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Neurogastroenterology and motility [journal]
- The cannabinoid-1 receptor inverse agonist taranabant reduces abdominal pain and increases intestinal transit in mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 21.
BACKGROUND:Constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) is a common functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder with abdominal pain and decreased motility. Current treatments of IBS-C are insufficient. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of taranabant, a cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) inverse agonist using mouse models mimicking the symptoms of IBS-C.
METHODS:Changes in intestinal contractile activity were studied in vitro, using isolated mouse ileum and colon and intracellular recordings. In vivo, whole gastrointestinal transit (WGT) and fecal pellet output (FPO) were measured under standard conditions and with pharmacologically delayed GI transit. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in mustard oil- and acetic acid-induced models of visceral pain. Forced swimming and tail suspension tests were performed and locomotor activity was measured to evaluate potential central side effects. KEY
RESULTS:In vitro, taranabant (10(-10) -10(-7) mol L(-1) ) increased contractile responses in mouse ileum and blocked the effect of the CB agonist WIN 55,212-2. Taranabant had no effect on the amplitude of electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked junction potentials. In vivo, taranabant (0.1-3 mg kg(-1) , i.p. and 3 mg kg(-1) , p.o.) increased WGT and FPO in mice and reversed experimental constipation. The effect of taranabant was absent in CB1(-/-) mice. Taranabant significantly decreased the number of pain-related behaviors in animal models. At the doses tested, taranabant did not display mood-related adverse side effects typical for CB1 receptor inverse agonists.
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: Taranabant improved symptoms related to slow GI motility and abdominal pain and may become an attractive template in the development of novel therapeutics targeting IBS-C.
- Abdominal pain is associated with anxiety and depression scores in a sample of the general adult population with no signs of organic gastrointestinal disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 21.
BACKGROUND:Abdominal pain is common in the community, but only a subset meet diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Although anxiety and depression have been linked to IBS, the role of mood disturbances in the remainder with symptoms remains unclear. We aimed to study the associations between abdominal pain, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in the general population who were free of organic colonic disease by colonoscopy.
METHODS:Two hundred and seventy-two randomly selected subjects from the general population, mean age 54 years (27-71), were clinically evaluated, had a colonoscopy and laboratory investigations to exclude organic gastrointestinal (GI) disease. All subjects completed GI symptom diaries for 1 week, the Rome II modular questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Short Form 36. KEY
RESULTS:Twenty-two subjects were excluded due to organic disease; 1532 daily symptom records were available for analysis in the remainder. Thirty-four percent (n = 83) recorded at least one episode of abdominal pain on the diary. Twelve percent fulfilled Rome II criteria for IBS. Both anxiety and depression scores were higher in subjects who reported abdominal pain vs those who did not (P < 0.0005 and P < 0.0005). Anxiety and depression scores independently from IBS diagnosis (Rome II) predicted pain reporting and also correlated positively with pain burden. Quality of life scores were generally lower in subjects with abdominal pain.
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: Anxiety and depression are linked to functional abdominal pain, not only in subjects with IBS but also in otherwise healthy people with milder, subtle GI symptoms.
- Effect of hyoscine butylbromide (Buscopan(®) ) on cholinergic pathways in the human intestine. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 19.
BACKGROUND:Hyoscine butylbromide (HBB, Buscopan(®) ) is clinically used to treat intestinal cramps and visceral pain. Various studies, mainly on animal tissues, suggested that its antimuscarinic action is responsible for its spasmolytic effect. However, functional in vitro studies with human tissue have not been performed so far.
METHODS:We wanted to provide a comprehensive study on the mode of action of HBB in human intestinal samples and investigated HBB (1 nmol L(-1) -10 μmol L(-1) ) effects on muscle activity with isometric force transducers and calcium imaging, on epithelial secretion with Ussing chamber technique and on enteric neurons using fast neuroimaging. KEY
RESULTS:Hyoscine butylbromide concentration dependently reduced muscle contractions, calcium mobilization, and epithelial secretion induced by the muscarinic agonist bethanechol with IC50 values of 429, 121, and 224 nmol L(-1) , respectively. Forskolin-induced secretion was not altered by HBB. Cholinergic muscarinic muscle and epithelial responses evoked by electrical nerve stimulation were inhibited by 1-10 μmol L(-1) HBB. Moreover, HBB significantly reduced the bethanechol-induced action potential discharge in enteric neurons. Interestingly, we observed that high concentrations of HBB (10 μmol L(-1) ) moderately decreased nicotinic receptor-mediated secretion, motility, and nerve activity.
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: The results demonstrated the strong antimuscarinic action of HBB whereas the nicotinic antagonism at higher concentrations plays at most a moderate modulatory role. The muscle relaxing effect of HBB and its inhibition of muscarinic nerve activation likely explain its clinical use as an antispasmodic drug. Our results further highlight a so far unknown antisecretory action of HBB which warrants further clinical studies on its use in secretory disorders.
- FDA and EMA end points: which outcome end points should we use in clinical trials in patients with irritable bowel syndrome? [Editorial]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 Jun; 25(6):453-7.
Trial design and endpoints for the evaluation of drug efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) underwent major changes over the last two decades. A systematic review in the early 1990s concluded that there were few well-designed and well-executed treatment trials in IBS. Over the next decade, the so-called binary endpoints were used in several clinical trials in IBS in the US, Europe and other parts of the world. In 2006, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) published a general guidance for the evaluation of symptom benefit in clinical trials based on patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures, which had a major impact on trial design in IBS. In May 2012, the FDA recommended to use as provisional endpoint the quantification of two major IBS aspects, abdominal pain and disordered defecation, to assess the efficacy of pharmacological treatments in IBS. In the present issue of Neurogastroenterology & Motility, the performance of the FDA Responder Endpoint for clinical trials in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation was evaluated using data from two large Phase III clinical trials of linaclotide. The FDA interim endpoints are clinically relevant as they are also able to capture the smallest patient-reported difference in the domain of Abdominal Pain intensity and Abnormal Defecation with good diagnostic accuracy. The FDA responder definition and the European Medicines Agency responder definitions generate similar response rates, while binary endpoints generate higher responder rates. The implications for optimalization and harmonisation are discussed.
- Impact of intestinal electrical stimulation on nutrient-induced GLP-1 secretion in vivo. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 12.
BACKGROUND:Increases in L-cell release of GLP-1 are proposed to serve as a negative feedback signal for postprandial changes in gastric emptying and/or motility. Previous ex vivo data suggests that direct electrical stimulation (E-stim) of ileal segments stimulates secretion of GLP-1. This suggests potential feed-forward increases in GLP-1 driven by intestinal neuronal and/or motor activity.
METHODS:To determine if E-stim could increase GLP-1 levels in an in vivo setting, we administered E-stim and nutrients to male Long- Evans rats (300-350 g) under general anesthesia. KEY
RESULTS:Nutrient infusion into the duodenum or ileum significantly increased plasma GLP-1 levels, but E-stim applied to these locations did not (P < 0.05). However, the combination of E-stim and nutrient infusion, in either the ileum or duodenum, significantly increased plasma GLP-1 when compared to nutrient infusion alone (P < 0.05), and this effect was not blocked by either norepinephrine or atropine. To test the impact of intestinal motor activity, the effect of extra-luminal mechanical stimulation (M-stim) on GLP-1 levels was assessed. In the duodenum, but not the ileum, M-stim plus nutrient infusion significantly increased GLP-1 over nutrient infusion or M-stim alone (P < 0.05). CONCLU-SIONS & INFERENCES: Thus, both E- and M-stim of the duodenum, but only E-stim of the ileum augmented nutrient-stimulated GLP-1 release. These data demonstrate that factors beyond enteral nutrients could contribute to the regulation of GLP-1 secretion.
- Glucose-induced incretin hormone release and insulin sensitivity are impaired in patients with idiopathic gastroparesis: results from a pilot descriptive study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 12.
BACKGROUND:Incretin hormones [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP)] released by the gut modulate gastrointestinal motility and influence gastric emptying (GE). Abnormal secretion or sensitivity to these hormones could contribute to the pathogenesis of gastroparesis. The aim of this study was to investigate incretin hormone secretion during a prolonged oral glucose load in non-diabetic patients with documented idiopathic gastroparesis.
METHODS:Fifteen patients referred for digestive postprandial discomfort with delayed GE demonstrated by a (13) C-labeled octanoate breath test were included and compared with 10 healthy controls. A 75 g oral glucose load was performed, with blood samplings every 30 min for 5 h, to determine glucose, insulin, GIP, and GLP-1 blood levels. KEY
RESULTS:Fasting GIP concentration was significantly higher in the patient group (56.1 ± 5.8 pg mL(-1) vs 29.9 ± 7.7 pg mL(-1) , P =0.012). Postglucose load GIP concentrations were also significantly elevated in patients with gastroparesis, whereas GLP-1 concentrations during fasting and postglucose load conditions were not different to those of healthy controls. Moreover, glucose tolerance during glucose load was abnormal in patients, combining hyperglycemic insulin resistance and hyperinsulinism patterns, while fasting values for glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and insulin concentrations were normal.
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: Patients with idiopathic gastroparesis exhibit abnormal GIP levels associated with impaired insulin sensitivity during oral glucose load. Further studies are needed to establish the involvement of these defects in the pathophysiology of gastroparesis.
- Bifidobacterium longum NCC3001 inhibits AH neuron excitability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 12.
BACKGROUND:Bifidobacterium longum (B. longum) NCC3001 can affect behavior and brain biochemistry, but identification of the cellular targets needs further investigation. Our hypothesis was that the communication with the brain might start with action on enteric sensory neurons.
METHODS:Ileal segments from adult mice were used to create a longitudinal muscle-myenteric-plexus preparation to expose sensory after-hyperpolarizing (AH) neurons in the myenteric plexus to allow access with microelectrodes. The intrinsic excitability of AH neurons was tested in response to the perfusion of conditioned media (B. longum culture supernatant) or unconditioned media (growth medium, MRS). KEY
RESULTS:B. longum conditioned medium significantly reduced the excitability of AH neurons compared to perfusion with the unconditioned medium. Specifically, a reduction was seen in the number of action potentials fired per depolarizing test pulse, the instantaneous and time-dependent input resistances and the magnitude of the hyperpolarization-activated cationic current (Ih ).
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: The probiotic B. longum reduces excitability of AH sensory neurons likely via opening of potassium channels and closing of hyperpolarization-activated cation channels.
- Curcumin acts via transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 receptors to inhibit gut nociception and reverses visceral hyperalgesia. [Journal Article]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 Jun; 25(6):e429-40.
An antinociceptive effect has been reported for curcumin in animal models and in humans, but the molecular mechanisms of curcumin's effect remain undefined. In this study, we explored the possibility that curcumin inhibit visceral nociception via antagonizing the transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) receptor.The effects of curcumin were explored using two experimental models: viscero-motor response (VMR) to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats and jejunal afferent firing in the ex vivo mouse jejunum preparations [TRPV1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice, naive and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-treated Kunming mice]. In addition, capsaicin-induced calcium transients and whole-cell currents were examined in acutely dissociated dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons.In the anesthetized rat, curcumin (4 mg kg(-1) min(-1) for 3 min) caused a marked and rapidly reversible inhibition of CRD-induced VMRs. In the mouse jejunum, the mesenteric afferent nerve response to ramp distension was attenuated by curcumin (3, 10 μmol L(-1) ), an effect that was significantly reduced in TRPV1 KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) controls. Moreover, in WT mice, curcumin (1-30 μmol L(-1) ) was found to inhibit the afferent responses to capsaicin in a concentration-dependent manner. Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced hypersensitivity of jejunal afferents was also attenuated by curcumin. Curcumin potently inhibited capsaicin-induced rise in intracellular calcium and inward currents in mouse or rat DRG neurons.Our results provide strong evidence that curcumin inhibit visceral nociception via antagonizing TRPV1 and may be a promising lead for the treatment of functional gastrointestinal diseases.
- The binomial symptom index: toward an optimal method for the evaluation of symptom association in gastroesophageal reflux. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 May 3.
BACKGROUND:The evaluation of symptom association in gastroesophageal reflux is an open problem. The scientific literature reports important deficiencies and clinicians are claiming a new methodology. This article provides an optimal method for the evaluation of symptom association, the binomial symptom index (BSI).
METHODS:A mathematical description of the BSI was presented for the study of association and causality. A total of n = 850 000 patients were simulated using a Monte Carlo model to perform a two-way sensitivity analysis. The average and the standard deviation of the BSI were evaluated in groups of 5000 patients with the same values of the reflux rate, symptom rate, association ratio, window of association, and monitoring time in order to contrast their influence on the estimator. KEY
RESULTS:The BSI decreased with the number of reflux episodes when there was association, and remained constant and below 40% when there was not. The standard deviation was no higher than 40% and decreased with the reflux or symptom rates, and more sharply with the monitoring time, reaching approximately 0% for 50 days. A window length matching the characteristic reflux-symptom lag maximized the overall BSI and minimized its dispersion. Twenty-four hour and 96-h monitorings allowed detecting association ratios of 50% and 25%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS& INFERENCES: The BSI is a simple and reliable index for the evaluation of symptom association that considers all the parameters under analysis. Defining an appropriate cut-off value, the BSI can provide a measure of probability and strength of association simultaneously.
- Establishment of pacemaker activity in tissues allotransplanted with interstitial cells of Cajal. [Journal Article]
- Neurogastroenterol Motil 2013 Jun; 25(6):e418-28.
Loss or disruption of Kit(+) -interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) capable of generating pacemaker activity has been implicated in the development of numerous gastrointestinal motility disorders. We sought to develop a model where ICC could be allotransplanted into intestines naturally devoid of these cells.Enzymatically dispersed cells from the intestinal tunica muscularis of Kit(+/copGFP) and Kit(V558Δ) /+ gain-of-function mice were allotransplanted into myenteric plexus regions of W/W(V) mutant intestines that lack ICC at the level of the myenteric plexus (ICC-MY) and pacemaker activity. Immunohistochemical analysis fate mapped the development of ICC-MY networks and intracellular microelectrode recordings provided evidence for the development of functional pacemaker activity.Kit(+) -ICC developed into distinct networks at the level of the myenteric plexus in organotypic cultures over 28 days and displayed robust rhythmic pacemaker activity.This study demonstrates the feasibility of allotransplantation of ICC into the myenteric region of the small intestine and the establishment of functional pacemaker activity into tissues normally devoid of ICC-MY and slow waves, thus providing a possible basis for the therapeutic treatment of patients where ICC networks have been disrupted due to a variety of pathophysiological conditions.