Molecular cellular proteomics [journal]
- Fasciola hepatica surface tegument: glycoproteins at the interface of parasite and host. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 27.
Fasciola hepatica, commonly known as liver fluke, is a trematode which causes Fasciolosis in ruminants and humans. The outer tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is a complex metabolically active biological matrix that is continually exposed to the host immune system and therefore makes a good vaccine target. F. hepatica tegumental coat is highly glycosylated and helminth-derived immunogenic oligosaccharide motifs and glycoproteins are currently being investigated as novel vaccine candidates. This report presents the first systematic characterisation of FhTeg glycosylation using lectin microarrays to characterise carbohydrates motifs present, and lectin histochemistry to localize these on the F. hepatica tegument. We discovered that FhTeg glycoproteins are predominantly oligomannose oligosaccharides that are expressed on the spines, suckers and tegumental coat of F. hepatica and lectin blot analysis confirmed the abundance of N- glycosylated proteins. While some oligosaccharides are widely distributed on the fluke surface other subsets are restricted to distinct anatomical regions. We selectively enriched for FhTeg mannosylated glycoprotein subsets using lectin affinity chromatography and identified 369 proteins by mass spectrometric analysis. Among these proteins are a number of potential vaccine candidates with known immune modulatory properties including proteases, protease inhibitors, paramyosin, Venom Allergen-like II, Enolase and two proteins, nardilysin and TRIL, that have not been previously associated with F. hepatica Furthermore, we provide a comprehensive insight regarding the putative glycosylation of FhTeg components which could highlight the importance of further studies examining glycoconjugates in host-parasite interactions in the context of F. hepatica infection and the development of an effective vaccine.
- Systems-level proteomics of two ubiquitous leaf commensals reveals complementary adaptive traits for phyllosphere colonization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 25.
Plants are colonized by a diverse community of microorganisms, the plant microbiota, exhibiting a defined and conserved taxonomic structure. Niche separation based on spatial segregation and complementary adaptation strategies likely forms the basis for coexistence of the various microorganisms in the plant environment. To gain insights into organism-specific adaptations on a molecular level, we selected two exemplary community members of the core leaf microbiota and profiled their proteomes upon Arabidopsis phyllosphere colonization. The highly quantitative mass spectrometric technique SWATH MS was used and allowed for the analysis of over two thousand proteins spanning more than three orders of magnitude in abundance for each of the model strains. The data suggest that Sphingomonas melonis utilizes amino acids and hydrocarbon compounds during colonization of leaves while Methylobacterium extorquens relies on methanol metabolism in addition to oxalate metabolism, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis and alkanesulfonate utilization. Comparative genomic analyses indicates that utilization of oxalate and alkanesulfonates is widespread among leaf microbiota members whereas, aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis is almost exclusively found in Methylobacteria. Despite the apparent niche separation between these two strains we also found a relatively small subset of proteins to be co-regulated, indicating common mechanisms, underlying successful leaf colonization. Overall, our results reveal for two ubiquitous phyllosphere commensals species-specific adaptations to the host environment and provide evidence for niche separation within the plant microbiota.
- Approach for identifying HLA-DR bound peptides from scarce clinical samples. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 24.
Immune-mediated diseases strongly associating with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are likely linked to specific antigens. These antigens are presented to T cells in the form of peptides bound to HLA molecules on antigen presenting cells, e.g., dendritic cells, macrophages or B cells. The identification of HLA-DR-bound peptides presents a valuable tool to investigate the human immunopeptidome. The lung is likely a key player in the activation of potentially auto-aggressive T cells prior to entering target tissues and inducing autoimmune disease. This makes the lung of exceptional interest and presents an ideal paradigm to study the human immunopeptidome and to identify antigenic peptides. Our previous investigation of HLA-DR peptide presentation in the lung required high numbers of cells (800 million bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells). Since BAL from healthy non-smokers typically contains 10-15 million cells, there is a need for a highly sensitive approach to study immunopeptides in the lungs of individual patients and controls. In this work, we analyzed the HLA-DR immunopeptidome in the lung by an optimized methodology to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low cell numbers. We used an Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) immortalized B cell line and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells obtained from patients with sarcoidosis, an inflammatory T cell driven disease mainly occurring in the lung. Specifically, membrane complexes were isolated prior to immunoprecipitation, eluted peptides were identified by nanoLC-MS/MS and processed using the in-house developed ClusterMHCII software. With the optimized procedure we were able to identify peptides from 10 million cells, which on average correspond to 10.9 peptides/million cells in EBV-B cells and 9.4 peptides/million cells in BAL cells. This work presents an optimized approach designed to identify HLA-DR-bound peptides from low numbers of cells, enabling the investigation of the BAL immunopeptidome from individual patients and healthy controls in order to identify disease-associated peptides.
- Proteoform-specific insights into cellular proteome regulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 22.
Knowledge regarding compositions of proteomes at the proteoform level enhances insights into cellular phenotypes. A strategy is described herein for discovery of proteoform-specific information about cellular proteomes. This strategy involved analysis of data obtained by bottom-up mass spectrometry analysis of multiple protein OGE separations on a fraction by fraction basis. The strategy was exemplified using five matched sets of lysates of uninfected and human respiratory syncytial virus-infected A549 cells. Template matching demonstrated that 67.3% of 10475 protein profiles identified focussed to narrow pI windows indicative of efficacious focussing. Furthermore, correlation between experimental and theoretical pI gradients indicated reproducible focussing. Based on these observations a proteoform profiling strategy was developed to identify proteoforms, detect proteoform diversity and discover potential proteoform regulation. One component of this strategy involved examination of the focusing profiles for protein groups. A novel concordance analysis facilitated differentiation between proteoforms, including proteoforms generated by alternate splicing and proteolysis. Evaluation of focusing profiles and concordance analysis were applicable to cells from a single and / or multiple biological states. Statistical analyses identified proteoform variation between biological states. Regulation relevant to cellular responses to human respiratory syncytial virus was revealed. Western blotting and Protomap analyses validated the proteoform regulation. Discovery of STAT1, WARS, MX1 and HSPB1 proteoform regulation by human respiratory syncytial virus highlighted the impact of the profiling strategy. Novel truncated proteoforms of MX1 were identified in infected cells and phosphorylation driven regulation of HSPB1 proteoforms was correlated with infection. The proteoform profiling strategy is generally applicable to investigating interactions between viruses and host cells and the analysis of other biological systems.
- Large-scale screening of preferred interactions of human SH3 domains using native target proteins as affinity ligands. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 20.
The Src Homology-3 (SH3) domains are ubiquitous protein modules that mediate important intracellular protein interactions via binding to short proline-rich consensus motifs in their target proteins. The affinity and specificity of such core SH3 - ligand contacts are typically modest, but additional binding interfaces can give rise to stronger and more specific SH3-mediated interactions. To understand how commonly such robust SH3 interactions occur in the human protein interactome, and to identify these in an unbiased manner we have expressed 324 predicted human SH3 ligands as full-length proteins in mammalian cells, and screened for their preferred SH3 partners using a phage display-based approach. This discovery platform contains an essentially complete repertoire of the approximately 300 human SH3 domains, and involves an inherent binding threshold that ensures selective identification of only SH3 interactions with relatively high affinity. Such strong and selective SH3 partners could be identified for only 19 of these 324 predicted ligand proteins, suggesting that the majority of human SH3 interactions are relatively weak, and thereby have capacity for only modest inherent selectivity. The panel of exceptionally robust SH3 interactions identified here provides a rich source of leads and hypotheses for further studies. However, a truly comprehensive characterization of the human SH3 interactome will require novel high-throughput methods based on function instead of absolute binding affinity.
- Identification of oligosaccharides in feces of breast-fed infants and their correlation with the gut microbial community. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 19.
Glycans in breast milk are abundant and found as either free oligosaccharides or conjugated to proteins and lipids. Free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) function as prebiotics by stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria while preventing the binding of harmful bacteria to intestinal epithelial cells. Bacteria have adapted to the glycan-rich environment of the gut by developing enzymes that catabolize glycans. The decrease in HMOs and the increase in glycan digestion products give indications of the active enzymes in the microbial population. In this study, we quantitated the disappearance of intact HMOs and characterized the glycan digestion products in the gut that are produced by the action of microbial enzymes on HMOs and glycoconjugates from breast milk. Oligosaccharides from fecal samples of exclusively breast-fed infants were extracted and profiled using nanoLC-MS. Intact HMOs were found in the fecal samples, additionally, other oligosaccharides were found corresponding to degraded HMOs and non-HMO based compounds. The latter compounds were fragments of N-glycans released through the cleavage of the linkage to the asparagine residue and through cleavage of the chitobiose core of the N-glycan. Marker gene sequencing of the fecal samples revealed bifidobacteria as the dominant inhabitants of the infant gastrointestinal tracts. A glycosidase from Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum was then expressed to digest HMOs in vitro, which showed that the digested oligosaccharides in feces corresponded to the action of glycosidases on HMOs. Similar expression of endoglycosidases also showed that N-glycans were released by bacterial enzymes. While bifidobacteria may dominate the gut, it is possible that specific minority species are also responsible for the major products observed in feces. Nonetheless, the enzymatic activity correlated well with the known glycosidases in the respective bacteria, suggesting a direct relationship between microbial abundances and catabolic activity.
- Comparative proteomics and functional analysis reveal a role of P. falciparum osmiophilic bodies in malaria parasite transmission. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 18.
An essential step in the transmission of the malaria parasite to the Anopheles vector is the transformation of the mature gametocytes into gametes in the mosquito gut, where they egress from the erythrocytes and mate to produce a zygote, which matures into a motile ookinete. Osmiophilic bodies are electron dense secretory organelles of the female gametocytes which discharge their contents during gamete formation, suggestive of a role in gamete egress. Only one protein with no functional annotation, Pfg377, is described to specifically reside in osmiophilic bodies in Plasmodium falciparum. Importantly, Pfg377 defective gametocytes lack osmiophilic bodies and fail to infect mosquitoes, as confirmed here with newly produced pfg377 disrupted parasites. The unique feature of Pfg377 defective gametocytes of lacking osmiophilic bodies was here exploited to perform comparative, label free, global and affinity proteomics analyses of mutant and wild type gametocytes to identify components of these organelles. Subcellular localization studies with fluorescent reporter gene fusions and specific antibodies revealed an osmiophilic body localization for four out of five candidate gene products analyzed: the proteases PfSUB2 (subtilisin 2) and PfDPAP2 (Dipeptidyl aminopeptidase 2), the ortholog of the osmiophilic body component of the rodent malaria gametocytes PbGEST and a previously non-annotated 13 kDa protein. These results establish that osmiophilic bodies and their components are dispensable or marginally contribute (PfDPAP2) to gamete egress. Instead, this work reveals a previously unsuspected role of these organelles in P. falciparum development in the mosquito vector.
- Defining the protein-protein interaction network of the human protein tyrosine phosphatase family. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 18.
Protein tyrosine phosphorylation, which plays a vital role in a variety of human cellular processes, is coordinated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Genomic studies provide compelling evidence that PTPs are frequently mutated in various human cancers, suggesting that they have important roles in tumor suppression. However, the cellular functions and regulatory machineries of most PTPs are still largely unknown. To gain a comprehensive understanding of the protein-protein interaction network of the human PTP family, we performed a global proteomic study. Using a Minkowski distance-based unified scoring environment (MUSE) for the data analysis, we identified 940 high confidence candidate-interacting proteins that comprise the interaction landscape of the human PTP family. Through a gene ontology analysis and functional validations, we connected the PTP family with several key signaling pathways or cellular functions whose associations were previously unclear, such as the RAS-RAF-MEK pathway, the Hippo-YAP pathway, and cytokinesis. Our study provides the first glimpse of a protein interaction network for the human PTP family, linking it to a number of crucial signaling events, and generating a useful resource for future studies of PTPs.
- High sensitivity crosslink detection coupled with integrative structure modeling in the Mass Spec Studio. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 13.
The Mass Spec Studio package was designed to support the extraction of hydrogen-deuterium exchange and covalent labeling data for a range of mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflows, to integrate with restraint-driven protein modeling activities. In this report, we present an extension of the underlying Studio framework and provide a plug-in for crosslink (XL) detection. To accommodate flexibility in XL methods and applications, while maintaining efficient data processing, the plug-in employs a peptide library reduction strategy via a pre-search of the tandem-MS data. We demonstrate that pre-scoring linear unmodified peptide tags using a probabilistic approach substantially reduces search space by requiring both crosslinked peptides to generate sparse data attributable to their linear forms. The method demonstrates highly sensitive crosslink peptide identification with a low false positive rate. Integration with a Haddock plug-in provides a resource that can combine multiple sources of data for protein modeling activities. We generated a structural model of porcine transferrin bound to TbpB, a membrane-bound receptor essential for iron acquisition in Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Using mutational data and crosslinking restraints, we confirm the mechanism by which TbpB recognizes the iron-loaded form of transferrin, and note the requirement for disparate sources of restraint data for accurate model construction. The software plugin is freely available at www.msstudio.ca.
- HLA peptides derived from tumor antigens induced by inhibition of DNA methylation for development of drug-facilitated immunotherapy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Cell Proteomics 2016 Jul 13.
Treatment of cancer cells with anti-cancer drugs often fails to achieve complete remission. Yet, such drug treatments may induce alteration in the tumor's gene expression patterns, including those of Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTA). The degradation products of such antigens can be presented as HLA peptides on the surface of the tumor cells and be developed into anti-cancer immunotherapeutics. For example, the DNA methyl transferase inhibitor, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (Decitabine) has limited anti-tumor efficacy, yet it induces the expression of many genes, including CTAs that are normally silenced in the healthy adult tissues. In this study, the presentation of many new HLA peptides derived from CTAs and induced by Decitabine was demonstrated in three human Glioblastoma cell lines. Such presentation of CTA-derived HLA peptides can be exploited for development of new treatment modalities, combining drug treatment with anti-CTA targeted immunotherapy. The Decitabine-induced HLA peptidomes include many CTAs that are not normally detected in healthy tissues or in cancer cells, unless treated with the drug. In addition, the study included large-scale analyses of the simultaneous effects of Decitabine on the transcriptomes, proteomes and HLA peptidomes of the human Glioblastoma cells. It demonstrates the poor correlations between these three levels of gene expression, both in their total levels and in their response to the drug. The proteomics and HLA peptidomics data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD003790 and the transcriptomics data are available via GEO with identifier GSE80137.