Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
Molecular pharmaceutics [journal]
- Shape-Controlled Paclitaxel Nanoparticles with Multiple Morphologies: Rod-Shaped, Worm-Like, Spherical, and Fingerprint-Like. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 8.
Although many nanocarriers have been developed to encapsulate paclitaxel (PTX), the drug loading and circulation time in vivo always are not ideal because of its rigid "brickdust" molecular structure. People usually concentrate their attention on the spherical nanocarriers, here paclitaxel nanoparticles with different geometries were established through the chemical modification of PTX, nanoprecipitation, and core-matched cargos. Previously we have developed rod-shape paclitaxel nanocrystals using block copolymer, pluronic F127. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of PTX nanocrystals is very poor. However, when PTX was replaced by its prodrug, the geometry of the nanoparticles changed from rod-shaped to worm-like. The worm-like nanoparticles can be further changed to spherical nanoparticles using the nanoprecipitation method, and changed to fingerprint-like nanoparticles upon the addition of the core-matched PTX. The nanoparticles with nonspherical morphologies, including worm-like nanoparticles and fingerprint-like nanoparticles, offer significant advantages in regards to key PK parameters in vivo. More important, in this report the application of the core-matching technology in creating a core-matched environment capable of controlling the in vivo PK of paclitaxel was demonstrated, and it revealed a novel technique platform to construct nanoparticles and improve the poor PK profiles of the drugs.
- Impact of polymers on the crystallization and phase transition kinetics of amorphous nifedipine during dissolution in aqueous media. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 3.
The commercial and clinical success of amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) in overcoming the low bioavailability of poorly soluble molecules has generated momentum among pharmaceutical scientists to advance the fundamental understanding of these complex systems. A major limitation of these formulations stems from the propensity of amorphous solids to crystallize upon exposure to aqueous media. This study was specifically focused on developing analytical techniques to evaluate the impact of polymers on the crystallization behavior during dissolution, which is critical to design effective amorphous formulations. Herein, the crystallization and polymorphic conversions of a model compound, nifedipine, were explored in the absence and presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and HPMC-acetate succinate (HPMC-AS). A combination of analytical approaches including Raman spectroscopy, polarized light microscopy and chemometric techniques in particular multivariate curve resolution (MCR) were used to evaluate the kinetics of crystallization, polymorphic transitions as well as to identify the primary route of crystallization i.e. whether crystallization took place in the dissolving solid matrix or from the supersaturated solutions generated during dissolution. Pure amorphous nifedipine, when exposed to aqueous media, was found to crystallize rapidly from the amorphous matrix, even when polymers were present in the dissolution medium. Matrix crystallization was avoided when amorphous solid dispersions where prepared, however, crystallization from the solution phase was rapid. MCR was found to be an excellent data processing technique to deconvolute the complex phase transition behavior of nifedipine.
- Pharmaceutical co-crystals of diflunisal and diclofenac with theophylline. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 3.
Pharmaceutical co-crystals of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diflunisal (DIF) and diclofenac (DIC) with theophylline (THP) were obtained and their crystal structures were determined. In both of the crystal structures, molecules form a hydrogen bonded supramolecular unit consisting of a centrosymmetric dimer of THP and two molecules of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Crystal lattice energy calculations showed that the packing energy gain of the [DIC+THP] co-crystal is derived manly from the dispersion energy, which dominates the structures of the co-crystals. The enthalpies of co-crystal formation were estimated by solution calorimetry and their thermal stability was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The co-crystals showed an enhancement of apparent solubility compared to the corresponding pure APIs, while the intrinsic dissolution rates are comparable. Both co-crystals demonstrated physical stability upon storing at different relative humidity.
- Cyclic Peptide-Selenium Nanoparticles as Drug Transporters. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 3.
A cyclic peptide composed of five tryptophan, four arginine, and one cysteine [W5R4C] was synthesized. The peptide was evaluated for generating cyclic peptide-capped selenium nanoparticles (CP-SeNPs) in situ. A physical mixing of the cyclic peptide with SeO3-2 solution in water generated [W5R4C]-SeNPs via the combination of reducing and capping `properties of amino acids in the peptide structure. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) images showed that [W5R4C]-SeNPs were in the range size of 110-150 nm. Flow cytometry data revealed that a fluorescence-labeled phosphopeptide (F'-PEpYLGLD, where F' = fluorescein) and an anticancer drug (F'-dasatinib) exhibited approximately 25- and 9-times higher cellular uptake in the presence of [W5R4C]-SeNPs than those of F'-PEpYLGLD and dasatinib alone in human leukemia adenocarcinoma (CCRF-CEM) cells after 2 h of incubation, respectively. Confocal microscopy also exhibited higher cellular delivery of F'-PEpYLGLD and F'-dasatinib in the presence of [W5R4C]-SeNPs compared to the parent fluorescence-labeled drug alone in human ovarian adenocarcinoma (SK-OV-3) cells after 2 h of incubation at 37 ºC. The antiproliferative activities of several anticancer drugs doxorubicin, gemcitabine, clofarabine, etoposide, camptothecin, irinotecan, epirubicin, fludarabine, dasatinib, and paclitaxel was improved in the presence of [W5R4C]-SeNPs (50 μM) by 38%, 49%, 36%, 36%, 31%, 30%, 30%, 28%, 24%, and 17%, respectively, after 48 h incubation in SK-OV-3 cells. The results indicate that CP-SeNPs can be potentially used as nano-sized delivery tools for negatively charged biomolecules and anticancer drugs.
- The Effects of Surface Displayed Targeting Ligand GE11 on Liposome Distribution and Extravasation in Tumor. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 2.
Targeting ligands displayed on liposome surface had been used to mediate specific interactions and drug delivery to target cells. However, they also affect liposome distribution in vivo, as well as the tissue extravasation processes after IV injection. In this study, we incorporated an EGFR targeting peptide GE11 on liposome surfaces in addition to PEG at different densities, and evaluated their targeting properties and anti-tumor effects. We found that the densities of surface ligand and PEG were critical to target cell binding in vitro as well as pharmacokinetic profiles in vivo. The inclusion of GE11-PEG-DSPE and PEG-DSPE at 2% and 4% mol ratios in the liposome formulation mediated a rapid accumulation of liposomes within one hour after IV injection in the tumor tissues surrounding neovascular structures. This is in addition to the EPR effect which was most prominently described for surface PEG modified liposomes. Therefore, despite the fact that the distribution of liposomes into interior tumor tissues was still limited by diffusion, GE11 targeted doxorubicin loaded liposomes showed significantly better anti-tumor activity in tumor bearing mice as a result of the fast active-targeting efficiency. We anticipate these understandings can benefit further optimization of targeted drug delivery systems for improving efficacy in vivo.
- Structure-Based Prediction of Drug Distribution Across the Headgroup and Core Strata of a Phospholipid Bilayer Using Surrogate Phases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 1.
Solvation of drugs in the core (C) and headgroup (H) strata of phospholipid bilayers affects their physiological transport rates and accumulation. These characteristics, especially a complete drug distribution profile across the bilayer strata, are tedious to obtain experimentally, to the point that even simplified preferred locations are only available for a few dozen compounds. Recently, we showed that the partition coefficient (P) values in the system of hydrated diacetyl phosphatidylcholine (DAcPC) and n hexadecane (C16), as surrogates of the H- and C-strata of the bilayer composed of the most abundant mammalian phospholipid, PC, agree well with the preferred bilayer location of compounds. High P values are typical for lipophiles accumulating in the core, and low P values are characteristic of cephalophiles preferring the headgroups. This simple pattern does not hold for most compounds, which usually have more even distribution and may also accumulate at the H/C interface. To model complete distribution, the correlates of solvation energies are needed for each drug state in the bilayer: (1) for the H-stratum it is the DAcPC/W P value, calculated as the ratio of the C16/W and C16/DAcPC (W for water) P values; (2) for the C-stratum, the C16/W P value; (3) for the H/C interface, the P values for all plausible molecular poses are characterized using the fragment DAcPC/W and C16/W solvation parameters for the parts of the molecule embedded in the H- and C-strata, respectively. The correlates, each scaled by two Collander coefficients, were used in a nonlinear, mass-balance based model of intrabilayer distribution, which was applied to the easily measurable overall P values of compounds in the DMPC (M = myristoyl) bilayers and monolayers as the dependent variables. The calibrated model for 107 neutral compounds explains 94 % of experimental variance, achieves similar cross-validation levels, and agrees well with the nontrivial, experimentally determined bilayer locations for 27 compounds. The resulting structure-based prediction system for intrabilayer distribution will facilitate more realistic modeling of passive transport and drug interactions with those integral membrane proteins, which have the binding sites located in the bilayer, such as some enzymes, influx and efflux transporters, and receptors. If only overall bilayer accumulation is of interest, the 1-octanol/W P values suffice to model the studied set.
- Adjuvant Cationic Liposomes Presenting MPL and IL-12 Induce Cell Death, Suppress Tumor Growth, and Alter the Cellular Phenotype of Tumors in a Murine Model of Breast Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 12.
Dendritic cells (DC) process and present antigens to T lymphocytes, inducing potent immune responses when encountered in association with activating signals, such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Using the 4T1 murine model of breast cancer, cationic liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and interleukin (IL)-12 were administered by intratumoral injection. Combination multivalent presentation of the Toll-like receptor-4 ligand MPL and cytotoxic 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trmethylammonium-propane lipids induced cell death, decreased cellular proliferation, and increased serum levels of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. The addition of recombinant IL-12 further suppressed tumor growth and increased expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, and interferon-γ. IL-12 also increased the percentage of cytolytic T cells, DC, and F4/80(+) macrophages in the tumor. While single agent therapy elevated levels of nitric oxide synthase 3-fold above basal levels in the tumor, combination therapy with MPL cationic liposomes and IL-12 stimulated a 7-fold increase, supporting the observed cell cycle arrest (loss of Ki-67 expression) and apoptosis (TUNEL positive). In mice bearing dual tumors, the growth of distal, untreated tumors mirrored that of liposome-treated tumors, supporting the presence of a systemic immune response.
- Designing Hybrid Onconase Nanocarriers for Mesothelioma Therapy: A Taguchi Orthogonal Array and Multivariate Component Driven Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 1.
Onconase (ONC) is a member of a ribonuclease superfamily that has cytostatic activity against malignant mesothelioma (MM). The objective of this investigation was to develop bovine serum albumin (BSA)-chitosan based hybrid nanoformulations for the efficient delivery of ONC to MM while minimizing the exposure to normal tissues. Taguchi Orthogonal Array L9 type design was used to formulate ONC loaded BSA nanocarriers (ONC-ANC) with a mean particle size of 15.78 ± 0.24 nm (ζ= -21.89 ± 0.11 mV). The ONC-ANC surface was hybridized using varying chitosan concentrations ranging between 0.100-0.175 % w/v to form various ONC loaded hybrid nanocarriers (ONC-HNC). The obtained data set was analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regressions (PCR) to decode the effects of investigated design variables. PCA showed positive correlations between investigated design variables like BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol with particle size and entrapment efficiency (EE) of formulated nanocarriers. PCR showed that the particle size depends on BSA, ethanol dilution, and total ethanol content, while EE was only influenced by BSA content. Further analysis of chitosan and TPP effects used for coating of ONC-ANC by PCR confirmed their positive impacts on the particle size, zeta potential, and prolongation of ONC release compared to uncoated ONC-ANC. PCR analysis of preliminary stability studies showed increase in the particle size and zeta potential at lower pH. However, particle size, zeta potential, and EE of developed HNC were below 63 nm, 31 mV, and 96 % respectively, indicating their stability under subjected buffer conditions. Out of the developed formulations, HNC showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability with lower IC50 against human MM-REN cells compared to ONC and ONC-ANC. This might be attributed to the better cell uptake of HNC, which was confirmed in the cell uptake fluorescence studies. These studies indicated that a developed nanotherapeutic approach might aid in reducing the therapeutic dose of ONC, minimizing adverse effects by limiting the exposure of ONC to normal tissues, and help in the development of new therapeutic forms and routes of administration.
- Folate receptor-β in activated macrophages: Ligand binding and receptor recycling kinetics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Aug 28.
Activated macrophages overexpress a receptor for the vitamin folic acid termed the folate receptor β (FR-β). Because conjugation of folate to low molecular weight drugs, genes, liposomes, nanoparticles, and imaging agents has minor effects on FR binding, the vitamin can be exploited to target both therapeutic and imaging agents to activated macrophages without promoting their uptake by other healthy cells. In this paper we characterize the binding, internalization and recycling kinetics of FR-β on activated macrophages in inflamed tissues of rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Our results demonstrate that saturation of macrophage FR is achieved at injection doses of ~150-300 nmol/kg, with more rapidly perfused tissues saturating at lower doses than inflamed appendages. After binding, FR-β internalizes and recycles back to the cell surface every ~10-20 minutes, providing empty receptors for additional folate conjugate uptake. Because the half-life of low molecular weight folate conjugates in the vasculature is usually <1 hour, these data suggest that targeting of folate conjugates to activated macrophages in vivo can be maximized by frequent dosing at conjugate concentrations that barely saturate FR (~150 nmol/kg), thereby minimizing nonspecific binding to receptor-negative tissues and maximizing the probability that unoccupied cell surface receptors will be exposed to folate-drug conjugate.
- Effect of Surface Functionality of Silica Nanoparticles on Cellular Uptake and Cytotoxicity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Pharm 2014 Sep 9.
Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MCM-41) with different surface chemistry were used as carrier system to study its influence on drug delivery and anticancer activity of curcumin (CUR). CUR was encapsulated in pristine MCM-41 (hydrophilic and negatively charged), amino functionalized MCM-41 (MCM-41-NH2 which is hydrophilic and positively charged), and methyl functionalized MCM-41 (MCM-41-CH3 which is hydrophobic and negatively charged) and evaluated for in vitro release and cell cytotoxicity in human squamous cell carcinoma cell line (SCC25). Various techniques were employed to evaluate the performance of these materials on cellular uptake and anticancer activity in the SCC25 cell line. Both positively and negatively charged surfaces demonstrated enhanced drug release and anticancer activity compared to pure CUR. Positively charged nanoparticles showed higher cell uptake compared to negatively charged nanoparticles owing to its electrostatic interaction with cells. However, hydrophobic surface modified nanoparticles (MCM-41-CH3) showed no improvement in drug release and anticancer activity due to its poor wetting effect. Cell cycle analysis and cell apoptosis studies revealed different pathway mechanisms followed by the positively and negatively charged nanoparticles but exhibiting similar anticancer activity in SCC25 cells.