(Molecular and cellular neurosciences[TA]) articles in PubMed
- Bcl-xL dependency coincides with the onset of neurogenesis in the developing mammalian spinal cord. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 22MC
- The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly express...
The bcl-2 family of survival and death promoting proteins play a key role in regulating cell numbers during nervous system development. Bcl-xL, an anti-apoptotic bcl-2 family member is highly expressed in the developing nervous system. However; the early embryonic lethality of the bcl-x germline null mouse precluded an investigation into its role in nervous system development. To identify the role of bcl-x in spinal cord neurogenesis, we generated a central nervous system-specific bcl-x conditional knockout (BKO) mouse. Apoptotic cell death in the BKO embryo was initially detected at embryonic day 11 (E11) in the ventrolateral aspect of the spinal cord corresponding to the location of motor neurons. Apoptosis reached its peak at E13 having spread across the ventral and into the dorsal spinal cord. By E18, the wave of apoptosis had passed and only a few apoptotic cells were observed. The duration and direction of spread of apoptosis across the spinal cord is consistent with the spatial and temporal sequence of neuronal differentiation. Motor neurons, the first neurons to become post mitotic in the spinal cord, were also the first apoptotic cells. As neurogenesis spread across the spinal cord, later born neuronal populations such as Lim2(+) interneurons were also affected. The onset of apoptosis occurred in cells that had exited the cell cycle within the previous 24h and initiated neural differentiation as demonstrated by BrdU birthdating and βIII tubulin immunohistochemistry. This data demonstrates that spinal cord neurons become Bcl-xL dependent at an early post mitotic stage in developmental neurogenesis.
- Amyloid β precursor protein regulates neuron survival and maturation in the adult mouse brain. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 21MC
- The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensivel...
The amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) is a transmembrane protein that is widely expressed within the central nervous system (CNS). While the pathogenic dysfunction of this protein has been extensively studied in the context of Alzheimer's disease, its normal function is poorly understood, and reports have often appeared contradictory. In this study we have examined the role of APP in regulating neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain by comparing neural stem cell proliferation, as well as new neuron number and morphology between APP knockout mice and C57bl6 controls. Short-term EdU administration revealed that the number of proliferating EdU(+) neural progenitor cells and the number of PSA-NCAM(+) neuroblasts produced in the SVZ and dentate gyrus were not affected by the life-long absence of APP. However, by labelling newborn cells with EdU and then following their fate over-time, we determined that ~48% more newly generated EdU(+) NeuN(+) neurons accumulated in the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb and ~57% more in the dentate gyrus of young adult APP knockout mice relative to C57bl6 controls. Furthermore, proportionally fewer of the adult-born olfactory bulb granule neurons were calretinin(+). To determine whether APP was having an effect on neuronal maturation, we administered tamoxifen to young adult Nestin-CreER(T2)::Rosa26-YFP and Nestin-CreER(T2)::Rosa26-YFP::APP-knockout mice, fluorescently labelling ~80% of newborn (EdU(+)) NeuN(+) dentate granule neurons formed between P75 and P105. Our analysis of their morphology revealed that neurons added to the hippocampus of APP knockout mice have shorter dendritic arbors and only half the number of branch points as those generated in C57bl6 mice. We conclude that APP reduces the survival of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb and hippocampus, but that it does not influence all neuronal subtypes equally. Additionally, APP influences dentate granule neuron maturation, acting as a robust regulator of dendritic extension and arborisation.
- Regulated endosomal trafficking of Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates distinct cellular pools; implications for endocannabinoid signaling. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 3; 76:76-86MC
- Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrogra...
Diacylglycerol lipase alpha (DAGLα) generates the endocannabinoid (eCB) 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells and serves as a retrograde signaling lipid at synapses. Nothing is known about the dynamics of DAGLα expression in cells and this is important as it will govern where 2-AG can be made and released. We have developed a new construct to label DAGLα at the surface of live cells and follow its trafficking. In hippocampal neurons a cell surface pool of DAGLα co-localizes with Homer, a postsynaptic density marker. This surface pool of DAGLα is dynamic, undergoing endocytosis and recycling back to the postsynaptic membrane. A similar cycling is seen in COS-7 cells with the internalized DAGLα initially transported to EEA1 and Rab5-positive early endosomes via a clathrin-independent pathway before being transported back to the cell surface. The internalized DAGLα is present on reticular structures that co-localize with microtubules. Importantly, DAGLα cycling is a regulated process as inhibiting PKC results in a significant reduction in endocytosis. This is the first description of DAGLα cycling between the cell surface and an intracellular endosomal compartment in a manner that can regulate the level of the enzyme at the cell surface.
- SynCAMs - From axon guidance to neurodevelopmental disorders. [Review]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Sep 1MC
- Many cell adhesion molecules are located at synapses but only few of them can be considered synaptic cell adhesion molecules in the strict sense. Besides the Neurexins and Neuroligins, the LRRTMs (le...
Many cell adhesion molecules are located at synapses but only few of them can be considered synaptic cell adhesion molecules in the strict sense. Besides the Neurexins and Neuroligins, the LRRTMs (leucine rich repeat transmembrane proteins) and the SynCAMs/CADMs can induce synapse formation when expressed in non-neuronal cells and therefore are true synaptic cell adhesion molecules. SynCAMs (synaptic cell adhesion molecules) are a subfamily of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell adhesion molecules. As suggested by their name, they were first identified as cell adhesion molecules at the synapse which were sufficient to trigger synapse formation. They also contribute to myelination by mediating axon-glia cell contacts. More recently, their role in earlier stages of neural circuit formation was demonstrated, as they also guide axons both in the peripheral and in the central nervous system. Mutations in SynCAM genes were found in patients diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The diverse functions of SynCAMs during development suggest that neurodevelopmental disorders are not only due to defects in synaptic plasticity. Rather, early steps of neural circuit formation are likely to contribute.
- Mitochondrial dynamics following global cerebral ischemia. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 25; 76:68-75MC
- Global brain ischemia/reperfusion induces neuronal damage in vulnerable brain regions, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neuronal death. Induction of neuronal death is mediated by r...
Global brain ischemia/reperfusion induces neuronal damage in vulnerable brain regions, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and subsequent neuronal death. Induction of neuronal death is mediated by release of cytochrome c (cyt c) from the mitochondria though a well-characterized increase in outer mitochondrial membrane permeability. However, for cyt c to be released it is first necessary for cyt c to be liberated from the cristae junctions which are gated by Opa1 oligomers. Opa1 has two known functions: maintenance of the cristae junction and mitochondrial fusion. These roles suggest that Opa1 could play a central role in both controlling cyt c release and mitochondrial fusion/fission processes during ischemia/reperfusion. To investigate this concept, we first utilized in vitro real-time imaging to visualize dynamic changes in mitochondria. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) of neurons grown in culture induced a dual-phase mitochondrial fragmentation profile: (i) fragmentation during OGD with no apoptosis activation, followed by fusion of mitochondrial networks after reoxygenation and a (ii) subsequent extensive fragmentation and apoptosis activation that preceded cell death. We next evaluated changes in mitochondrial dynamic state during reperfusion in a rat model of global brain ischemia. Evaluation of mitochondrial morphology with confocal and electron microscopy revealed a similar induction of fragmentation following global brain ischemia. Mitochondrial fragmentation aligned temporally with specific apoptotic events, including cyt c release, caspase 3/7 activation, and interestingly, release of the fusion protein Opa1. Moreover, we uncovered evidence of loss of Opa1 complexes during the progression of reperfusion, and electron microscopy micrographs revealed a loss of cristae architecture following global brain ischemia. These data provide novel evidence implicating a temporal connection between Opa1 alterations and dysfunctional mitochondrial dynamics following global brain ischemia.
- Transferrin receptor expression and role in transendothelial transport of transferrin in cultured brain endothelial monolayers. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24; 76:59-67MC
- Receptor-mediated transcytosis of the transferrin receptor has been suggested as a potential transport system to deliver therapeutic molecules into the brain. Recent studies have however shown that t...
Receptor-mediated transcytosis of the transferrin receptor has been suggested as a potential transport system to deliver therapeutic molecules into the brain. Recent studies have however shown that therapeutic antibodies, which have been reported to cross the brain endothelium, reach greater brain exposure when the affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor is lowered. The lower affinity of the antibodies to the transferrin receptor facilitates the dissociation from the receptor within the endosomal compartments, which may indicate that the receptor itself does not necessarily move across the endothelial cells by transcytosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate transferrin receptor expression and role in transendothelial transferrin transport in cultured bovine brain endothelial cell monolayers. Transferrin receptor mRNA and protein levels were investigated in endothelial mono-cultures and co-cultures with astrocytes, as well as in freshly isolated brain capillaries using qPCR, immunocytochemistry and Western blotting. Transendothelial transport and luminal association of holo-transferrin was investigated using [(125)I]holo-transferrin or [(59)Fe]-transferrin. Transferrin receptor mRNA expression in all cell culture configurations was lower than in freshly isolated capillaries, but the expression slightly increased during six days of culture. The mRNA expression levels were similar in mono-cultures and co-cultures. Immunostaining demonstrated comparable transferrin receptor localization patterns in mono-cultures and co-cultures. The endothelial cells demonstrated an up-regulation of transferrin receptor mRNA after treatment with the iron chelator deferoxamine. The association of [(125)I]holo-transferrin and [(59)Fe]-transferrin to the endothelial cells was inhibited by an excess of unlabeled holo-transferrin, indicating receptor mediated association. However, over time the cell associated [(59)Fe]-label exceeded that of [(125)I]holo-transferrin, which could indicate release of iron in the endothelial cells and receptor recycling. Luminal-to-abluminal transport of [(125)I]holo-transferrin across endothelial cell monolayers was low and not inhibited by unlabeled holo-transferrin. This indicated that transendothelial transferrin transport was independent of transferrin receptor-mediated transcytosis.
- Presynaptic CamKII regulates activity-dependent axon terminal growth. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24; 76:33-41MC
- Spaced synaptic depolarization induces rapid axon terminal growth and the formation of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we identify a novel presynapti...
Spaced synaptic depolarization induces rapid axon terminal growth and the formation of new synaptic boutons at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Here, we identify a novel presynaptic function for the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II (CamKII) protein in the control of activity-dependent synaptic growth. Consistent with this function, we find that both total and phosphorylated CamKII (p-CamKII) are enriched in axon terminals. Interestingly, p-CamKII appears to be enriched at the presynaptic axon terminal membrane. Moreover, levels of total CamKII protein within presynaptic boutons globally increase within one hour following stimulation. These effects correlate with the activity-dependent formation of new presynaptic boutons. The increase in presynaptic CamKII levels is inhibited by treatment with cyclohexamide suggesting a protein-synthesis dependent mechanism. We have previously found that acute spaced stimulation rapidly downregulates levels of neuronal microRNAs (miRNAs) that are required for the control of activity-dependent axon terminal growth at this synapse. The rapid activity-dependent accumulation of CamKII protein within axon terminals is inhibited by overexpression of activity-regulated miR-289 in motor neurons. Experiments in vitro using a CamKII translational reporter show that miR-289 can directly repress the translation of CamKII via a sequence motif found within the CamKII 3' untranslated region (UTR). Collectively, our studies support the idea that presynaptic CamKII acts downstream of synaptic stimulation and the miRNA pathway to control rapid activity-dependent changes in synapse structure.
- KCa3.1 constitutes a pharmacological target for astrogliosis associated with Alzheimer's disease. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 24; 76:21-32MC
- Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a progression from decline of episodic memory to a global impairment of cognitive function. Astrogliosis is a hall...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is characterized by a progression from decline of episodic memory to a global impairment of cognitive function. Astrogliosis is a hallmark feature of AD, and reactive gliosis has been considered as an important target for intervention in various neurological disorders. We previously found in astrocyte cultures that the expression of the intermediate conductance calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 was increased in reactive astrocytes induced by TGF-β, while pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of KCa3.1 attenuated astrogliosis. In this study, we sought to suppress reactive gliosis in the context of AD by inhibiting KCa3.1 and evaluate its effects on the cognitive impairment using murine animal models such as the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) model that exhibits some AD-like symptoms. We found KCa3.1 expression was increased in reactive astrocytes as well as neurons in the brains of both SAMP8 mice and Alzheimer's disease patients. Blockade of KCa3.1 with the selective inhibitor TRAM-34 in SAMP8 mice resulted in a decrease in astrogliosis as well as microglia activation, and moreover an attenuation of memory deficits. Using KCa3.1 knockout mice, we further confirmed that deletion of KCa3.1 reduced the activation of astrocytes and microglia, and rescued the memory loss induced by intrahippocampal Aβ1-42 peptide injection. We also found in astrocyte cultures that blockade of KCa3.1 or deletion of KCa3.1 suppressed Aβ oligomer-induced astrogliosis. Our data suggest that KCa3.1 inhibition might represent a promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment.
- The activities of LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) compartmentalize into distinct plasma membrane microdomains. [Journal Article]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 23; 76:42-51MC
- LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) is an endocytic receptor for diverse ligands. In neurons and neuron-like cells, ligand-binding to LRP1 initiates cell-signaling. Herein, we show that in PC12 and...
LDL Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1) is an endocytic receptor for diverse ligands. In neurons and neuron-like cells, ligand-binding to LRP1 initiates cell-signaling. Herein, we show that in PC12 and N2a neuron-like cells, LRP1 distributes into lipid rafts and non-raft plasma membrane fractions. When lipid rafts were disrupted, using methyl-β-cyclodextrin or fumonisin B1, activation of Src family kinases and ERK1/2 by the LRP1 ligands, tissue-type plasminogen activator and activated α2-macroglobulin, was blocked. Biological consequences of activated LRP1 signaling, including neurite outgrowth and cell growth, also were blocked. The effects of lipid raft disruption on ERK1/2 activation and neurite outgrowth, in response to LRP1 ligands, were reproduced in experiments with cerebellar granule neurons in primary culture. Because the reagents used to disrupt lipid rafts may have effects on the composition of the plasma membrane outside lipid rafts, we studied the effects of these reagents on LRP1 activities unrelated to cell-signaling. Lipid raft disruption did not affect the total ligand binding capacity of LRP1, the affinity of LRP1 for its ligands, or its endocytic activity. These results demonstrate that well described activities of LRP1 require localization of this receptor to distinct plasma membrane microdomains.
New Search Next
- The role of cell adhesion molecules in brain wiring and neuropsychiatric disorders. [Review]
- Mol Cell Neurosci 2016 Aug 22MC
- Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the nervous system have long been a research focus, but many mice lacking CAMs show very subtle phenotypes, giving an impression that CAMs may not be major players i...
Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in the nervous system have long been a research focus, but many mice lacking CAMs show very subtle phenotypes, giving an impression that CAMs may not be major players in constructing the nervous system. However, recent human genetic studies suggest CAM involvement in many neuropsychiatric disorders, implicating that they must have significant functions in nervous system development, namely in circuitry formation. As CAMs can provide specificity through their molecular interactions, this review summarizes possible mechanisms on how alterations of CAMs can result in neuropsychiatric disorders through circuitry modification.