(Molecular and cellular neurosciences[TA])
- Cytoskeletal dynamics during in vitro neurogenesis of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Oct 15
- Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a novel tool to investigate the pathophysiology of poorly known diseases, in particular those affecting the nervous system, which has be...
Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a novel tool to investigate the pathophysiology of poorly known diseases, in particular those affecting the nervous system, which has been difficult to study for its lack of accessibility. In this emerging and promising field, recent iPSCs studies are mostly used as "proof-of-principle" experiments that are confirmatory of previous findings obtained from animal models and postmortem human studies; its promise as a discovery tool is just beginning to be realized. A recent number of studies point to the functional similarities between in vitro neurogenesis and in vivo neuronal development, suggesting that similar morphogenetic and patterning events direct neuronal differentiation. In this context, neuronal adhesion, cytoskeletal organization and cell metabolism emerge as an integrated and unexplored processes of human neurogenesis, mediated by the lack of data due to the difficult accessibility of the human neural tissue. These observations raise the necessity to understand which are the players controlling cytoskeletal reorganization and remodeling. In particular, we investigated human in vitro neurogenesis using iPSCs of healthy subjects to unveil the underpinnings of the cytoskeletal dynamics with the aim to shed light on the physiologic events controlling the development and the functionality of neuronal cells. We validate the iPSCs system to better understand the development of the human nervous system in order to set the bases for the future understanding of pathologies including developmental disorders (i.e. intellectual disability), epilepsy but also neurodegenerative disorders (i.e. Friedreich's Ataxia). We investigate the changes of the cytoskeletal components during the 30days of neuronal differentiation and we demonstrate that human neuronal differentiation requires a (time-dependent) reorganization of actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules; and that immature neurons present a finely regulated localization of Glu-, Tyr- and Acet-TUBULINS. This study advances our understanding on cytoskeletal dynamics with the hope to pave the way for future therapies that could be potentially able to target cytoskeletal based neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.
- Removal of aquaporin-4 from glial and ependymal membranes causes brain water accumulation. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Oct 14
- There is a constitutive production of water in brain. The efflux routes of this excess water remain to be identified. We used basal brain water content as a proxy for the capacity of water exit route...
There is a constitutive production of water in brain. The efflux routes of this excess water remain to be identified. We used basal brain water content as a proxy for the capacity of water exit routes. Basal brain water content was increased in mice with a complete loss of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channels (global Aqp4(-/-) mice), but not in mice with a selective removal of perivascular AQP4 or in a novel mouse line with a selective deletion of ependymal AQP4 (Foxj1-Cre-Aqp4(flox/flox) mice). Unique for the global Aqp4(-/-) mice is the loss of the AQP4 pool subjacent to the pial membrane. Our data suggest that water accumulates in brain when subpial AQP4 is missing, pointing to a critical role of this pool of water channels in brain water exit.
- Alpha-synuclein aggregates are excluded from calbindin-D28k-positive neurons in dementia with Lewy bodies and a unilateral rotenone mouse model. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Oct 13
- α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn ...
α-Synuclein (α-syn) aggregates (Lewy bodies) in dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) may be associated with disturbed calcium homeostasis and oxidative stress. We investigated the interplay between α-syn aggregation, expression of the calbindin-D28k (CB) neuronal calcium-buffering protein and oxidative stress, combining immunofluorescence double labelling and Western analysis, and examining DLB and normal human cases and a unilateral oxidative stress lesion model of α-syn disease (rotenone mouse). DLB cases showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells in affected brain regions compared to normal cases with Lewy bodies largely present in CB- neurons and virtually undetected in CB+ neurons. The unilateral rotenone-lesioned mouse model showed a greater proportion of CB+ cells and α-syn aggregates within the lesioned hemisphere than the control hemisphere, especially proximal to the lesion site, and α-syn inclusions occurred primarily in CB- cells and were almost completely absent in CB+ cells. Consistent with the immunofluorescence data, Western analysis showed the total CB level was 25% higher in lesioned compared to control hemisphere in aged animals that are more sensitive to lesion and 20% higher in aged compared to young mice in lesioned hemisphere, but not significantly different between young and aged in the control hemisphere. Taken together, the findings show α-syn aggregation is excluded from CB+ neurons, although the increased sensitivity of aged animals to lesion was not related to differential CB expression.
- NADPH oxidase isoform expression is temporally regulated and may contribute to microglial/macrophage polarization after spinal cord injury. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Oct 8
- Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in both acute and chronic inflammation, as a result of activation of microglia, invasion of macrophages and activation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme. The NOX enzy...
Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in both acute and chronic inflammation, as a result of activation of microglia, invasion of macrophages and activation of the NADPH oxidase (NOX) enzyme. The NOX enzyme is a primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is expressed by microglia and macrophages after SCI. These cells can assume either a pro- (M1) or anti-inflammatory (M2) polarization phenotype and contribute to tissue response to SCI. However, the contribution of NOX expression and ROS production to this polarization and vice versa is currently undefined. We therefore investigated the impact of SCI on NOX expression and microglial/macrophage polarization over time in a mouse model of contusion injury. Adult C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to a moderate T9 contusion SCI and tissue was assessed at acute, sub-acute and chronic time points for NOX isoform expression and co-expression with M1 and M2 microglia/macrophage polarization markers. Two NOX isoforms were increased after injury and were associated with both M1 and M2 markers, with an M1 preference for NOX2 acutely and NOX4 chronically. M2 cells were primarily found at acute time points only; the peak of NOX2 expression was associated with the decline in M2 polarization. In vitro, NOX2 inhibition shifted microglial polarization toward the M2 phenotype. These results now show that microglial/macrophage expression of NOX isoforms is independent of polarization state, but that NOX activity can influence subsequent polarization. These data can contribute to the therapeutic targeting of NOX as a therapy for SCI.
- Resveratrol treatment attenuates chemokine receptor expression in the BTBR T+tf/J mouse model of autism. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 29; 77:1-10
- Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive stereotypic behavior. Emerging evidence increasingly suggests that ...
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder categorized by qualitative impairments in social interaction, communication, and repetitive stereotypic behavior. Emerging evidence increasingly suggests that chemokine receptors have a pivotal role in the central nervous system and are involved in the pathogenesis of numerous neuroinflammatory diseases. Resveratrol is widely used to treat neurodegenerative diseases, but its effect on autism has not been investigated. We investigated the effect of resveratrol (20 and 40mg/kg) in the spleen and brain tissues of BTBR T+tf/J (BTBR) and C57BL/6J (B6) mice as well as on the C-C chemokine receptor (CCR) and C-X-C motif chemokine receptor (CXCR) (CCR3(+), CCR5(+), CCR7(+) and CCR9(+), CXCR3(+) and CXCR5(+)) in cluster of differentiation 4-positive (CD4(+)) T cells in the spleen. We also assessed the mRNA expression of CCR and CXCR receptors in the spleen and brain tissues. Our study revealed that the BTBR and B6 control mice showed different immune profiles. The BTBR mice showed characteristic higher levels of both CCR and CXCR production and expression in CD4(+) T cells than the B6 control mice did. Treatment of B6 and BTBR mice with resveratrol (20 and 40mg/kg) induced a substantial decrease in the CCR and CXCR production and expression in CD4(+) T cells compared with the respective untreated control groups. Moreover, resveratrol treatment decreased the mRNA expression levels of CCR and CXCR in the spleen and brain tissues. Resveratrol downregulated the chemokine receptor levels, which might provide unique targets for future therapies for autism.
- Mechanism for neurotropic action of vorinostat, a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 24; 77:11-20
- In this study we investigated the neurotrophic actions of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cel...
In this study we investigated the neurotrophic actions of vorinostat (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, SAHA), a class I and class II HDAC inhibitor, on the differentiation of Neuroscreen-1 (NS-1) cells. NS-1 cell is a subclone of the rat pheochromocytoma cell line (PC 12). Vorinostat independently induced neurite outgrowth in NS-1 cells. The NS-1 cells were further interrogated for the effects of vorinostat on intracellular neurotrophin signaling pathways, to understand its mechanism of neurotrophic action. Selective inhibitors of MEK1/2 (PD98059 and U0126), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) (LY294002) and tyrosine kinase A (TrkA) (GW441756) were employed for these interrogations. Our results suggest that neurite outgrowth mediated by both nerve growth factor (NGF), an intrinsic neurotrophin, and vorinostat were blocked by the inhibitors of MEK1/2 & PI3K. Vorinostat induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 occurs at 2h post treatment. Phosphorylation of ERK was abolished in presence of U0126, further confirming the role of ERK pathway in vorinostat-induced differentiation of NS-1 cells. Vorinostat-induced neurite outgrowth also involves the activation of upstream extracellular kinase TrkA, as both vorinostat mediated neurite outgrowth and activation of ERK were attenuated in presence of the TrkA inhibitor, GW441756. Vorinostat also stimulated hyperacetylation of α-tubulin and histones H3/H4 in NS-1 cells. The results suggest that vorinostat exerts a positive effect on the neuritogenesis via activation of MEK1/2 & PI3K pathways involving an upstream kinase, TrkA. Bioactive small molecules with neurotrophic and neuritogenic actions, like vorinostat identified in the present study, hold great promise as therapeutic agents for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neuronal injuries by virtue of their ability to stimulate neuritic outgrowth.
- Bcl-xL dependency coincides with the onset of neurogenesis in the developing mammalian spinal cord. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 22; 77:34-46
- The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly express...
The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse. Apoptotic cell death in the BKO embryo was initially detected at embryonic day 11 (E11) in the ventrolateral aspect of the spinal cord corresponding to the location of motor neurons. Apoptosis reached its peak at E13 having spread across the ventral and into the dorsal spinal cord. By E18, the wave of apoptosis had passed and only a few apoptotic cells were observed. The duration and direction of spread of apoptosis across the spinal cord is consistent with the spatial and temporal sequence of neuronal differentiation. Motor neurons, the first neurons to become post mitotic in the spinal cord, were also the first apoptotic cells. As neurogenesis spread across the spinal cord, later born neuronal populations such as Lim2(+) interneurons were also affected. The onset of apoptosis occurred in cells that had exited the cell cycle within the previous 24h and initiated neural differentiation as demonstrated by BrdU birthdating and βIII tubulin immunohistochemistry. This data demonstrates that spinal cord neurons become Bcl-xL dependent at an early post mitotic stage in developmental neurogenesis.
- Amyloid β precursor protein regulates neuron survival and maturation in the adult mouse brain. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 21; 77:21-33
- The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensivel...
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls. Short-term EdU administration revealed that the number of proliferating EdU(+) neural progenitor cells and the number of PSA-NCAM(+) neuroblasts produced in the SVZ and dentate gyrus were not affected by the life-long absence of APP. However, by labelling newborn cells with EdU and then following their fate over-time, we determined that ~48% more newly generated EdU(+) NeuN(+) neurons accumulated in the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb and ~57% more in the dentate gyrus of young adult APP knockout mice relative to C57bl6 controls. Furthermore, proportionally fewer of the adult-born olfactory bulb granule neurons were calretinin(+). To determine whether APP was having an effect on neuronal maturation, we administered tamoxifen to young adult Nestin-CreER(T2)::Rosa26-YFP and Nestin-CreER(T2)::Rosa26-YFP::APP-knockout mice, fluorescently labelling ~80% of newborn (EdU(+)) NeuN(+) dentate granule neurons formed between P75 and P105. Our analysis of their morphology revealed that neurons added to the hippocampus of APP knockout mice have shorter dendritic arbors and only half the number of branch points as those generated in C57bl6 mice. We conclude that APP reduces the survival of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, but that it does not influence all neuronal subtypes equally. Additionally, APP influences dentate granule neuron maturation, acting as a robust regulator of dendritic extension and arborisation.
- Regulated endosomal trafficking of Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates distinct cellular pools; implications for endocannabinoid signaling. [Journal Article]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016; 76:76-86
- Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrogra...
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker. This surface pool of DAGLα is dynamic, undergoing endocytosis and recycling back to the postsynaptic membrane. A similar cycling is seen in COS-7 cells with the internalized DAGLα initially transported to EEA1 and Rab5-positive early endosomes via a clathrin-independent pathway before being transported back to the cell surface. The internalized DAGLα is present on reticular structures that co-localize with microtubules. Importantly, DAGLα cycling is a regulated process as inhibiting PKC results in a significant reduction in endocytosis. This is the first description of DAGLα cycling between the cell surface and an intracellular endosomal compartment in a manner that can regulate the level of the enzyme at the cell surface.
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- SynCAMs - From axon guidance to neurodevelopmental disorders. [Review]
- MCMol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 1
- Many cell adhesion molecules are located at synapses but only few of them can be considered synaptic cell adhesion molecules in the strict sense. Besides the Neurexins and Neuroligins, the LRRTMs (le...
Many cell adhesion molecules are located at synapses but only few of them can be considered synaptic cell adhesion molecules in the strict sense. Besides the Neurexins and Neuroligins, the LRRTMs (leucine rich repeat transmembrane proteins) and the SynCAMs/CADMs can induce synapse formation when expressed in non-neuronal cells and therefore are true synaptic cell adhesion molecules. SynCAMs (synaptic cell adhesion molecules) are a subfamily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. As suggested by their name, they were first identified as cell adhesion molecules at the synapse which were sufficient to trigger synapse formation. They also contribute to myelination by mediating axon-glia cell contacts. More recently, their role in earlier stages of neural circuit formation was demonstrated, as they also guide axons both in the peripheral and in the central nervous system. Mutations in SynCAM genes were found in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The diverse functions of SynCAMs during development suggest that neurodevelopmental disorders are not only due to defects in synaptic plasticity. Rather, early steps of neural circuit formation are likely to contribute.