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- Microsporum fulvum, an Ignored Pathogenic Dermatophyte: A New Clinical Isolation from Iran. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 23.
Misidentifying with Microsporum gypseum has for a long time been accounted for less prevalence of the geophilic species, Microsporum fulvum in human dermatophytosis. We describe a new case of infection with the species in an Iranian young man. Direct examination of skin scrapings revealed a tinea corporis, and morphological study of the recovered isolate from the culture resulted in the identification of M. gypseum. However, PCR amplification of ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region and subsequent ITS-RFLP and sequencing were indicative of M. fulvum as the true causative agent. To recognize M. fulvum in human infections and to validate the morphologically distinguished isolates of M. gypseum, the genetic-based identification is strongly recommended.
- The Predominance of Alternatively Activated Macrophages Following Challenge with Cell Wall Peptide-Polysaccharide After Prior Infection with Sporothrix schenckii. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 18.
Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This disease generally occurs within the skin and subcutaneous tissues, causing lesions that can spread through adjacent lymphatic vessels and sometimes leading to systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages are crucial for proper immune responses against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, macrophages can play different roles in response to different microorganisms and forms of activation, and they can be divided into "classic" or "alternatively" activated populations, as also known as M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 cells can lead to tissue injury and contribute to pathogenesis, whereas M2 cells promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in a sporotrichosis model. Toward this end, we performed phenotyping of peritoneal exudate cells and evaluated the concomitant production of several immunomediators, including IL-12, IL-10, TGF-β, nitric oxide, and arginase-I activity, which were stimulated ex vivo with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide. Our results showed the predominance of the M2 macrophage population, indicated by peaks of arginase-I activity as well as IL-10 and TGF-β production during the 6th and 8th weeks after infection. These results were consistent with cellular phenotyping that revealed increases in CD206-positive cells over this period. This is the first report of the participation of M2 macrophages in sporotrichosis infections.
- Perforation of the Nasal Septum as the First Sign of Histoplasmosis Associated with AIDS and Review of Published Literature. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 10.
Disseminated histoplasmosis in South America is associated with AIDS in 70-90 % of cases. It is visceral and cutaneous, compromising the oral, pharynx, and laryngeal mucous membranes. The involvement of the nasal mucosa is unusual. Two patients with perforation of the nasal septum as the only sign of their disease were clinically and histopathologically diagnosed as leishmaniasis. The revision of the biopsies and the culture of nasal discharge secretions showed that the pathogens seen were not amastigotes but Histoplasma capsulatum. Other mycotic lesions were not detected, nor there was history of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The leishmanin skin test, available only for the male patient, was negative. The PCR and immunofluorescence antibody titers for Leishmania were negative in both patients. They were HIV positive; in the male, his CD4+ T cell count was 60/mm(3) and in the female 133/mm(3). The nasal ulcer was the only manifestation of histoplasmosis and the first of AIDS in both patients. The male patient recovered with amphotericin B and itraconazole treatment. The female has improved with itraconazole. Both patients received antiretroviral treatment. Nasal mucous membrane ulcers should include histoplasmosis among the differential diagnosis. In conclusion, two patients had perforation of their nasal septum as the only manifestation of histoplasmosis, a diagnosis confirmed by nasal mucosa biopsy and by culture of H. capsulatum, findings which demonstrated that both patients had AIDS.
- Differential Adherence and Expression of Virulence Traits by Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis in Mono- and Dual-Species Cultures in Artificial Saliva. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 10.
AIMS:To evaluate specific virulence factors of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clinical oral isolates in mono- and dual-species culture in the presence of artificial saliva.
METHODS AND RESULTS:Two of the strains used in this study were isolated from co-infection (C. albicans AM and C. parapsilosis AM2), and the other two were isolated from single infection (C. albicans AC and C. parapsilosis AD). The number of adhered yeast cells was measured and their enzymatic activity was determined simultaneously. In mono-species culture, C. parapsilosis strains adhered to a higher extent to the surface in comparison with the C. albicans strains. In dual-species culture, the C. parapsilosis strains adhered more in the presence of C. albicans AM. Interestingly, C. albicans AM and C. parapsilosis AD adhered to a higher extent when compared with all other co-cultures. In dual-species culture, the enzymatic activity of C. parapsilosis strains in the presence of C. albicans AC was higher than in the presence of C. albicans AM.
CONCLUSIONS:The virulence factors of C. albicans and C. parapsilosis differ from strain to strain and are influenced by the presence of other species in culture. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: To understand the expression of virulence factors in Candida dual-species systems.
- A Case of Relapsed Chromoblastomycosis Due to Fonsecaea monophora: Antifungal Susceptibility and Phylogenetic Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 4.
Chromoblastomycosis is a chronic cutaneous and subcutaneous mycosis. The management of this infection continues to be challenging because there is no consensus on the therapeutic regimen. We report here a case of a 69-year-old male patient with cauliflower-like lesions on his left leg and foot. He had already been treated with itraconazole at a dose of 200 mg/day for 5 months, with mycological cure for all the affected areas. However, the lesions relapsed at both sites, and treatment with itraconazole was resumed at the dose previously used. Initially, direct mycological examination, cultural, and microculture slide observation were performed. Afterward, sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S rDNA-ITS2 region of the fungal DNA and evaluation of its susceptibility to antifungal agents alone and in combination were performed. In direct mycological examination, the presence of sclerotic cells was verified, and the fungus was identified as Fonsecaea based on cultural and microscopic examinations. Identification as Fonsecaea monophora was confirmed after sequencing of the ITS region and phylogenetic analysis. The isolate was susceptible to itraconazole and terbinafine. The combinations of amphotericin B and terbinafine and terbinafine and voriconazole were synergistic. The use of drugs for which the causative agent is susceptible to singly or in combination may be an alternative for the treatment of mycosis. Furthermore, the identification of the agent by molecular techniques is important for epidemiological purposes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of relapsed chromoblastomycosis caused by F. monophora in Brazil.
- Development of In Vitro Macrophage System to Evaluate Phagocytosis and Intracellular Fate of Penicillium marneffei Conidia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 4.
Penicillium marneffei is a pathogenic fungus that can cause a life-threatening systemic mycosis in the immunocompromised hosts. We established the model for the phagocytosis of P. marneffei conidia by RAW264.7 murine macrophages and designated the fate of P. marneffei in RAW264.7 cells with respect to persistence, phagosome-lysosome-fusion. And we impaired the immune status of mouse and compared the fate and phagosome-lysosome-fusion of P. marneffei in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed mouse peritoneal macrophages cells. We found that conidia could germinate and survive in macrophages. Within 30 min and up to 2 h of heat-killed conidia internalization, the majority of all phagosome types were labeled for the EEA1 (endosomal markers) and LAMP-1 (lysosomal markers), respectively. But both the percentages of LAMP-1 and EEA1 that associated with live conidia were significantly lower than that with heat-killed conidia. Administration of cyclophosphamide resulted in a significant suppression of macrophages function (phagocytic and fungicidal) against P. marneffei that were not apparently seen. Our data provide the evidence that (i) intracellular conversion of P. marneffei conidia into yeast cells still could be observed in macrophages. (ii) Phagosomes containing live Penicillium marneffei conidia might inhibit the phagosome-lysosome-fusion and result to no acidification surrounding the organisms. (iii) Immunity impaired by cyclophosphamide could not influence the function, including phagocytosis, fungicidal activity and phagosome-lysosome-fusion, of macrophages against P. marneffei.
- Challenges in the Therapy of Chromoblastomycosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 May 2.
Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is an implantation mycosis mainly occurring in tropical and subtropical zones worldwide. If not diagnosed at early stages, patients with CBM require long-term therapy with systemic antifungals flanked by various physical treatment regimens. As in other neglected endemic mycoses, comparative clinical trials have not been performed for this disease; nowadays, therapy is mainly based on a few open trials and on expert opinions. Itraconazole, either as monotherapy or associated with other drugs, or with physical methods, is widely used. Recently, photodynamic therapy has been employed successfully in combination with antifungals in patients presenting with CBM. In the present paper, the most used therapeutic options against CBM are reviewed as well as the several factors that may have impact on the patient's outcome.
- Gangrenous Cutaneous Mucormycosis Caused by Rhizopus oryzae: A Case Report and Review of Primary Cutaneous Mucormycosis in China Over Past 20 Years. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 Apr 25.
Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by zygomycetes that can be rapidly fatal if unrecognized. We describe the clinical, histopathological, fungal and molecular features of a case of gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis. The patient presented with great necrosis on his right forearm at the site of detained intravenous cannula needle. He had type II diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency. KOH mount of black eschar showed many broad, aseptate fungal hyphae with right-angle branching. PAS staining of the tissue sample revealed similar broad hyphae in the dermis and cutis. Fungal culture and ITS sequence analysis identified this fungus as Rhizopus oryzae. As no organ involvement was detected, the patient was diagnosed with primary cutaneous mucormycosis. Considering the poor state of the patient, complete excision of the infectious tissue was performed without skin graft instead of amputation. At the same time, intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was given, starting from a small dosage and increased to a total dosage amount of 5.45 g. The wound recovered well with granulation. We emphasize that early recognition and prompt therapy including the control of the primary diseases were important. In this article, we also reviewed the features of primary cutaneous mucormycosis reported in China over the last 20 years.
- A 76-year-old Man with a Right Lung Adenocarcinoma and Invasive Aspergillosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mycopathologia 2013 Apr 25.
A 76-year-old male with adenocarcinoma on the right lung underwent five cycles of chemotherapy with pemetrexed disodium, cisplatin, and dexamethasone. Imaging studies of control showed a node in a cavitary lesion on the left lung, and the main hypothesis was Aspergillus infection. PCR was utilized and contributed to establish the early diagnosis in this patient with invasive aspergillosis. Furthermore, the species Aspergillus fumigatus was characterized by its growing at 50 °C but not at 10 °C, typical culture features, and presence of subclavate vesicles. Diagnosis criteria for Aspergillus pulmonary infection include characteristic clinical and imaging findings, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive specific serological test, and isolation of Aspergillus from bronchoalveolar cultures. Molecular methods, as PCR, have been useful to complement the conventional microbiological investigations in immunocompromised people with invasive fungal infections. The patient was successfully treated with a schedule of voriconazole 4 mg/kg intravenous infusion every 12 h for 21 days and then switched to oral administration of 200 mg twice a day. He has been comfortable, maintaining normal vital signs, and the results of the periodical microbiologic tests of control are negative. Pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with lung cancer is not completely understood. Case studies may contribute to a better knowledge about Aspergillus infection in this setting.