulatory elements that impact hundreds of different biological processes important in eukaryotic biology and human health.
- A role for human N-terminal acetyltransferase Naa30 in maintaining mitochondrial integrity. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Sep 30
- N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes. The NatC complex represents one of three major NATs of w...
N-terminal acetylation (Nt-acetylation) by N-terminal acetyltransferases (NATs) is one of the most common protein modifications in eukaryotes. The NatC complex represents one of three major NATs of which the substrate profile remains largely unexplored. Here, we defined the in vivo human NatC Nt-acetylome on a proteome-wide scale by combining knockdown of its catalytic subunit Naa30 with positional proteomics. We identified 46 human NatC substrates, expanding our current knowledge on the substrate repertoire of NatC which now includes proteins harboring Met-Leu, Met-Ile, Met-Phe, Met-Trp, Met-Val, Met-Met, Met-His and Met-Lys N-termini. Upon Naa30 depletion the expression levels of several organellar proteins were found reduced, in particular mitochondrial proteins, some of which were found to be NatC substrates. Interestingly, knockdown of Naa30 induced the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and fragmentation of mitochondria. In conclusion, NatC Nt-acetylates a large variety of proteins and is essential for mitochondrial integrity and function.
- Simultaneous Proteomic Discovery and Targeted Monitoring using Liquid Chromatography, Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Mass Spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Sep 25
- Current proteomic approaches are comprised of both broad discovery measurements and quantitative targeted analyses. In many cases, discovery measurements are initially used to identify potentially im...
Current proteomic approaches are comprised of both broad discovery measurements and quantitative targeted analyses. In many cases, discovery measurements are initially used to identify potentially important proteins (e.g., candidate biomarkers) and then targeted studies are employed to quantify a limited number of selected proteins. Both approaches, however, suffer from limitations. Discovery measurements aim to sample the whole proteome but have lower sensitivity, accuracy, and quantitation precision than targeted approaches, while targeted measurements are significantly more sensitive but only sample a limited portion of the proteome. Herein, we describe a new approach that performs both discovery and targeted monitoring (DTM) in a single analysis by combining liquid chromatography, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (LC-IMS-MS). In DTM, heavy labeled target peptides are spiked into tryptic digests and both the labeled and unlabeled peptides are detected using LC-IMS-MS instrumentation. Compared to the broad LC-MS discovery measurements, DTM yields greater peptide/protein coverage and detects lower abundance species. DTM also achieved detection limits similar to selected reaction monitoring (SRM) indicating its potential for combined high quality discovery and targeted analyses, a significant step towards the convergence of discovery and targeted approaches.
- The Primary Effect on the Proteome of ARID1A-Mutated Ovarian Clear Cell Carcinoma is Downregulation of the Mevalonate Pathway at the Post-Transcriptional Level. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Sep 21
- Inactivating mutations in ARID1A, which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, are found in over half of ovarian clear cell carcinoma cases and more broadly across most types ...
Inactivating mutations in ARID1A, which encodes a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, are found in over half of ovarian clear cell carcinoma cases and more broadly across most types of cancers. To identify ARID1A-dependent changes in intracellular signaling pathways, we performed proteome analyses of isogenic ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell lines with or without ARID1A expression. Knockout of ARID1A in an ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line with wild-type ARID1A, OVCA429, primarily resulted in downregulation of the mevalonate pathway, an important metabolic pathway involved in isoprenoid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, and other downstream pathways. In a complementary experiment, expression of wild-type ARID1A in an ovarian clear cell carcinoma cell line containing mutated ARID1A, OVISE, affected the mevalonate pathway in a reciprocal manner. A striking aspect of these analyses was that, although only 5% of the detected proteome showed significant abundance changes, most proteins in the mevalonate pathway were coordinately affected by ARID1A status. There were generally corresponding changes when comparing the proteomics data to our previously published microarray data for ectopic expression of ARID1A in the OVISE cell line. However, ARID1A-dependent changes were not detected for genes within the mevalonate pathway. This discrepancy suggests that the mevalonate pathway is not regulated directly by ARID1A-mediated transcription and may be regulated post-transcriptionally. We conclude that ARID1A status indirectly influences the mevalonate pathway and probably influences other processes including glycogen metabolism and 14-3-3-mediated signaling. Further, our findings demonstrate that changes in mRNA levels are sometimes poor indicators of signaling pathways affected by gene manipulations in cancer cells.
- Comparative ploidy proteomics of Candida albicans biofilms unraveled the role of AHP1 in the biofilm persistence against amphotericin B. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Sep 19
- Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen causing lethal infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans forms antifungal tolerant biofilms contributing significantly to therapeutic failure. ...
Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen causing lethal infections in immunocompromised patients. C. albicans forms antifungal tolerant biofilms contributing significantly to therapeutic failure. The recently established haploid C. albicans biofilm model provides a new toolbox to uncover the mechanism governing the higher antifungal tolerance of biofilms. Here, we comprehensively examined the proteomics and antifungal susceptibility of standard diploid (SC5314 and BWP17) and stable haploid (GZY792 and GZY803) strains of C. albicans biofilms. Subsequent downstream analyses identified AHP1 as a critical determinant of C. albicans biofilm's tolerance of amphotericin B. At 32 µg/ml of amphotericin B, GZY803 haploid biofilms showed 0.1% of persister population as compared to 1% of the diploid biofilms. AHP1 expression was found to be lower in GZY803 biofilms, and AHP1 overexpression in GZY803 restored the percentage of persister population. Consistently, deleting AHP1 in the diploid strain BWP17 caused a similar increase in amphotericin B susceptibility. AHP1 expression was also positively correlated with the antioxidant potential. Furthermore, C. albicans ira2Δ/Δ biofilms were susceptible to amphotericin B and had a diminished antioxidant capacity. Interestingly, AHP1 overexpression in the ira2Δ/Δ strain restored the antioxidant potential and enhanced the persister population against amphotericin B, and shutting down the AHP1 expression in ira2Δ/Δ biofilms reversed the effect. In conclusion, we provide evidence that the AHP1 gene critically determines the amphotericin B tolerance of C. albicans biofilms possibly by maintaining the persisters' antioxidant capacity. This finding will open up new avenues for developing therapies targeting the persister population of C. albicans biofilms. The mass spectrometry proteomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004274.
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- Identification of 2-oxohistidine interacting proteins using E. coli proteome chips. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Proteomics 2016 Sep 19
- Cellular proteins are constantly damaged by reactive oxygen species generated by cellular respiration. Due to its metal-chelating property, the histidine residue is easily oxidized in the presence of...
Cellular proteins are constantly damaged by reactive oxygen species generated by cellular respiration. Due to its metal-chelating property, the histidine residue is easily oxidized in the presence of Cu/Fe ions and H2O2 via metal-catalyzed oxidation, usually converted to 2-oxohistidine. We hypothesized that cells may have evolved antioxidant defenses against the generation of 2-oxohistidine residues on proteins, and therefore there would be cellular proteins which specifically interact with this oxidized side chain. Using two chemically synthesized peptide probes containing 2-oxohistidine, high-throughput interactome screening was conducted using the E. coli K12 proteome microarray containing >4200 proteins. Ten interacting proteins were successfully validated using a third peptide probe, fluorescence polarization assays, as well as binding constant measurements. We discovered that 9 out of 10 identified proteins seemed to be involved in redox-related cellular functions. We also built the functional interaction network to reveal their interacting proteins. The network showed that our interacting proteins were enriched in oxido-reduction processes, ion binding, and carbon metabolism. A consensus motif was identified among these 10 bacterial interacting proteins based on bioinformatic analysis, which also appeared to be present on human S100A1 protein. Besides, we found that the consensus binding motif among our identified proteins, including bacteria and human, were located within α-helices and faced the outside of proteins. The combination of chemically engineered peptide probes with proteome microarrays proves to be an efficient discovery platform for protein interactomes of unusual post-translational modifications, and sensitive enough to detect even the insertion of a single oxygen atom in this case.